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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434183/impacts-of-forestry-on-boreal-forests-an-ecosystem-services-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Tähti Pohjanmies, María Triviño, Eric Le Tortorec, Adriano Mazziotta, Tord Snäll, Mikko Mönkkönen
Forests are widely recognized as major providers of ecosystem services, including timber, other forest products, recreation, regulation of water, soil and air quality, and climate change mitigation. Extensive tracts of boreal forests are actively managed for timber production, but actions aimed at increasing timber yields also affect other forest functions and services. Here, we present an overview of the environmental impacts of forest management from the perspective of ecosystem services. We show how prevailing forestry practices may have substantial but diverse effects on the various ecosystem services provided by boreal forests...
April 22, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433932/the-unseen-rhizosphere-root-soil-microbe-interactions-for-crop-production
#2
REVIEW
Ruifu Zhang, Jorge M Vivanco, Qirong Shen
The underground root-soil-microbe interactions are extremely complex, but vitally important for aboveground plant growth, health and fitness. The pressure to reduce our reliance on agrochemicals, and sustainable efforts to develop agriculture makes rhizosphere interactions' research a hotspot. Recent advances provide new insights about the signals, pathways, functions and mechanisms of these interactions. In this review, we provide an overview about recent progress in rhizosphere interaction networks in crops...
April 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433930/environmental-electrokinetics-for-a-sustainable-subsurface
#3
REVIEW
A T Lima, A Hofmann, D Reynolds, C J Ptacek, P Van Cappellen, L M Ottosen, S Pamukcu, A Alshawabekh, D M O'Carroll, C Riis, E Cox, D B Gent, R Landis, J Wang, A I A Chowdhury, E L Secord, A Sanchez-Hachair
Soil and groundwater are key components in the sustainable management of the subsurface environment. Source contamination is one of its main threats and is commonly addressed using established remediation techniques such as in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), in-situ chemical reduction (ISCR; most notably using zero-valent iron [ZVI]), enhanced in-situ bioremediation (EISB), phytoremediation, soil-washing, pump-and-treat, soil vapour extraction (SVE), thermal treatment, and excavation and disposal. Decades of field applications have shown that these techniques can successfully treat or control contaminants in higher permeability subsurface materials such as sands, but achieve only limited success at sites where low permeability soils, such as silts and clays, prevail...
April 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431371/past-present-and-future-land-use-changes-and-their-impact-on-water-balance
#4
Sananda Kundu, Deepak Khare, Arun Mondal
Landuse change influences the water balance of a region affecting the available water along with the change in the evapotranspiration (ET). The major objectives of this study are to assess the landuse change and its impact on the water balance of the study area, which is a part of the Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh, India. Landuse changes of 1990, 2000 and 2011 have been analyzed and the Markov Chain model has been used to predict decadal change of 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 landuse. The influence of the past, present and future landuse change on water balance has been analyzed with the SWAT (Soil and Water Analysis Tool) model in the study area...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430986/field-trial-performance-of-herculex-xtra-cry34ab1-cry35ab1-and-smartstax-cry34ab1-cry35ab1-cry3bb1-hybrids-and-soil-insecticides-against-western-and-northern-corn-rootworms-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#5
K D Johnson, L A Campbell, M D Lepping, D M Rule
Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are important insect pests in corn, Zea mays L. For more than a decade, growers have been using transgenic plants expressing proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to protect corn roots from feeding. In 2011, western corn rootworm populations were reported to have developed resistance to Bt hybrids expressing Cry3Bb1 and later found to be cross-resistant to hybrids expressing mCry3A and eCry3...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428820/regional-water-footprints-of-potential-biofuel-production-in-china
#6
Xiaomin Xie, Tingting Zhang, Liming Wang, Zhen Huang
BACKGROUND: Development of biofuels is considered as one of the important ways to replace conventional fossil energy and mitigate climate change. However, rapid increase of biofuel production could cause other environmental concerns in China such as water stress. This study is intended to evaluate the life-cycle water footprints (WF) of biofuels derived from several potential non-edible feedstocks including cassava, sweet sorghum, and Jatropha curcas in China. Different water footprint types including blue water, green water, and grey water are considered in this study...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424723/evidence-mechanism-and-alternative-chemical-seedbank-level-control-of-glyphosate-resistance-of-a-rigid-ryegrass-lolium-rigidum-biotype-from-southern-spain
#7
Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Fernando Bastida, Rafael De Prado
Rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is one of the most troublesome weeds in different crops in the Mediterranean region. A rigid ryegrass biotype from an olive grove in Jaén province (Andalusía, southern Spain), potentially resistant to glyphosate (RG), was tested for its resistance level through dose-response assays using a susceptible biotype (SG). To test the hypothesis of a non-target-site-based resistance, as point mutations are far less common mechanisms of glyphosate resistance, studies were also conducted to elucidate whether resistance was associated with biochemical, metabolism, molecular and/or physiological mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423459/breaks-in-modis-time-series-portend-vegetation-change-verification-using-long-term-data-in-an-arid-grassland-ecosystem
#8
Dawn M Browning, Jonathan J Maynard, Jason W Karl, Debra C Peters
Frequency and severity of extreme climatic events are forecast to increase in the 21st century. Predicting how managed ecosystems may respond to climatic extremes is intensified by uncertainty associated with knowing when, where, and how long effects of extreme events will be manifest in an ecosystem. In water-limited ecosystems with high inter-annual variability in rainfall, it is important to be able to distinguish responses that result from seasonal fluctuations in rainfall from long-term directional increases or decreases in precipitation...
