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soil management

Muhammad Shafique, Reeho Kim, Kwon Kyung-Ho
This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
D Roorda, M J Witvliet, L M Wellens, D V Schulten, C E J Sloots, I de Blaauw, P M A Broens, J Oosterlaan, L W E van Heurn, A F W van der Steeg
AIM: Total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) is a severe form of Hirschsprung's Disease (HD) associated with a high morbidity. This study assesses long-term functional outcome and Quality of Life (QoL) of TCA patients in a national consecutive cohort. METHODS: Medical records of all patients (n=53) diagnosed between 1995 and 2015 were reviewed on surgical and demographic characteristics. Functional outcome of all non-syndromal patients, aged ≥ four years (n=35) was assessed in medical records and with a questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Tessa Camenzind, Edith C Hammer, Johannes Lehmann, Dawit Solomon, Sebastian Horn, Matthias C Rillig, Stefan Hempel
The socio-economic values of fertile and carbon-rich Dark Earth soils are well described from the Amazon region. Very recently, Dark Earth soils were also identified in tropical West Africa, with comparable beneficial soil properties and plant growth-promoting effects. The impact of this management technique on soil microbial communities, however, is less well understood, especially with respect to the ecologically relevant group of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Thus, we tested the hypotheses that (1) improved soil quality in African Dark Earth (AfDE) will increase soil microbial biomass and shift community composition and (2) concurrently increased nutrient availability will negatively affect AM fungal communities...
April 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Mohammad Hajigholizadeh, Assefa M Melesse, Hector R Fuentes
The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
(no author information available yet)
Tetanus is an acute specific infection caused by obligate anaerobes, which is still a serious public health problem. Tetanus bacterium is an obligate anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in nature, which can exist in dust, soil, human or animal excrement. The bacteria invade the body primarily through the skin or mucosal wounds, and most commonly in trauma and burn patients, unclean newborns, and unsafe surgical instruments. Exotoxin produced by tetanus bacteria can cause temporary changes in the central nervous system, manifested as systemic skeletal muscle persistence and paroxysmal spasm, severe cases of laryngospasm, asphyxia, lung infections and organ failure, which is a very serious and potentially fatal disease...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Rong Hao, Jinliang Zhang, Peichao Wang, Ronggui Hu, Yantun Song, Yupeng Wu, Guohong Qiu
Water resources management is an important public concern. In this study, we examined the extent of sorption/desorption of trace pollutants to soil black carbon (BC) in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the middle route of the South to North Water Transfer Project in China. In addition, we investigated the main management measures affecting these processes during the project. The results showed that the pseudo second-order model adequately describes the sorption/desorption of phenanthrene on the soil BC in the WLFZ...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Abderrezak Kamel Toubal, Mohammed Achite, Sylvain Ouillon, Abdelatif Dehni
Soil losses must be quantified over watersheds in order to set up protection measures against erosion. The main objective of this paper is to quantify and to map soil losses in the Wadi Sahouat basin (2140 km2 ) in the north-west of Algeria, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model assisted by a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. The Model Builder of the GIS allowed the automation of the different operations for establishing thematic layers of the model parameters: the erosivity factor (R), the erodibility factor (K), the topographic factor (LS), the crop management factor (C), and the conservation support practice factor (P)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ruixing Hou, Zhu Ouyang, Daorui Han, Glenn V Wilson
Despite the obvious importance of roots to agro-ecosystem functioning, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of warming on root biomass and distribution, especially under different tillage systems. In this study, we performed a field warming experiment using infrared heaters on winter wheat, in long-term conventional tillage and no-tillage plots, to determine the responses of root biomass and distribution to warming. Soil monoliths were collected from three soil depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yanan Wan, Aboubacar Younoussa Camara, Qingqing Huang, Yao Yu, Qi Wang, Huafen Li
The accumulation of arsenic (As) in rice grain is a potential threat to human health. Our study investigated the possible mediatory role of selenite fertilization on As uptake and accumulation by rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different water management regimes (aerobic or flooded) in a pot experiment. Soil solutions were also extracted during the growing season to monitor As dynamics. Results showed that As contents in the soil solutions, seedlings, and mature rice were higher under flooded than under aerobic water management...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
A E Johnston, P R Poulton
Long-term field experiments that test a range of treatments and are intended to assess the sustainability of crop production, and thus food security, must be managed actively to identify any treatment that is failing to maintain or increase yields. Once identified, carefully considered changes can be made to the treatment or management, and if they are successful yields will change. If suitable changes cannot be made to an experiment to ensure its continued relevance to sustainable crop production, then it should be stopped...
