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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431356/heavy-metals-pollution-levels-and-children-health-risk-assessment-of-yerevan-kindergartens-soils
#1
Gevorg Tepanosyan, Nairuhi Maghakyan, Lilit Sahakyan, Armen Saghatelyan
Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk...
April 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429319/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-heavy-metal-resistance-and-accumulation-in-euglena
#2
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Ricardo Jasso-Chávez, Emma Saavedra, Jorge D García-García
Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for removal of heavy metals from polluted water bodies, sediments, and soils by using and enhancing their metal accumulating abilities. The available research data indicate that protists of the genus Euglena are a highly promising group of microorganisms to be used in bio-remediation of heavy metal-polluted aerobic and anaerobic acidic aquatic environments. This chapter analyzes the variety of biochemical mechanisms evolved in E. gracilis to resist, accumulate and remove heavy metals from the environment, being the most relevant those involving (1) adsorption to the external cell pellicle; (2) intracellular binding by glutathione and glutathione polymers, and their further compartmentalization as heavy metal-complexes into chloroplasts and mitochondria; (3) polyphosphate biosynthesis; and (4) secretion of organic acids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427272/biological-technologies-for-the-remediation-of-co-contaminated-soil
#3
Shujing Ye, Guangming Zeng, Haipeng Wu, Chang Zhang, Juan Dai, Jie Liang, Jiangfang Yu, Xiaoya Ren, Huan Yi, Min Cheng, Chen Zhang
Compound contamination in soil, caused by unreasonable waste disposal, has attracted increasing attention on a global scale, particularly since multiple heavy metals and/or organic pollutants are entering natural ecosystem through human activities, causing an enormous threat. The remediation of co-contaminated soil is more complicated and difficult than that of single contamination, due to the disparate remediation pathways utilized for different types of pollutants. Several modern remediation technologies have been developed for the treatment of co-contaminated soil...
April 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423946/tween-80-surfactant-enhanced-bioremediation-toward-a-solution-to-the-soil-contamination-by-hydrophobic-organic-compounds
#4
Min Cheng, Guangming Zeng, Danlian Huang, Chunping Yang, Cui Lai, Chen Zhang, Yang Liu
The occurrence of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in the soil has become a highly significant environmental issue. This problem has been exacerbated by the strong sorption of HOCs to the soils, which makes them unavailable for most remediation processes. More and more works show that surfactant-enhanced biological technologies offer a great potential to clear up HOCs-contaminated soils. This article is a critical review of HOCs removal from soils using Tween 80 (one of the mostly used nonionic surfactants) aided biological remediation technologies...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421524/distance-dependent-varieties-of-microbial-community-structure-and-metabolic-functions-in-the-rhizosphere-of-sedum-alfredii-hance-during-phytoextraction-of-a-cadmium-contaminated-soil
#5
Wenhao Yang, Taoxiang Zhang, Sen Lin, Wuzhong Ni
The recovery of microbial community and activities is crucial to the remediation of contaminated soils. Distance-dependent variations of microbial community composition and metabolic characteristics in the rhizospheric soil of hyperaccumulator during phytoextraction are poorly understood. A 12-month phytoextraction experiment with Sedum alfredii in a Cd-contaminated soil was conducted. A pre-stratified rhizobox was used for separating sub-layer rhizospheric (0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10 mm from the root mat)/bulk soils...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420137/modification-of-the-mycotoxin-deoxynivalenol-using-microorganisms-isolated-from-environmental-samples
#6
Nina M Wilson, Nicole McMaster, Dash Gantulga, Cara Soyars, Susan P McCormick, Ken Knott, Ryan S Senger, David G Schmale
The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to reduce or eliminate DON in feed and food products. Microorganisms from plant and soil samples collected in Blacksburg, VA, USA, were screened by incubation in a mineral salt media containing 100 μg/mL DON and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Two mixed cultures derived from soil samples consistently decreased DON levels in assays using DON as the sole carbon source...
April 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419952/antimony-and-arsenic-exhibit-contrasting-spatial-distributions-in-the-sediment-and-vegetation-of-a-contaminated-wetland
#7
Jan Warnken, Rohana Ohlsson, David T Welsh, Peter R Teasdale, Ariella Chelsky, William W Bennett
Antimony is a priority environmental contaminant that is relatively poorly studied compared to other trace metal(loid)s. In particular, the behaviour of antimony in wetland sediments, where anaerobic conditions often dominate, has received considerably less attention compared to well-drained terrestrial soil environments. Here we report the results of a spatial assessment of antimony in the sediments and vegetation of a freshwater wetland exposed to stibnite tailings for the past forty years. The concentration of antimony in the sediment decreased rapidly with distance from the tailings deposit, from a maximum of ∼22,000 mg kg(-1) to ∼1000 mg kg(-1) at a distance of ∼150 m...
