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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345581/potential-of-biosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles-using-stenotrophomonas-sp-bhu-s7-mtcc-5978-for-management-of-soil-borne-and-foliar-phytopathogens
#1
Sandhya Mishra, Braj Raj Singh, Alim H Naqvi, H B Singh
Stenotrophomonas sp. is emerging as a popular microbe of global concern with various potential ecological roles. Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using this bacterial strain has shown promising applications in life sciences. However, there is no report on efficient agricultural applications of biosynthesized AgNPs using Stenotrophomonas sp. In this regard, successful biosynthesis of AgNPs using Stenotrophomonas sp. BHU-S7 (MTCC 5978) was monitored by Uv-visible spectrum showing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 440 nm...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343383/a-new-nematotoxic-indoloditerpenoid-produced-by-gymnoascus-1-reessii-za-130
#2
Ting Liu, Susan L F Meyer, David J Chitwood, Kamlesh R Chauhan, Dan Dong, TaoTao Zhang, Jun Li, Wei-Cheng Liu
Chemical investigation of the fungal strain Gymnoascus reessii za-130, which was previously isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato plants infected by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, led to the isolation and identification of a new indoloditerpenoid metabolite designated as gymnoascole acetate. Its structure was established by spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS analysis. Gymnoascole acetate demonstrated strong adverse effects on M. incognita second-stage juvenile (J2) viability; exposure to 36 μg/mL for 24 h induced 100% paralysis of J2 (EC50 = 47...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342418/dynamics-of-runoff-and-sediment-trapping-performance-of-vegetative-filter-strips-run-on-experiments-and-modeling
#3
Daili Pan, Xiaodong Gao, Miles Dyck, Yaqian Song, Pute Wu, Xining Zhao
Vegetative filter strips (VFSs) are a labor-saving and cost-effective agricultural best management practice to trap water runoff and sediment from the source areas. They also provide forage and/or fuel and are therefore potentially profitable for land owners. VFSs are however a dynamic system: the runoff delivery ratio (RDR) and sediment delivery ratio (SDR) vary with growth stage and vegetation types. The impacts of vegetation characteristics as well as soil physical properties modified by vegetation growth, on the RDR and SDR of VFS were evaluated by a flume experiment...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342413/efficacies-of-biochar-and-biochar-based-amendment-on-vegetable-yield-and-nitrogen-utilization-in-four-consecutive-planting-seasons
#4
Hefang Wang, Hao Zheng, Zhixiang Jiang, Yanhui Dai, Guocheng Liu, Lei Chen, Xianxiang Luo, Minhui Liu, Zhenyu Wang
Biochar has been suggested as a potential tailored technology for mediating soil conditions and improving crop yields. However, the efficacies of biochar and biochar-based amendments (e.g., composted biochar) in agricultural soils under a rotation system remain uncertain. In this study, an arable soil was subjected to peanut shell biochar (PBC) and biochar-based amendment (PAD) combined with or without nitrogen (N) fertilizer to evaluate their effects on vegetable yield, N bioavailability, and their relative contribution to vegetable biomass in four consecutive planting seasons...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342343/plant-uptake-of-238-u-235-u-232-th-226-ra-210-pb-and-40-k-from-a-coal-ash-and-slag-disposal-site-and-control-soil-under-field-conditions-a-preliminary-study
#5
Božena Skoko, Gordana Marović, Dinko Babić, Marko Šoštarić, Mirela Jukić
The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (40)K by plants that grow on a coal ash and slag disposal site known for its higher content of naturally occurring radionuclides. Plant species that were sampled are common for the Mediterranean flora and can be divided as follows: grasses & herbs, shrubs and trees. To compare the activity concentrations and the resultant concentration ratios of the disposal site with those in natural conditions, we used control data specific for the research area, obtained for plants growing on untreated natural soil...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342340/cellulose-decomposition-and-larval-biomass-production-from-the-co-digestion-of-dairy-manure-and-chicken-manure-by-mini-livestock-hermetia-illucens-l
#6
Kashif Ur Rehman, Minmin Cai, Xiaopeng Xiao, Longyu Zheng, Hui Wang, Abdul Aziz Soomro, Yusha Zhou, Wu Li, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
World trends toward the modern dairies intensification on large production units cause massive animal manure production and accumulation. Improper handling of manure produced by industrial farm operation greatly deteriorates the major environmental media including air, water and soil. The black soldier fly utilizes organic waste and converts it into larvae biomass to be used as livestock feed and into residues to be used as bio-fertilizer. However, due to the high ratio of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in dairy manure, this conversion is difficult...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341467/prediction-of-soil-organic-carbon-in-an-intensively-managed-reclamation-zone-of-eastern-china-a-comparison-of-multiple-linear-regressions-and-the-random-forest-model
#7
Huan Zhang, Pengbao Wu, Aijing Yin, Xiaohui Yang, Ming Zhang, Chao Gao