April 19, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422982/assessment-ecological-risk-of-heavy-metal-caused-by-high-intensity-land-reclamation-in-bohai-bay-china
#9
Gaoru Zhu, Zhenglei Xie, Tuoyu Li, Zongwen Ma, Xuegong Xu
The article examines the detailed spatial and temporal distributions of coastal reclamation in the northwest coast of Bohai Bay experiencing rapid coastal reclamation in China from 1974 to 2010 in annual intervals. Moreover, soil elements properties and spatial distribution in reclaimed area and inform the future coastal ecosystems management was also analyzed. The results shows that 910.7 km2 of coastal wetlands have been reclaimed and conversed to industrial land during the past 36 years. It covers intertidal beach, shallow sea and island with a percentage of 76...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421041/metagenome-wide-association-study-and-machine-learning-prediction-of-bulk-soil-microbiome-and-crop-productivity
#10
Hao-Xun Chang, James S Haudenshield, Charles R Bowen, Glen L Hartman
Areas within an agricultural field in the same season often differ in crop productivity despite having the same cropping history, crop genotype, and management practices. One hypothesis is that abiotic or biotic factors in the soils differ between areas resulting in these productivity differences. In this study, bulk soil samples collected from a high and a low productivity area from within six agronomic fields in Illinois were quantified for abiotic and biotic characteristics. Extracted DNA from these bulk soil samples were shotgun sequenced...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419952/antimony-and-arsenic-exhibit-contrasting-spatial-distributions-in-the-sediment-and-vegetation-of-a-contaminated-wetland
#11
Jan Warnken, Rohana Ohlsson, David T Welsh, Peter R Teasdale, Ariella Chelsky, William W Bennett
Antimony is a priority environmental contaminant that is relatively poorly studied compared to other trace metal(loid)s. In particular, the behaviour of antimony in wetland sediments, where anaerobic conditions often dominate, has received considerably less attention compared to well-drained terrestrial soil environments. Here we report the results of a spatial assessment of antimony in the sediments and vegetation of a freshwater wetland exposed to stibnite tailings for the past forty years. The concentration of antimony in the sediment decreased rapidly with distance from the tailings deposit, from a maximum of ∼22,000 mg kg(-1) to ∼1000 mg kg(-1) at a distance of ∼150 m...
April 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414913/lca-harmonization-and-soil-science-rankings-results-on-food-waste-management-methods
#12
Jeffrey Morris, Sally L Brown, Matthew Cotton, H Scott Matthews
This study reviewed 147 life cycle studies, with 28 found suitable for harmonizing food waste management methods' climate and energy impacts. 80 scientific soil productivity studies were assessed to rank management method soil benefits. Harmonized climate impacts per kilogram (kg) food waste range from -0.20 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) for anaerobic digestion (AD) to 0.38 kg CO2e for landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE). Aerobic composting (AC) is -0.10 kg CO2e. In-sink grinding (ISG) via a food waste disposer and flushing for management with other sewerage at a wastewater treatment plant emits 0...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414731/a-hyper-temporal-remote-sensing-protocol-for-high-resolution-mapping-of-ecological-sites
#13
Jonathan J Maynard, Jason W Karl
Ecological site classification has emerged as a highly effective land management framework, but its utility at a regional scale has been limited due to the spatial ambiguity of ecological site locations in the U.S. or the absence of ecological site maps in other regions of the world. In response to these shortcomings, this study evaluated the use of hyper-temporal remote sensing (i.e., hundreds of images) for high spatial resolution mapping of ecological sites. We posit that hyper-temporal remote sensing can provide novel insights into the spatial variability of ecological sites by quantifying the temporal response of land surface spectral properties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413846/a-carbon-balance-model-for-the-great-dismal-swamp-ecosystem
#14
Rachel Sleeter, Benjamin M Sleeter, Brianna Williams, Dianna Hogan, Todd Hawbaker, Zhiliang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413245/is-increasing-inorganic-fertilizer-use-for-maize-production-in-ssa-a-profitable-proposition-evidence-from-nigeria
#15
Lenis Saweda O Liverpool-Tasie, Bolarin T Omonona, Awa Sanou, Wale O Ogunleye
