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Thoracic rotation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089512/paleozoic-nymphal-wing-pads-support-dual-model-of-insect-wing-origins
#1
Jakub Prokop, Martina Pecharová, André Nel, Thomas Hörnschemeyer, Ewa Krzemińska, Wiesław Krzemiński, Michael S Engel
The appearance of wings in insects, early in their evolution [1], has been one of the more critical innovations contributing to their extraordinary diversity. Despite the conspicuousness and importance of wings, the origin of these structures has been difficult to resolve and represented one of the "abominable mysteries" in evolutionary biology [2]. More than a century of debate has boiled the matter down to two competing alternatives-one of wings representing an extension of the thoracic notum, the other stating that they are appendicular derivations from the lateral body wall...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087062/timing-and-magnitude-of-lumbar-spine-contribution-to-trunk-forward-bending-and-backward-return-in-patients-with-acute-low-back-pain
#2
Iman Shojaei, Milad Vazirian, Elizabeth G Salt, Linda R Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari
Alterations in the lumbo-pelvic coordination denote changes in neuromuscular control of trunk motion as well as load sharing between passive and active tissues in the lower back. Differences in timing and magnitude aspects of lumbo-pelvic coordination between patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) and asymptomatic individuals have been reported; yet, the literature on lumbo-pelvic coordination in patients with acute LBP is scant. A case-control study was conducted to explore the differences in timing and magnitude aspects of lumbo-pelvic coordination between females with (n=19) and without (n=19) acute LBP...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058796/hox-gene-expression-in-the-specialized-limbs-of-the-iberian-mole-talpa-occidentalis
#3
Constanze Bickelmann, Wessel van der Vos, Merijn A G de Bakker, Rafael Jiménez, Saskia Maas, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra
Fossorial talpid moles use their limbs predominantly for digging, which explains their highly specialized anatomy. The humerus is particularly short and dorsoventrally rotated, with broadened distal and proximal parts where muscles attach and which facilitate powerful abductive movements. The radius and ulna are exceptionally robust and short. The ulna has an expanded olecranon process. The femur is generalized, but the fused tibia-fibula complex is short and robust. To understand the developmental bases of these specializations, we studied expression patterns of four 5' Hox genes in the fossorial Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis)...
January 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048393/su-f-t-529-dosimetric-investigation-of-a-rotating-gamma-ray-system-for-imagedguided-modulated-arc-radiotherapy
#4
C Ma, O Chibani, A Eldib, J Li, L Chen
PURPOSE: Because of their effectiveness and efficiency, rotational arc radiotherapy (MAT) techniques have been developed on both specialty machines such as Tomotherapy and conventional linear accelerators. This work investigates a new rotating Gamma therapy system for image guided MAT and SBRT of intra/extracranial tumors. METHODS: The CyberMAT system (Cyber Medical Corp., China) consists of a ring gantry with a gamma source (effective source size 1cm and 1.7cm respectively), a 120-leaf MLC, a kV CBCT and an EPID...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047442/su-f-t-92-clinical-benefit-for-breast-and-chest-wall-setup-in-using-a-breast-board
#5
S Li, C Miyamoto, D Serratore, Q Liang, E Dziemianowicz
PURPOSE: To validate benefit of using a breast board (BB) by analyzing the geometry and dosimetry changes of the regions of interest (ROIs) between CT scans with and without BB. METHODS: Seven patients, two chest walls (CW) and five breasts, use BB at CT simulation and no BB at diagnostic CT were included. By using deformable image registration software (Velocity AI), diagnostic CT and planning CT were rigidly co-registered according to the thoracic cage at the target...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046784/mo-fg-campus-jep3-03-detection-of-unpredictable-patient-movement-during-sbrt-using-a-single-kv-projection-of-an-on-board-cbct-system-simulation-study
#6
Y Park, G Sharp, B Winey
PURPOSE: An unpredictable movement of a patient can occur during SBRT even when immobilization devices are applied. In the SBRT treatments using a conventional linear accelerator detection of such movements relies heavily on human interaction and monitoring. This study aims to detect such positional abnormalities in real-time by assessing intra-fractional gantry mounted kV projection images of a patient's spine. METHODS: We propose a self-CBCT image based spine tracking method consisting of the following steps: (1)Acquire a pre-treatment CBCT image; (2)Transform the CBCT volume according to the couch correction; (3)Acquire kV projections during treatment beam delivery; (4)Simultaneously with each acquisition generate a DRR from the CBCT volume based-on the current projection geometry; (5)Perform an intensity gradient-based 2D registration between spine ROI images of the projection and the DRR images; (6)Report an alarm if the detected 2D displacement is beyond a threshold value...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046767/su-g-bra-08-diaphragm-motion-tracking-based-on-kv-cbct-projections-with-a-constrained-linear-regression-optimization
#7
J Wei, M Chao
PURPOSE: To develop a novel strategy to extract the respiratory motion of the thoracic diaphragm from kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections by a constrained linear regression optimization technique. METHODS: A parabolic function was identified as the geometric model and was employed to fit the shape of the diaphragm on the CBCT projections. The search was initialized by five manually placed seeds on a pre-selected projection image. Temporal redundancies, the enabling phenomenology in video compression and encoding techniques, inherent in the dynamic properties of the diaphragm motion together with the geometrical shape of the diaphragm boundary and the associated algebraic constraint that significantly reduced the searching space of viable parabolic parameters was integrated, which can be effectively optimized by a constrained linear regression approach on the subsequent projections...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041317/stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-intradural-spine-tumors-using-cone-beam-ct-image-guidance
#8
Andrés Monserrate, Benjamin Zussman, Alp Ozpinar, Ajay Niranjan, John C Flickinger, Peter C Gerszten
OBJECTIVE Cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance technology has been widely adopted for spine radiosurgery delivery. There is relatively little experience with spine radiosurgery for intradural tumors using CBCT image guidance. This study prospectively evaluated a series of intradural spine tumors treated with radiosurgery. Patient setup accuracy for spine radiosurgery delivery using CBCT image guidance for intradural spine tumors was determined. METHODS Eighty-two patients with intradural tumors were treated and prospectively evaluated...
