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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926811/towards-better-monitoring-of-technology-critical-elements-in-europe-coupling-of-natural-and-anthropogenic-cycles
#1
Philip Nuss, Gian Andrea Blengini
The characterization of elemental cycles has a rich history in biogeochemistry. Well known examples include the global carbon cycle, or the cycles of the 'grand nutrients' nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More recently, efforts have increased to better understand the natural cycling of technology critical elements (TCEs), i.e. elements with a high supply risk and economic importance in the EU. On the other hand, tools such as material-flow analysis (MFA) can help to understand how substances and goods are transported and accumulated in man-made technological systems ('anthroposphere')...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926696/exposure-to-animal-feces-and-human-health-a-systematic-review-and-proposed-research-priorities
#2
Gauthami Penakalapati, Jenna Swarthout, Miranda J Delahoy, Lydia McAliley, Breanna Wodnik, Karen Levy, Matthew C Freeman
Humans can be exposed to pathogens from poorly managed animal feces, particularly in communities where animals live in proximity to humans. This systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature examines the human health impacts of exposure to poorly managed animal feces transmitted via water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related pathways in low- and middle-income countries where household livestock, small-scale animal operations, and free-roaming animals are common. We identify routes of contamination by animal feces, control measures to reduce human exposure, and propose research priorities for further inquiry...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925557/analysis-of-multiple-haloarchaeal-genomes-suggests-that-the-quinone-dependent-respiratory-nitric-oxide-reductase-is-an-important-source-of-nitrous-oxide-in-hypersaline-environments
#3
Javier Torregrosa-Crespo, Pedro González-Torres, Vanesa Bautista, Julia M Esclapez, Carmen Pire, Mónica Camacho, María José Bonete, David J Richardson, Nicholas J Watmough, Rosa María Martínez-Espinosa
Microorganisms, including Bacteria and Archaea, play a key role in denitrification, which is the major mechanism by which fixed nitrogen returns to the atmosphere from soil and water. Whilst the enzymology of denitrification is well understood in Bacteria, the details of the last two reactions in this pathway, which catalyse the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) via nitrous oxide (N2 O) to nitrogen (N2 ), are little studied in Archaea, and hardly at all in haloarchaea. This work describes an extensive interspecies analysis of both complete and draft haloarchaeal genomes aimed at identifying the genes that encode respiratory nitric oxide reductases (Nors)...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922802/succession-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-along-a-52-year-agricultural-recultivation-chronosequence
#4
Julien Roy, Rüdiger Reichel, Nicolas Brüggemann, Stefan Hempel, Matthias C Rillig
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi provide a range of functions in natural and managed ecosystems. However, the trajectory of AM fungal diversity after land degradation is poorly known. We studied the succession of AM fungi along an agricultural recultivation chronosequence after open-cast mining near Cologne, Germany. We used high-throughput sequencing of the large-subunit ribosomal RNA genes to characterize the soil AM fungal communities of 10 agricultural fields spanning 52 years of recultivation. During three years, soils are recultivated with a legume, and then converted to agriculture to be later returned to local farmers implementing conventional agriculture...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921808/long-term-agricultural-management-does-not-alter-the-evolution-of-a-soybean-rhizobium-mutualism
#5
Jennifer E Schmidt, Dylan J Weese, Jennifer A Lau
Leguminous crops, like soybeans, often rely on biologically fixed nitrogen via their symbiosis with rhizobia rather than synthetic nitrogen inputs. However, agricultural management practices may influence the effectiveness of biological nitrogen fixation. While the ecological effects of agricultural management on rhizobia have received some attention, the evolutionary effects have been neglected in comparison. Resource mutualism theory predicts that evolutionary effects are likely, however. Both fertilization and tillage are predicted to cause the evolution of rhizobia that provide fewer growth benefits to plant hosts and fix less nitrogen...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921765/assessing-fire-impacts-on-the-carbon-stability-of-fire-tolerant-forests
#6
Lauren T Bennett, Matthew J Bruce, Josephine Machunter, Michele Kohout, Saravanan Jangammanaidu Krishnaraj, Cristina Aponte
The carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests is often assumed but less frequently assessed, limiting potential to anticipate threats to forest carbon posed by predicted increases in forest fire activity. Assessing the carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests requires multi-indicator approaches that recognise the myriad of ways that fires influence the carbon balance including combustion, deposition of pyrogenic material, and tree death, post-fire decomposition, recruitment, and growth. Five years after a large-scale wildfire in south-eastern Australia, we assessed the impacts of low- and high-severity wildfire, with and without prescribed fire (≤ 10 years before), on carbon stocks in multiple pools, and on carbon stability indicators (carbon stock percentages in live trees and in small trees, and carbon stocks in char and fuels) in fire-tolerant eucalypt forests...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921162/a-bionanohybrid-znal-nads-ecological-pesticide-as-a-treatment-for-soft-rot-disease-in-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l