January 2018: European Journal of Soil Science
P D S N Somarathna, Budiman Minasny, Brendan P Malone, Uta Stockmann, Alex B McBratney
Spatial modelling of environmental data commonly only considers spatial variability as the single source of uncertainty. In reality however, the measurement errors should also be accounted for. In recent years, infrared spectroscopy has been shown to offer low cost, yet invaluable information needed for digital soil mapping at meaningful spatial scales for land management. However, spectrally inferred soil carbon data are known to be less accurate compared to laboratory analysed measurements. This study establishes a methodology to filter out the measurement error variability by incorporating the measurement error variance in the spatial covariance structure of the model...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
L Hanrahan, N McHugh, T Hennessy, B Moran, R Kearney, M Wallace, L Shalloo
The global dairy industry needs to reappraise the systems of milk production that are operated at farm level with specific focus on enhancing technical efficiency and competitiveness of the sector. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with costs of production, profitability, and pasture use, and the effects of pasture use on financial performance of dairy farms using an internationally recognized representative database over an 8-yr period (2008 to 2015) on pasture-based systems...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Siqi Li, Xunhua Zheng, Chunyan Liu, Zhisheng Yao, Wei Zhang, Shenghui Han
Quantifications of soil dissolvable organic carbon concentrations, together with other relevant variables, are needed to understand the carbon biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil dissolvable organic carbon can generally be grouped into two incomparable categories. One is soil extractable organic carbon (EOC), which is measured by extracting with an aqueous extractant (distilled water or a salt solution). The other is soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is measured by sampling soil water using tension-free lysimeters or tension samplers...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jun Wu, Jian Lu, Leiming Li, Xiuyun Min, Yongming Luo
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, especially the northeastern region, is not a pure land any more due to recently increasing anthropogenic activities. This study collected soil samples from 70 sites of the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to evaluate pollution, ecological-health risks, and possible pollution sources of heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil were relatively high. Values of geo-accumulation index exhibited that Hg pollution was the most serious meanwhile Hg possessed the strongest enrichment feature based on enrichment factor values...
February 21, 2018: Chemosphere
Chongwei Li, Yajuan Zhang, Gehendra Kharel, Chris B Zou
Nutrient discharge into peri-urban streams and reservoirs constitutes a significant pressure on environmental management, but quantitative assessment of non-point source pollution under climate variability in fast changing peri-urban watersheds is challenging. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate water budget and nutrient loads for landscape patterns representing a 30-year progression of urbanization in a peri-urban watershed near Tianjin metropolis, China. A suite of landscape pattern indices was related to nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) loads under dry and wet climate using CANOCO redundancy analysis...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Management
Ya-Dong Yang, Yue-Gao Hu, Zhi-Min Wang, Zhao-Hai Zeng
Denitrification causes nitrogen loss from agricultural soils and emission of nitrous oxide (N2 O). Water addition leads to an increase in soil moisture which greatly influenced soil denitrification. However, it is unclear how irrigation management affected the denitrifying bacterial communities in agricultural systems. In the present study, we investigated the abundance, diversity, and composition of the nirS-, nirK-, and nosZ-denitrifying bacterial communities in the soil under different long-term irrigation regimes by using real-time PCR (qPCR) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing approaches...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bram Hanse, Frans G J Tijink, Jurgen Maassen, Noud van Swaaij
The reform of the European Union's sugar regime caused potential decreasing beet prices. Therefore, the Speeding Up Sugar Yield (SUSY) project was initiated. At the start, a 3 × 15 target was formulated: in 2015 the national average sugar yield in the Netherlands equals 15 t/ha (60% of the sugar beet potential) and the total variable costs 15 euro/t sugar beet, aspiring a saving on total variable costs and a strong increase in sugar yield. Based on their average sugar yield in 2000-2004, 26 pairs of "type top" (high yielding) and "type average" (average yielding) growers were selected from all sugar beet growing regions in the Netherlands...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jens Leifeld
Nitrous oxide (N2 O) contributes substantially to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the agricultural and land-use sectors. Owing to the high effort needed for measuring N2 O emissions and the resulting lack of sufficient field measurements to apply at country-wide scale, soil-borne N2 O emissions are often estimated by applying published IPCC default emission factors. To examine the data reported in the national GHG inventory, the current study utilizes a large data set of soil C/N ratios to predict N2 O emissions and their distribution from drained organic soils in Switzerland...
March 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Julian F Cacho, Mohamed A Youssef, George M Chescheir, R Wayne Skaggs, Timothy W Appelboom, Zakiya H Leggett, Eric B Sucre, Jami E Nettles, Consuelo Arellano
Managed forests in southern U.S. are a potential source of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. Changes in management practices to optimize biomass production may impact the quality of waters draining to nutrient-sensitive waters in coastal plain regions. We investigated shallow groundwater quality effects of intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) with managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) to produce bioenergy feedstock and quality sawtimber in a poorly drained soil of eastern North Carolina, U...
March 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Markku Yli-Halla, Karoliina Rimhanen, Johanna Muurinen, Janne Kaseva, Helena Kahiluoto
Soil carbon (C) represents the largest terrestrial carbon stock and is key for soil productivity. Major fractions of soil C consist of organic C, carbonates and black C. The turnover rate of black C is lower than that of organic C, and black C abundance decreases the vulnerablility of soil C stock to decomposition under climate change. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of soil C in different pools and impact of agricultural management on the abundance of different species. Soil C fractions were quantified in the topsoils (0-15cm) of 23 sites in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia...
March 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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