January 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038692/asymmetry-of-the-vertebral-body-and-pedicles-in-the-true-transverse-plane-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-ct-based-study
#9
Rob C Brink, Tom P C Schlösser, Dino Colo, Koen L Vincken, Marijn van Stralen, Steve C N Hui, Winnie C W Chu, Jack C Y Cheng, René M Castelein
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the asymmetry of the vertebral bodies and pedicles in the true transverse plane in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and to compare this with normal anatomy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There is an ongoing debate about the existence and magnitude of the vertebral body and pedicle asymmetry in AIS and whether this is an expression of a primary growth disturbance, or secondary to asymmetrical loading...
January 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038690/the-development-of-a-representative-porcine-early-onset-scoliosis-model-with-a-standalone-posterior-spinal-tether
#10
R Bogie, A K Roth, P C Willems, Vd W Weegen, J J Arts, L W van Rhijn
STUDY DESIGN: In vivo analysis in a porcine model. OBJECTIVES: To develop a porcine experimental scoliosis model representative of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) with the use of a radiopaque ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) posterior spinal tether. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Large animal experimental scoliosis models with substantial growth potential are needed to test new fusionless scoliosis correction techniques. Previously described scoliosis models involve rib procedures, which violate the thoracic cage and affect subsequent corrective procedures...
January 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038688/biomechanical-evaluation-of-a-growth-friendly-rod-construct
#11
Sarah Galvis, Josh Arnold, Erin Mannen, Benjamin Wong, Hadley Sis, Eileen Cadel, John Anderson, Dennis Anderson, Paul Arnold, Elizabeth Friis
BACKGROUND: Distraction-type rods mechanically stabilize the thorax and improve lung growth and function by applying distraction forces at the rib, spine, pelvis, or a combination of locations. However, the amount of stability the rods provide and the amount the thorax needs is unknown. METHODS: Five freshly frozen and thawed cadaveric thoracic spine specimens were tested for lateral bending, flexion/extension, and axial rotation in displacement control (1°/sec) to a load limit of ±5 Nm for five cycles after which a growth-friendly unilateral rod was placed in a simulated rib-to-lumbar attachment along the right side...
January 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032226/posterior-corrective-surgery-for-moderate-to-severe-focal-kyphosis-in-the-thoracolumbar-spine-57-cases-with-minimum-3%C3%A2-years-follow-up
#12
Yan Zeng, Xiaochen Qu, Zhongqiang Chen, Xiaoxi Yang, Zhaoqing Guo, Qiang Qi, Weishi Li, Chuiguo Sun
PURPOSE: To evaluate the radiological and clinical outcomes of the corrective surgery for patients with moderate to severe focal kyphosis in thoracolumbar spine. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with moderate to severe focal kyphosis of the thoracolumbar spine underwent apical segmental resection osteotomy with dual axial rotation correction at our hospital. There were 30 male and 27 female patients. The mean age was 34.3 years. The kyphosis level radiographs were obtained from each patient before surgery, immediately after surgery and at follow-up...
December 28, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018536/computer-modeling-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-technology-changes-on-resident-procedural-volume
#13
Tyler R Grenda, Tiffany N S Ballard, Andrea T Obi, William Pozehl, F Jacob Seagull, Ryan Chen, Amy M Cohn, Mark S Daskin, Rishindra M Reddy
BACKGROUND : As resident "index" procedures change in volume due to advances in technology or reliance on simulation, it may be difficult to ensure trainees meet case requirements. Training programs are in need of metrics to determine how many residents their institutional volume can support. OBJECTIVE : As a case study of how such metrics can be applied, we evaluated a case distribution simulation model to examine program-level mediastinoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) volumes needed to train thoracic surgery residents...