#7
Erika Elizabeth Morales-Irigoyen, Yolanda de Las Mercedes Gómez-Y-Gómez, Jorge Luis Flores-Moreno, Marina Olivia Franco-Hernández
Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc) is a phytopathogenic strain that causes soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), resulting in postharvest losses. Chemical control is effective for managing this disease, but overdoses cause adverse effects. Because farmers insist on using chemical agents for crop protection, it is necessary to develop more effective pesticides in which the active compound released can be regulated. In this context, we proposed the synthesis of ZnAl-NADS, in which nalidixic acid sodium salt (NADS) is linked to a ZnAl-NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) host as a nanocarrier...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920774/kinetics-of-diuron-under-aerobic-condition-and-residue-analysis-in-sugarcane-under-subtropical-field-conditions
#8
Shishir Tandon, Ravi Pant
Phenylureas group are persistent herbicides compared to other groups. However, their dissipation in different ecosystem should be investigated as they are major pollutant to soil and water. Dissipation kinetics of diuron at two application rates, in texturally different soils under sugarcane field conditions was investigated. Diuron was extracted from the soil with acetone and florisil SPE cleanup and extracted diuron was characterized by HPLC-UV. Diuron dissipated slowly in soils and persisted for more than 100 days...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919904/plasticity-of-sorghum-stem-biomass-accumulation-in-response-to-water-deficit-a-multiscale-analysis-from-internode-tissue-to-plant-level
#9
Lisa Perrier, Lauriane Rouan, Sylvie Jaffuel, Anne Clément-Vidal, Sandrine Roques, Armelle Soutiras, Christelle Baptiste, Denis Bastianelli, Denis Fabre, Cécile Dubois, David Pot, Delphine Luquet
Sorghum is increasingly used as a biomass crop worldwide. Its genetic diversity provides a large range of stem biochemical composition suitable for various end-uses as bioenergy or forage. Its drought tolerance enables it to reasonably sustain biomass production under water limited conditions. However, drought effect on the accumulation of sorghum stem biomass remains poorly understood which limits progress in crop improvement and management. This study aimed at identifying the morphological, biochemical and histological traits underlying biomass accumulation in the sorghum stem and its plasticity in response to water deficit...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919903/the-role-of-soil-solarization-in-india-how-an-unnoticed-practice-could-support-pest-control
#10
REVIEW
Harsimran K Gill, Iqbal S Aujla, Luigi De Bellis, Andrea Luvisi
Plant protection represents one of the strategies to fill the yield gap and to achieve food security, a key topic for India development. Analysis of climate risks for crops indicates that South Asia is one of the regions most exposed to the adverse impact on many plants that are relevant to inhabitants exposed to food safety risks. Furthermore, accumulation of pesticide residues in the aquatic and other ecosystems is becoming a significant threat in India. These perspectives require to develop programs of crop protection that can be feasible according to Indian rural development and pollution policy...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919898/chitosan-increases-tomato-root-colonization-by-pochonia-chlamydosporia-and-their-combination-reduces-root-knot-nematode-damage
#11
Nuria Escudero, Federico Lopez-Moya, Zahra Ghahremani, Ernesto A Zavala-Gonzalez, Aurora Alaguero-Cordovilla, Caridad Ros-Ibañez, Alfredo Lacasa, Francisco J Sorribas, Luis V Lopez-Llorca
The use of biological control agents could be a non-chemical alternative for management of Meloidogyne spp. [root-knot nematodes (RKN)], the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes for horticultural crops worldwide. Pochonia chlamydosporia is a fungal parasite of RKN eggs that can colonize endophytically roots of several cultivated plant species, but in field applications the fungus shows a low persistence and efficiency in RKN management. The combined use of P. chlamydosporia with an enhancer could help its ability to develop in soil and colonize roots, thereby increasing its efficiency against nematodes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919882/effects-of-soil-pre-treatment-with-basamid%C3%A2-granules-brassica-juncea-raphanus-sativus-and-tagetes-patula-on-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-at-two-apple-replant-disease-sites
#12
Bunlong Yim, Heike Nitt, Andreas Wrede, Samuel Jacquiod, Søren J Sørensen, Traud Winkelmann, Kornelia Smalla
Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as "replant disease (RD)". Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919651/land-use-change-impacts-on-floods-at-the-catchment-scale-challenges-and-opportunities-for-future-research
#13
M Rogger, M Agnoletti, A Alaoui, J C Bathurst, G Bodner, M Borga, V Chaplot, F Gallart, G Glatzel, J Hall, J Holden, L Holko, R Horn, A Kiss, S Kohnová, G Leitinger, B Lennartz, J Parajka, R Perdigão, S Peth, L Plavcová, J N Quinton, M Robinson, J L Salinas, A Santoro, J Szolgay, S Tron, J J H van den Akker, A Viglione, G Blöschl
Research gaps in understanding flood changes at the catchment scale caused by changes in forest management, agricultural practices, artificial drainage, and terracing are identified. Potential strategies in addressing these gaps are proposed, such as complex systems approaches to link processes across time scales, long-term experiments on physical-chemical-biological process interactions, and a focus on connectivity and patterns across spatial scales. It is suggested that these strategies will stimulate new research that coherently addresses the issues across hydrology, soil and agricultural sciences, forest engineering, forest ecology, and geomorphology...
