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Topical antibiotic

Lars Bjørndal, Catharina Amaloo, Merete Markvart, Vibe Rud, Klaus Qvortrup, Camilla Stavnsbjerg, Thomas Bjarnsholt
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to present a case report of a full-length extrusion of an obturator's core carrier into the maxillary sinus, causing clinical symptoms from the nose region with differential diagnostics aspects, which, in turn, led to several surgical treatments of the nostrils before diagnosis and correct endodontic retreatment of a maxillary right first molar. A 36-year-old man presented in 2012 with complaints from the right nostril region. Medical treatment with antibiotics and surgical procedures because of nasal stenosis resulted only in partial improvement...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Vincenzo Vindigni, Carlotta Scarpa, Erica Dalla Venezia, Franco Bassetto
INTRODUCTION: Fournier's gangrene is a rare disease that affects the genital, abdominal, and perineal regions and leads to death if not treated promptly. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old, obese woman presented to the authors' department affected by Fournier's gangrene. In order to treat her abdominal and genital regions, the authors performed a surgical debridement followed by combined therapy with antibiotics and topical negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with instillation plus saline solution...
October 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
Kathryn L Kreicher, Jeremy S Bordeaux
Importance: Cutaneous surgery is performed by otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, oculoplastic surgeons, dermatologic surgeons, and some primary care physicians. Practice gaps exist among cutaneous surgeons, as do differences in how different physicians approach preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative decision-making. Objective: To present the newest and best evidence to close common practice gaps in cutaneous surgery. Evidence Review: We performed a detailed search of peer-reviewed publications that were identified through a search of PubMed/MEDLINE (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2016) using the literature search terms "cutaneous surgery," "Mohs micrographic surgery," "plastic surgery," in combination with "safety," "cost," "anesthesia," "anti-coagulation," "bleeding," "pain," "analgesia," "anxiety," or "infection," among others...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Ummara Butt, Amr ElShaer, Lori A S Snyder, Athina Chaidemenou, Raid G Alany
Fatty acids (FAs) are used by many organisms as defence mechanism against virulent bacteria. The high safety profile and broad spectrum of activity make them potential alternatives to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of eye infections in neonates. The current study utilised a Design of Experiment approach to optimise the quantification of five fatty acids namely; lauric acid, tridecanoic acid, myristoleic acid, palmitoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. The significance of the influence of the experimental parameters such as volume of catalyst, volume of n-hexane, incubation temperature, incubation time and the number of extraction steps on derivatisation was established by statistical screening with a factorial approach...
October 20, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Jaeyoung Kim, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee, Joo Youn Oh
PURPOSE: To report a case of Mooren ulcer that developed in a pediatric patient wearing orthokeratology overnight contact lenses. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 10-year-old boy was referred to our clinic because of progressive peripheral corneal ulcer in the right eye, despite the intensive use of fortified antibiotic eye drops. The patient had been using overnight orthokeratology lenses for 4 months before presentation of corneal ulcer...
October 13, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Asim V Farooq, Joshua H Hou, Sarmad Jassim, Zeeshan Haq, Elmer Y Tu, Jose de la Cruz, Maria S Cortina
OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of biofilm formation on bandage contact lenses worn by patients with the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (K-Pro) while on prophylactic topical vancomycin versus linezolid. METHODS: Patients wearing a bandage contact lens (BCL) with a K-Pro were eligible for enrollment. After irrigation of the ocular surface with 5% povidone-iodine solution, each patient was placed on either topical vancomycin 15 mg/mL or linezolid 0.2% BID for one month...
October 13, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Pedro Llinares, Isabel Ruiz, Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Santiago Grau
BACKGROUND: Although in the past decade the management of invasive fungal infections has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding empirical antifungal treatment in critically-ill hematology patients. AIMS: To identify key clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations, with a high level of consensus, necessary for the approach to fungal infections in critically-ill hematology patients. METHODS: A Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists in fungal invasive infections from six scientific national societies; intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases...
October 14, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Jeremy C K Tan, Melissa X Kuo, Minas T Coroneo
PURPOSE: To report on a case of autoconjunctival graft compromise after pterygium surgery in a patient on long-term anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy, due to the deleterious effects of anti-VEGF agents on ocular wound healing. METHODS: A white female in her early eighties presented with large right nasal pterygium, first noted 5 years previously. She also had macular degeneration and had been receiving monthly injections of ranibizumab, which was later switched to aflibercept...
October 5, 2016: Cornea
Susanne Paukner, Rosemarie Riedl
Pleuromutilins are antibiotics that selectively inhibit bacterial translation and are semisynthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring tricyclic diterpenoid pleuromutilin, which received its name from the pleuromutilin-producing fungus Pleurotus mutilus Tiamulin and valnemulin are two established derivatives in veterinary medicine for oral and intramuscular administration. As these early pleuromutilin drugs were developed at a time when companies focused on major antibacterial classes, such as the β-lactams, and resistance was not regarded as an issue, interest in antibiotic research including pleuromutilins was limited...