Organic carbon is a key component of soils and plays a fundamental role in soil fertility and climate change. Determining the importance of potential drivers of soil organic carbon (SOC) and thus predicting the distribution of SOC are important for measuring carbon sequestration or emissions. Coastal wetlands are precious land resources that are currently undergoing rapid reclamation in China. The alternations in soil physicochemical conditions caused by reclamation can strongly impact the cycle of organic carbon...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340454/pea-cultivar-and-wheat-residues-affect-carbon-nitrogen-dynamics-in-pea-triticale-intercropping-a-microcosms-approach
#8
Antonella Scalise, Valentini A Pappa, Antonio Gelsomino, Robert M Rees
The underlying mechanisms by which legume cultivars contribute to nitrous oxide (N2O) generation are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of two pea cultivars (Zero4 and Nitouche) intercropped with triticale, with or without wheat (Triticum aestivum) residues incorporation, on soil C and N dynamics, on bacterial community structure and their links with N2O emissions. Monocrops and bare soil (no plant) treatments were used as an additional control in order to account for the level of mineralisation between treatments...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340453/long-term-nitrogen-deposition-increases-heathland-carbon-sequestration
#9
Chris D Field, Chris D Evans, Nancy B Dise, Jane R Hall, Simon J M Caporn
The large increases in reactive nitrogen (N) deposition in developed countries since the Industrial Revolution have had a marked impact on ecosystem functioning, including declining species richness, shifts in species composition, and increased N leaching. A potential mitigation of these harmful effects is the action of N as a fertiliser, which, through increasing primary productivity (and subsequently, organic matter production), has the potential to increase ecosystem carbon (C) storage. Here we report the response of an upland heath to 10years of experimental N addition...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339491/the-dynamics-of-nitrogen-derived-from-a-chemical-nitrogen-fertilizer-with-treated-swine-slurry-in-paddy-soil-plant-systems
#10
Joonhee Lee, Hong L Choi
A well-managed chemical nitrogen (N) fertilization practice combined with treated swine slurry (TSS) is necessary to improve sustainability and N use efficiency in rice farming. However, little is known about the fate of N derived from chemical N fertilizer with and without TSS in paddy soil-plant systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the contribution of applied N fertilizer to N turnover in rice paddy soil with different N fertilization practices that were manipulated by the quantity of treated swine slurry and chemical N fertilizer (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336334/agricultural-utilization-of-biosolids-a-review-on-potential-effects-on-soil-and-plant-grown
#11
REVIEW
Bhavisha Sharma, Abhijit Sarkar, Pooja Singh, Rajeev Pratap Singh
Environmental and economic implications linked with the proper ecofriendly disposal of modern day wastes, has made it essential to come up with alternative waste management practices that reduce the environmental pressures resulting from unwise disposal of such wastes. Urban wastes like biosolids are loaded with essential plant nutrients. In this view, agricultural use of biosolids would enable recycling of these nutrients and could be a sustainable approach towards management of this hugely generated waste...
March 20, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334674/organochlorine-pesticides-in-soil-air-and-vegetation-at-and-around-a-contaminated-site-in-southwestern-china-concentration-transmission-and-risk-evaluation
#12
Yanyan Fang, Zhiqiang Nie, Qingqi Die, Yajun Tian, Feng Liu, Jie He, Qifei Huang
Remediation and management of contaminated sites have become a prevalent problem under the current situation in China. The present study was conducted to investigate the concentration, transmission, and health risk of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil, air, and vegetation at and around a typical pesticide-contaminated site located in southwestern China. Exchange flux between soil and air was calculated to investigate the transmission of OCPs. Hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCHs, top soil: 19.1 mg/kg d.w., air: 52...
March 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334296/impact-of-thiamethoxam-seed-treatment-on-growth-and-yield-of-rice-oryza-sativa
#13
S K Lanka, S Senthil-Nathan, D J Blouin, M J Stout
Neonicotinoid seed treatments are widely used in agriculture. In rice, Oryza sativa L., in the southern United States, neonicotinoid seed treatments are used to manage early-season populations of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. In addition to their effects on pests, neonicotinoid seed treatments may benefit crop plants directly by increasing plant growth or altering plant responses to stresses. As part of an effort to assess the overall benefits of thiamethoxam seed treatment in rice, rice emergence, growth, and yield were evaluated...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334144/the-effects-of-plant-nutritional-strategy-on-soil-microbial-denitrification-activity-through-rhizosphere-primary-metabolites
#14
Julien P Guyonnet, Florian Vautrin, Guillaume Meiffren, Clément Labois, Amélie A M Cantarel, Serge Michalet, Gilles Comte, Feth El Zahar Haichar
The aim of this study was to determine (i) whether plant nutritional strategy affects the composition of primary metabolites exuded into the rhizosphere and (ii) their impact on denitrification activity in soil. We answer this question by analysing primary metabolite contents extracted from the root-adhering soil (RAS) and the roots of three grasses representing different nutrient management strategies: conservative (Festuca paniculata), intermediate (Bromus erectus) and exploitative (Dactylis glomerata). We also investigated the impact of primary metabolites on soil microbial denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) without carbon addition, comparing for each plant RAS and bulk soils...