July 2017: Water Resources Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918574/fecal-sludge-management-in-developing-urban-centers-a-review-on-the-collection-treatment-and-composting
#14
Emmanuel Alepu Odey, Zifu Li, Xiaoqin Zhou, Loissi Kalakodio
The problems posed by fecal sludge (FS) are multidimensional because most cities rapidly urbanize, which results in the increase in population, urban settlement, and waste generation. Issues concerning health and waste treatment have continued to create alarming situations. These issues had indeed interfered with the proper steps in managing FS, which contaminates the environment. FS can be used in agriculture as fertilizer because it is an excellent source of nutrients. The recent decline in crop production due to loss of soil organic component, erosion, and nutrient runoff has generated interest in the recycling of FS into soil nutrients through stabilization and composting...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917170/how-do-climatic-and-management-factors-affect-agricultural-ecosystem-services-a-case-study-in-the-agro-pastoral-transitional-zone-of-northern-china
#15
Jianmin Qiao, Deyong Yu, Jianguo Wu
Agricultural ecosystem management needs to ensure food production and minimize soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching under climate change and increasingly intensive human activity. Thus, the mechanisms through which climatic and management factors affect crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching must be understood in order to ensure food security and sustainable agricultural development. In this study, we adopted the GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to simulate crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching, and used a partial least squares regression model to evaluate the contributions of climate variables (solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, and maximum and minimum temperature) and management factors (irrigation, fertilization, and crop cultivation area) on agricultural ecosystem services (AES) in the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) of northern China...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915460/persistent-and-widespread-long-term-phosphorus-declines-in-boreal-lakes-in-sweden
#16
Brian J Huser, Martyn N Futter, Rong Wang, Jens Fölster
We present an analysis of long-term (1988-2103; 26years) total phosphorus (TP) concentration trends in 81 Swedish boreal lakes subject to minimal anthropogenic disturbance. Near universal increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and a widespread but hitherto unexplained decline in TP were observed. Over 50% of the lakes (n=42) had significant declining TP trends over the past quarter century (Sen's slope=2.5%y(-1)). These declines were linked to catchment processes related to changes in climate, recovery from acidification, and catchment soil properties, but were unrelated to trends in P deposition...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915412/aspergillus-section-flavi-community-structure-in-zambia-influences-aflatoxin-contamination-of-maize-and-groundnut
#17
Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus populations associated with aflatoxin contamination in Zambia have not been adequately detailed. Most of Zambia's arable land is non-cultivated and Aspergillus communities in crops may originate in non-cultivated soil...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910717/time-and-age-related-effects-of-experimentally-simulated-nitrogen-deposition-on-the-functioning-of-montane-heathland-ecosystems
#18
Javier Calvo-Fernández, Ángela Taboada, Andreas Fichtner, Werner Härdtle, Leonor Calvo, Elena Marcos
Ecosystems adapted to low nitrogen (N) conditions such as Calluna-heathlands are especially sensitive to enhanced atmospheric N deposition that affects many aspects of ecosystem functioning like nutrient cycling, soil properties and plant-microbial-enzyme relationships. We investigated the effects of five levels of experimentally-simulated N deposition rates (i.e., N fertilization treatments: 0, 10, 20 and 50kgNha(-1)yr(-1) for 3years, and 56kgNha(-1)yr(-1) for 10years) on: plant, litter, microbial biomass and soil nutrient contents, soil extracellular enzymatic activities, and plant root ericoid mycorrhizal colonization...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905151/the-role-of-the-neural-niche-in-brain-metastasis
#19
REVIEW
Reid Hoshide, Rahul Jandial
Cancers with neurologic metastasis are a burdensome affliction. As primary cancer care improves, the incidence of metastatic cancer increases as a result of prolonged survival time. Because of this, advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of metastasis are important for the development of continuing management strategies. Knowing how metastatic tumor cells engage, survive, and proliferate in the central nervous system (CNS) is an important first step in developing treatment paradigms. The neural niche is the soil of the CNS that accommodates tumor cells, is a microenvironment of cell signaling that exists between the tumor cell and the native neural cellular network...
September 13, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902844/melioidosis-in-lower-provincial-cambodia-a-case-series-from-a-prospective-study-of-sepsis-in-takeo-province
#20
Kevin L Schully, Catherine M Berjohn, Angela M Prouty, Amitha Fitkariwala, Tin Som, Darith Sieng, Michael J Gregory, Andrew Vaughn, Sim Kheng, Vantha Te, Christopher A Duplessis, James V Lawler, Danielle V Clark
Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease caused by the gram-negative soil bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is well known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. However, melioidosis remains underreported in surrounding areas such as Cambodia. We report a case series of melioidosis in seven patients from Takeo Province, Cambodia. The patients, aged 24-65 years, were enrolled from May 2014 to May 2015 during a one year prospective study of sepsis at Takeo Provincial Hospital...
September 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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