April 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414954/combination-of-microbial-oxidation-and-biogenic-schwertmannite-immobilization-a-potential-remediation-for-highly-arsenic-contaminated-soil
#8
Zhihui Yang, Zijian Wu, Yingping Liao, Qi Liao, Weichun Yang, Liyuan Chai
Here, a novel strategy that combines microbial oxidation by As(III)-oxidizing bacterium and biogenic schwertmannite (Bio-SCH) immobilization was first proposed and applied for treating the highly arsenic-contaminated soil. Brevibacterium sp. YZ-1 isolated from a highly As-contaminated soil was used to oxidize As(III) in contaminated soils. Under optimum culture condition for microbial oxidation, 92.3% of water-soluble As(III) and 84.4% of NaHCO3-extractable As(III) in soils were removed. Bio-SCH synthesized through the oxidation of ferrous sulfate by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans immobilize As(V) in the contaminated soil effectively...
April 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412486/removal-of-toxic-metals-from-vanadium-contaminated-soils-using-a-washing-method-reagent-selection-and-parameter-optimization
#9
Jianguo Jiang, Meng Yang, Yuchen Gao, Jiaming Wang, Dean Li, Tianran Li
Vanadium (V) contamination in soils is an increasing worldwide concern facing human health and environmental conservation. The fractionation of a metal influences its mobility and biological toxicity. We analyzed the fractionations of V and several other metals using the BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure. Among methods for removing metal contamination, soil washing is an effective permanent treatment. We conducted experiments to select the proper reagents and to optimize extraction conditions. Citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, and Na2EDTA all exhibited high removal rates of the extractable state of V...
March 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407600/efficacy-of-free-and-encapsulated-bacillus-lichenformis-strain-sl10-on-degradation-of-phenol-a-comparative-study-of-degradation-kinetics
#10
S Chris Felshia, N Aswin Karthick, R Thilagam, A Chandralekha, K S M S Raghavarao, A Gnanamani
The present study exemplifies phenol degradation efficacy of the free and encapsulated bacterial isolate, explored the degradation kinetics and storage stability in detail. In brief, isolation, identification and phenol degradation potential of the bacterial made from wastewater treated sludge samples. The organism identified as B. licheniformis demonstrates phenol degradation at a concentration more than 1500 ppm. Optimization of environmental parameters reduces the time taken for degradation considerably...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398075/disturbance-response-indicators-of-impatiens-walleriana-exposed-to-benzene-and-chromium
#11
V Campos, S S Lessa, R L Ramos, M C Shinzato, T A M Medeiros
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the remediation potential and disturbance response indicators of Impatiens walleriana exposed to benzene and chromium. Numerous studies over the years have found abundant evidence of the carcinogenicity of benzene and chromium (VI) in humans. Benzene and chromium are two toxic industrial chemicals commonly found together at contaminated sites, and one of the most common management strategies employed in the recovery of sites contaminated by petroleum products and trace metals is in situ remediation...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397117/pcdd-f-formation-during-thermal-desorption-of-p-p-ddt-contaminated-soil
#12
Zhonghua Zhao, Mingjiang Ni, Xiaodong Li, Alfons Buekens, Jianhua Yan
Thermal treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contaminated soil was shown in earlier work to generate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). In this study, the PCDD/F were studied arising during the remediation of p,p'-DDT contaminated soil by thermal desorption. Three kinds of soil (sandy, clayey and lateritic soil) were tested to investigate the effect of soil texture on PCDD/F formation. Those soils were artificially polluted with p,p'-DDT, obtaining a concentration level of 100 mg/kg...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392241/speciation-and-reactivity-of-lead-and-zinc-in-heavily-and-poorly-contaminated-soils-stable-isotope-dilution-chemical-extraction-and-model-views
#13
Zong-Ling Ren, Yann Sivry, Mickaël Tharaud, Laure Cordier, Yongtao Li, Jun Dai, Marc F Benedetti
Correct characterization of metal speciation and reactivity is a prerequisite for the risk assessment and remedial activity management of contaminated soil. To better understand the intrinsic reactivity of Pb and Zn, nine heavily and poorly contaminated soils were investigated using the combined approaches of chemical extractions, multi-element stable isotopic dilution (ID) method, and multi-surface modelling. The ID results show that 0.1-38% of total Pb and 3-45% of total Zn in the studied soils are isotopically exchangeable after a 3-day equilibration...