Inorganic fertilizer use across Sub-Saharan Africa is generally considered to be low. Yet, the notion that fertilizer use is too low is predicated on the assumption that it is profitable to use rates higher than currently observed. There is, however, limited empirical evidence to support this. Using a nationally representative panel dataset, this paper empirically estimates the profitability of fertilizer use for maize production in Nigeria. We find that fertilizer use in Nigeria is not as low as conventional wisdom suggests...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412619/denitrification-potential-in-the-subsurface-environment-in-the-manawatu-river-catchment-new-zealand-indications-from-oxidation-reduction-conditions-hydrogeological-factors-and-implications-for-nutrient-management
#16
Aldrin Rivas, Ranvir Singh, David Horne, Jonathan Roygard, Abby Matthews, Michael J Hedley
A sound understanding of the effects of hydrogeological factors on loss, transport and transformation of farm nutrients is essential for predicting their impacts on ecosystem health of receiving waters. We assessed the potential of groundwater to attenuate nitrate through denitrification, and the distribution of this potential across the Tararua Groundwater Management Zone (GWMZ) in the Manawatu River catchment, New Zealand. We combined a number of methods in an unprecedented manner to confirm findings and obtain supporting evidence for the features that determine the subsurface denitrification characteristics...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411318/long-term-grazing-effects-on-vegetation-characteristics-and-soil-properties-in-a-semiarid-grassland-northern-china
#17
Jing Zhang, Xiaoan Zuo, Xin Zhou, Peng Lv, Jie Lian, Xiyuan Yue
Understanding the responses of vegetation characteristics and soil properties to grazing disturbance is useful for grassland ecosystem restoration and management in semiarid areas. Here, we examined the effects of long-term grazing on vegetation characteristics, soil properties, and their relationships across four grassland types (meadow, Stipa steppe, scattered tree grassland, and sandy grassland) in the Horqin grassland, northern China. Our results showed that grazing greatly decreased vegetation cover, aboveground plant biomass, and root biomass in all four grassland types...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409427/environment-polluting-conventional-chemical-control-compared-to-an-environmentally-friendly-ipm-approach-for-control-of-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l-in-china-a-review
#18
Muhammad Shakeel, Muhammad Farooq, Wajid Nasim, Waseem Akram, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Waqar Jaleel, Xun Zhu, Haichen Yin, Shuzhong Li, Shah Fahad, Saddam Hussain, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan, Fengliang Jin
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is recognized as a widely distributed destructive insect pest of Brassica worldwide. The management of this pest is a serious issue, and an estimated annual cost of its management has reached approximately US$4 billion. Despite the fact that chemicals are a serious threat to the environment, lots of chemicals are applied for controlling various insect pests especially P. xylostella. An overreliance on chemical control has not only led to the evolution of resistance to insecticides and to a reduction of natural enemies but also has polluted various components of water, air, and soil ecosystem...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409237/prevalence-of-sucretolerant-bacteria-in-common-soils-and-their-isolation-and-characterization
#19
Casper Fredsgaard, Donald B Moore, Fei Chen, Benton C Clark, Mark A Schneegurt
Sucretolerant microbes grow in the presence of sugar concentrations high enough to substantially lower water activities. Natural habitats high in sugars are mainly limited to dried fruit, floral nectar, honey, sugarcane, and associated soils. Organisms that tolerate extremes of solute concentration, high enough to lower water activities, might not be expected in common oligoosmotic soils. We report on the isolation of sucretolerant bacteria from common soils using media supplemented with 50% sucrose (a w 0...
April 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409185/ecological-risk-assessment-of-agricultural-soils-for-the-definition-of-soil-screening-values-a-comparison-between-substance-based-and-matrix-based-approaches
#20
Alberto Pivato, Maria Cristina Lavagnolo, Barbara Manachini, Stefano Vanin, Roberto Raga, Giovanni Beggio
The Italian legislation on contaminated soils does not include the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and this deficiency has important consequences for the sustainable management of agricultural soils. The present research compares the results of two ERA procedures applied to agriculture (i) one based on the "substance-based" approach and (ii) a second based on the "matrix-based" approach. In the former the soil screening values (SVs) for individual substances were derived according to institutional foreign guidelines...
April 2017: Heliyon
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