December 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008267/oncological-outcomes-and-complications-after-volume-replacement-oncoplastic-breast-conservations-the-glasgow-experience
#14
Weiguang Ho, Sheila Stallard, Julie Doughty, Elizabeth Mallon, Laszlo Romics
INTRODUCTION: Oncoplastic breast conservation surgery (OBCS) combines the principles of surgical oncology and plastic surgery. OBCS has now become a growing option for the treatment of breast cancer and forms a part of breast-conserving therapy (BCT). We sought to investigate and report our experience in two breast units in Glasgow (Victoria Infirmary and Western Infirmary) on volume replacement OBCS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Details of patients treated with volume replacement OBCS were identified from a prospectively recorded database from November 2010 to October 2015...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002917/simultaneous-double-rod-and-en-bloc-direct-vertebral-rotation-technique-for-correction-of-main-thoracic-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-retrospective-analysis-of-14-cases
#15
C Faldini, F Perna, M Chehrassan, R Borghi, K Martikos, A Mazzotti, N Stefanini, L Cristofolini, F Traina
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a triplanar deformity associated with rib hump, especially when a principle thoracic curve is present. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of AIS correction retrospectively, using simultaneous double rod derotation manoeuvre technique followed by en-bloc direct vertebral rotation (DVR). Fourteen patients were included in this study. Coronal and sagittal thoracic Cobb angle, global coronal balance, sagittal balance, rib hump prominence, Scoliosis Research Society outcome instrument score (SRS-22) and Walter Reed visual assessment scale (WR-VAS) values were recorded pre- and postoperatively and evaluated...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992778/comparison-of-lumbo-pelvic-kinematics-during-trunk-forward-bending-and-backward-return-between-patients-with-acute-low-back-pain-and-asymptomatic-controls
#16
Iman Shojaei, Elizabeth G Salt, Quenten Hooker, Linda R Van Dillen, Babak Bazrgari
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have reported differences in lumbo-pelvic kinematics during a trunk forward bending and backward return task between individuals with and without chronic low back pain; yet, the literature on lumbo-pelvic kinematics of patients with acute low back pain is scant. Therefore, the purpose of this study was set to investigate lumbo-pelvic kinematics in this cohort. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to investigate the differences in pelvic and thoracic rotation along with lumbar flexion as well as their first and second time derivatives between females with and without acute low back pain...
December 10, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927550/strength-of-thoracic-spine-under-simulated-direct-vertebral-rotation-a%C3%A2-biomechanical-study
#17
Sean L Borkowski, Sophia N Sangiorgio, Richard E Bowen, Anthony A Scaduto, Bo He, Kathryn L Bauer, Edward Ebramzadeh
BACKGROUND: Direct vertebral rotation (DVR) has gained increasing popularity for deformity correction surgery. Despite large moments applied intraoperatively during deformity correction and failure reports including screw plow, aortic abutment, and pedicle fracture, to our knowledge, the strength of thoracic spines has been unknown. Moreover, the rotational response of thoracic spines under such large torques has been unknown. PURPOSE: Simulate DVR surgical conditions to measure torsion to failure on thoracic spines and assess surgical forces...
March 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889355/cervical-sagittal-alignment-in-adult-hyperkyphosis-treated-by-posterior-instrumentation-and-in-situ-bending
#18
F Paternostre, Y P Charles, E A Sauleau, J-P Steib
BACKGROUND: In the normal adult spine, a link between thoracolumbar and cervical sagittal alignment exists, suggesting adaptive cervical positional changes allowing horizontal gaze. In patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis, cervical adaptation to sagittal global alignment might be different from healthy individuals. However, this relationship has not clearly been reported in hyperkyphotic deformity. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify cervical sagittal alignment types observed on radiographs in young adults with thoracic hyperkyphosis...
November 23, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879572/importance-of-distal-fusion-level-in-major-thoracolumbar-and-lumbar-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-treated-by-rod-derotation-and-direct-vertebral-rotation-following-pedicle-screw-instrumentation
#19
Dong-Gune Chang, Jae Hyuk Yang, Se-Il Suk, Seung-Woo Suh, Young-Hoon Kim, Woojin Cho, Yeon-Seok Jeong, Jin-Hyok Kim, Kee-Yong Ha, Jung-Hee Lee
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective comparative study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the exact distal fusion level in the treatment of major thoracolumbar and lumbar (TL/L) adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) using rod derotation (RD) and direct vertebral rotation (DVR) following pedicle screw instrumentation (PSI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Proper determination of distal fusion level is a very important factor in deformity correction and preservation of motion segments in the treatment of major TL/L AIS...
November 22, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873382/use-of-a-novel-board-game-in-a-clinical-rotation-for-learning-thoracic-differential-diagnoses-in-veterinary-medical-imaging
#20
Christopher P Ober
When confronted with various findings on thoracic radiographs, fourth-year veterinary students often have difficulty generating appropriate lists of differential diagnoses. The purpose of this one-group, pretest, posttest experimental study was to determine if a game could be used as an adjunct teaching method to improve students' understanding of connections between imaging findings and differential diagnoses. A novel board game focusing on differential diagnoses in thoracic radiography was developed. One hundred fourth-year veterinary students took a brief pretest, played the board game, and took a brief posttest as a part of their respective clinical radiology rotations...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
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