April 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391943/treatability-of-volatile-chlorinated-hydrocarbon-contaminated-soils-of-different-textures-along-a-vertical-profile-by-mechanical-soil-aeration-a-laboratory-test
#14
Yan Ma, Yi Shi, Deyi Hou, Xi Zhang, Jiaqi Chen, Zhifen Wang, Zhu Xu, Fasheng Li, Xiaoming Du
Mechanical soil aeration is a simple, effective, and low-cost soil remediation technology that is suitable for sites contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs). Conventionally, this technique is used to treat the mixed soil of a site without considering the diversity and treatability of different soils within the site. A laboratory test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical soil aeration for remediating soils of different textures (silty, clayey, and sandy soils) along a vertical profile at an abandoned chloro-alkali chemical site in China...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386947/the-potential-of-genetic-engineering-of-plants-for-the-remediation-of-soils-contaminated-with-heavy-metals
#15
REVIEW
Elisa Fasani, Anna Manara, Flavio Martini, Antonella Furini, Giovanni DalCorso
The genetic engineering of plants to facilitate the reclamation of soils and waters contaminated with inorganic pollutants is a relatively new and evolving field, benefiting from the heterologous expression of genes that increase the capacity of plants to mobilize, stabilize and/or accumulate metals. The efficiency of phytoremediation relies on the mechanisms underlying metal accumulation and tolerance, such as metal uptake, translocation and detoxification. The transfer of genes involved in any of these processes into fast-growing, high-biomass crops may improve their reclamation potential...
April 7, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380572/biochars-reduce-mine-land-soil-bioavailable-metals
#16
J A Ippolito, C M Berry, D G Strawn, J M Novak, J Levine, A Harley
Biochar has been proposed as an amendment to remediate mine land soils; however, it could be advantageous and novel if feedstocks local to mine land sites were used for biochar production. Two different feedstocks (pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine [] and tamarisk [ spp.]), within close proximity to mine land-affected soils, were used to create biochars to determine if they have the potential to reduce metal bioavailability. Four different mine land soils, contaminated with various amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, received increasing amounts of biochar (0, 5, 10, and 15% by wt)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370362/sequestration-of-tcdd-by-activated-carbon-eliminates-bioavailability-and-the-suppression-of-immune-function-in-mice
#17
Stephen A Boyd, J Brett Sallach, Yingjie Zhang, Robert Crawford, Hui Li, Cliff T Johnston, Brian J Teppen, Norbert E Kaminski
The effectiveness of activated carbon (AC) in reducing the bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was examined from the context of using in-situ sorbent amendments to remediate soils/sediments contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This technology has gained rapid acceptance based on observations that AC amendments predictably lower PCDD/F concentrations in water and bioaccumulation by simple aquatic organisms and earthworms; it has been assumed that bioavailability to mammals is similarly reduced, although this has been disproven for other sorbent materials...
April 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365846/mechanistic-study-of-lead-desorption-during-the-leaching-process-of-ion-absorbed-rare-earths-ph-effect-and-the-column-experiment
#18
Jie Tang, Qiang Xue, Honghan Chen, Wenting Li
High concentrations of ammonium sulfate, often used in the in situ mining process, can result in a decrease of pH in the environment and dissolution of rare earth metals. Ammonium sulfate can also cause desorption of toxic heavy metals, leading to environmental and human health implications. In this study, the desorption behavior and fraction changes of lead in the ion-absorbed rare earth ore were studied using batch desorption experiments and column leaching tests. Results from batch desorption experiments showed that the desorption process of lead included fast and slow stages and followed an Elovich model well...
April 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365562/responses-of-mixed-methanotrophic-consortia-to-variable-cu-2-fe-2-ratios
#19
Karthigeyan Chidambarampadmavathy, Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, Roger Huerlimann, Gregory E Maes, Kirsten Heimann
Methane mitigation in landfill top cover soils is mediated by methanotrophs whose optimal methane (CH4) oxidation capacity is governed by environmental and complex microbial community interactions. Optimization of CH4 remediating bio-filters need to take microbial responses into account. Divalent copper (Cu(2+)) and iron (Fe(2+)) are present in landfills at variable ratios and play a vital role in methane oxidation capacity and growth of methanotrophs. This study, as a first of its kind, therefore quantified effects of variable Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) (5:5, 5:25 and 5:50 μM) ratios on mixed methanotrophic communities enriched from landfill top cover (LB) and compost soils (CB)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365551/microwave-drying-remediation-of-petroleum-contaminated-drill-cuttings
#20
Irineu Petri Júnior, André Leibsohn Martins, Carlos H Ataíde, Cláudio R Duarte
The oil reservoir drilling phase generates contaminated cuttings with oil formation itself. These cuttings must be subjected to a decontamination process before being disposed of in the environment. Several technologies are cited in literature for the remediation of soil contaminated with oil or diesel, but none have been reported to remedy drill cuttings contaminated with oil from reservoir. The reservoir drill cuttings are a problem because its discharge is not allowed. The drying technology using microwave has shown promise in the decontamination of cuttings with non-aqueous base drilling fluid, conciliating good robustness and high removal efficiency...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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