February 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334122/a-laboratory-evaluation-of-chemigation-to-manage-stink-bugs-hemiptera-pentatomidae
#15
Xing Wei, Phillip M Roberts, Wesley M Porter, Calvin D Perry, Michael D Toews
Application of insecticides for stink bug management through overhead irrigation, also called chemigation, could reduce application costs, soil compaction, and applicator exposure, while enabling growers to treat multiple fields simultaneously. The objective of these laboratory experiments was to compare knockdown, survival, and efficacy of insecticides when appropriately diluted for ground sprayer and chemigation applications. Treatments included water, bifenthrin [0.11 kg (AI)/ha] and dicrotophos [0.56 kg (AI)/ha] diluted for a ground sprayer (93...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333985/the-role-of-above-ground-competition-and-nitrogen-vs-phosphorus-enrichment-in-seedling-survival-of-common-european-plant-species-of-semi-natural-grasslands
#16
Tobias Ceulemans, Eva Hulsmans, Sigi Berwaers, Kasper Van Acker, Olivier Honnay
Anthropogenic activities have severely altered fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus in ecosystems worldwide. In grasslands, subsequent negative effects are commonly attributed to competitive exclusion of plant species following increased above-ground biomass production. However, some studies have shown that this does not fully account for nutrient enrichment effects, questioning whether lowering competition by reducing grassland productivity through mowing or herbivory can mitigate the environmental impact of nutrient pollution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331551/environmental-costs-and-benefits-of-growing-miscanthus-for-bioenergy-in-the-uk
#17
REVIEW
Jon P McCalmont, Astley Hastings, Niall P McNamara, Goetz M Richter, Paul Robson, Iain S Donnison, John Clifton-Brown
Planting the perennial biomass crop Miscanthus in the UK could offset 2-13 Mt oil eq. yr(-1), contributing up to 10% of current energy use. Policymakers need assurance that upscaling Miscanthus production can be performed sustainably without negatively impacting essential food production or the wider environment. This study reviews a large body of Miscanthus relevant literature into concise summary statements. Perennial Miscanthus has energy output/input ratios 10 times higher (47.3 ± 2.2) than annual crops used for energy (4...
March 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330244/elucidation-of-impact-of-heavy-metal-pollution-on-soil-bacterial-growth-and-extracellular-polymeric-substances-flexibility
#18
Muniswamy David, Paidi Murali Krishna, Jeybalan Sangeetha
Metal bioaccessibility is an alarming issue in croplands of mining sites due to overloading of toxic metals. Hence, the present study is aimed to determine the overloading of toxic metal in croplands across the Tawag village, Hutti, Raichur, India. Correspondingly, to identify the soil bacterial growth, physiological oxidative stress enzyme activity and surface macromolecular functional group evolution were analysed in and around the toxic metal contaminated sites through FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrometry. The evaluated results attribute that the study area is heavily polluted with the toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325890/environmental-filtering-triggers-community-assembly-of-forest-understorey-plants-in-central-european-pine-stands
#19
Werner Ulrich, Piotr Sewerniak, Radosław Puchałka, Marcin Piwczyński
Habitat filtering models predict ecologically similar plant species to jointly colonize sites due to comparable environmental characteristics leading to an aggregated pattern of species spatial occurrence. Models focused on interspecific competition expect species with similar ecological requirements to be spatially segregated. While both models are corroborated by field work, few empirical studies have tried to infer under which habitat conditions these patterns of co-occurrence prevail. Here we use an exceptional data set on central European pine forest understorey plant communities to assess the change in community structure along gradients of soil productivity and heterogeneity...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324851/assessing-the-impacts-of-best-management-practices-on-nitrate-pollution-in-an-agricultural-dominated-lowland-catchment-considering-environmental-protection-versus-economic-development
#20
Marcelo B Haas, Björn Guse, Nicola Fohrer
Water quality is strongly affected by nitrate inputs in agricultural catchments. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are alternative practices aiming to mitigate the impacts derived from agricultural activities and to improve water quality. Management activities are influenced by different governmental policies like the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). Their distinct goals can be contrasting and hamper an integrated sustainable development. Both need to be addressed in the actual conjuncture in rural areas...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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