October 14, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Alexander H Fischer, Alessandra Haskin, Ginette A Okoye
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapy is commonly used to treat hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Although concern for antibiotic resistance exists, data examining the association between antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance in HS lesions are limited. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in HS lesions from patients on antibiotic therapy. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 239 patients with HS seen at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions from 2010 through 2015...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Thomas Mücke, Christian R Krestan, David A Mitchell, Jan S Kirschke, Arno Wutzl
For patients with malignant disease taking bisphosphonates and denosumab, the incidence of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is up to 15% in contrast to 0.01% in patients with osteoporosis. Clinical presentation of MRONJ extends from asymptomatic exposure of bone in 94% of patients to severe cases of mandibular fractures in a minority of 4.5%. The strongest risk factors for MRONJ are invasive dental procedures and dental infections. Advances in imaging provide more preoperation information compared with panoramic radiograph...
July 2016: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
Prasad S Varun, P Elavenil, Raja V B Krishnakumar, Gopi Gayathri
PURPOSE: To assess the influence of topical ozone administration on patient comfort after third molar surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was designed involving patients who required removal of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars. The predictor variable was the postoperative medication used after third molar surgery. Using the split-mouth design, the study group received topical ozone without postoperative systemic antibiotics, whereas the control group did not receive ozone but only systemic antibiotics...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Joseph C Dort, D Gregory Farwell, Merran Findlay, Gerhard F Huber, Paul Kerr, Melissa A Shea-Budgell, Christian Simon, Jeffrey Uppington, David Zygun, Olle Ljungqvist, Jeffrey Harris
Importance: Head and neck cancers often require complex, labor-intensive surgeries, especially when free flap reconstruction is required. Enhanced recovery is important in this patient population but evidence-based protocols on perioperative care for this population are lacking. Objective: To provide a consensus-based protocol for optimal perioperative care of patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery with free flap reconstruction. Evidence Review: Following endorsement by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society to develop this protocol, a systematic review was conducted for each topic...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Alison Vogel, Diana Lennon, Emma Best, Alison Leversha
Admissions for skin and soft-tissue infections have been increasing steadily in children and in the general population. Concerns have been raised recently about the increasing widespread use of topical fusidic acid and concurrent increase of fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fusidic acid resistance and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are both more prevalent in youngest age group (<5 year-olds) and particularly in the North island. In New Zealand, fusidic acid is recommended for treatment of minor impetigo and is the only fully-funded topical antibiotic...
October 14, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Arnold L Demain, Evan Martens
We are pleased to dedicate this paper to Dr Julian E Davies. Julian is a giant among microbial biochemists. He began his professional career as an organic chemistry PhD student at Nottingham University, moved on to a postdoctoral fellowship at Columbia University, then became a lecturer at the University of Manchester, followed by a fellowship in microbial biochemistry at Harvard Medical School. In 1965, he studied genetics at the Pasteur Institute, and 2 years later joined the University of Wisconsin in the Department of Biochemistry...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Suresh Sadhasivam, Sekar Palanivel, Shamik Ghosh
Antimicrobials from natural sources have gained immense importance in recent times to combat the global challenge of antibiotic resistance. Essential oils are implicated in antimicrobial action against several species. Here we have screened nine commercially available essential oils for their antimicrobial activity against organisms associated with skin, scalp and nail infections mainly Propionibacterium acnes, Malassezia spp, Candida albicans and Trichophyton spp. Among nine essential oils, B. serrata essential oil demonstrated superior antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms and surprisingly it showed maximum activity against Trichophyton spp...
October 12, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Geraldine Hall, Karen C Carroll
Aerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be important pathogens in the immunocompromised host. These bacteria can be found in many environments, as part of the normal microbiota of the human host and animals, in soil and water, on plants, on fomites in the hospital, and on hospital equipment. This review provides information from relevant studies about what are the most common aerobic bacteria associated with patients who have cancer and/or are being treated for it, or who have other diseases which lead to immunodeficiencies, such as HIV, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, chronic diseases, and aging...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Deirdre L Church
Alteration in the host microbiome at skin and mucosal surfaces plays a role in the function of the immune system, and may predispose immunocompromised patients to infection. Because obligate anaerobes are the predominant type of bacteria present in humans at skin and mucosal surfaces, immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for serious invasive infection due to anaerobes. Laboratory approaches to the diagnosis of anaerobe infections that occur due to pyogenic, polymicrobial, or toxin-producing organisms are described...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Lindsay P Osborn, Philip R Cohen
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are biological factors used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) that are positive for EGFR mutations. Afatinib is one such drug that has been approved for use in this capacity. Cutaneous toxicity is the second most commonly reported adverse event with the use of afatinib. A 39-year-old woman with inoperative right lung adenocarcinoma was initially treated with afatinib. She not only developed a severe papulopustular eruption but also had a dramatic reduction of her tumor...
September 1, 2016: Curēus
Winai Chaidaroon, Sumet Supalaset
PURPOSE: To describe corneal ring infiltrates caused by Serratia marcescens in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) who wore contact lenses. METHODS: A case study of a patient with keratitis due to an infection caused by S. marcescens and exhibiting corneal ring infiltrates was reviewed for history, clinical manifestation, microscopic study, and management. RESULTS: A 29-year-old man who had a history of contact lens wear and HIV-1 infection was admitted to hospital because of blurred vision, redness, and corneal infiltrates in the shape of a ring in the left eye...
May 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
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