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HSV keratitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903153/colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-expressing-cells-infiltrating-the-cornea-control-corneal-nerve-degeneration-in-response-to-hsv-1-infection
#1
Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Hem R Gurung, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Purpose: Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis, characterized by decreased or absent corneal sensation due to damage to the sensory corneal innervation. We previously reported the elicited immune response to infection contributes to the mechanism of corneal nerve regression/damage during acute HSV-1 infection. Our aim is to further establish the involvement of infiltrated macrophages in the mechanism of nerve loss upon infection. Methods: Macrophage Fas-Induced Apoptosis (MAFIA) transgenic C57BL/6 mice were systemically treated with AP20187 dimerizer or vehicle (VEH), and their corneas, lymph nodes, and blood were assessed for CD45+CD11b+GFP+ cell depletion by flow cytometry (FC)...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892949/corneal-collagen-cross-linking-for-treatment-of-bacterial-and-herpetic-keratitis
#2
Mohammad Reza Khalili, Hamid Reza Jahadi, Mashaallah Karimi, Masoud Yasemi
INTRODUCTION: Optimal management of infective keratitis is a formidable challenge and subject of ongoing studies. Recently, Collagen Cross-Linking (CXL) of the cornea has been considered to be a new effective therapeutic approach for resistant infectious keratitis. AIM: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CXL with Ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and riboflavin for treatment of the refractory bacterial and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) keratitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective interventional study, eight patients with diagnosis of infectious keratitis who were referred to Khalili Hospital eye emergency room, between 2014 and 2015 were included in the study...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710254/the-plasticity-and-stability-of-regulatory-t-cells-during-viral-induced-inflammatory-lesions
#3
Siddheshvar Bhela, Siva Karthik Varanasi, Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Sarah S Sloan, Naveen K Rajasagi, Barry T Rouse
Ocular infection with HSV causes a chronic T cell-mediated inflammatory lesion in the cornea. Lesion severity is affected by the balance of different CD4 T cell subsets, with greater severity occurring when the activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is compromised. In this study, fate-mapping mice were used to assess the stability of Treg function in ocular lesions. We show that cells that were once Foxp3(+) functional Tregs may lose Foxp3 and become Th1 cells that could contribute to lesion expression. The instability primarily occurred with IL-2R(lo) Tregs and was shown, in part, to be the consequence of exposure to IL-12...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688026/indications-and-graft-survival-analysis-in-optical-penetrating-keratoplasty-in-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india-a-5-year-study
#4
Sudesh Kumar Arya, Amit Raj, Ravi Kant Bamotra, Anubha Bhatti, Jyoti Deswal, Meenakshi Sindhu
PURPOSE: To study the indications and variables correlating with graft survival in optical penetrating keratoplasty in a tertiary care hospital in north India. PARTICIPANTS: All patients who underwent optical keratoplasty, except those undergoing lamellar grafts, tectonic grafts transplants and penetrating keratoplasty done for therapeutic purposes were included in the study. Patients with follow-up less than 2 years were excluded from the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained by reviewing the records of 101 patients who underwent optical penetrating keratoplasty from 2008 to 2013 for various indications...
July 7, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637763/analysis-of-herpes-simplex-virus-reactivation-in-explant-reveals-a-method-dependent-difference-in-measured-timing-of-reactivation
#5
Jessica R Doll, Nancy M Sawtell
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is widespread in the human population. Following orofacial infection, HSV establishes latency in innervating sensory neurons, primarily located in the trigeminal ganglia. A central feature of HSV pathogenesis is the ability to periodically reactivate in those neurons and be transported back to the body surface. Both transmission and disease, such as keratitis, encephalitis, and neurodegeneration, have been linked to reactivation. Despite invaluable insights obtained from model systems, interactions between viral and host functions that regulate reactivation are still incompletely understood...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591279/detection-of-herpes-simplex-1-and-2-and-varicella-zoster-virus-by-quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-corneas-from-patients-with-bacterial-keratitis
#6
Heloisa Nascimento, Aripuanã Watanabe, Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira, Andrea Pelegrini, Maria Cecília Yu, Paulo José Martins Bispo, Celso Francisco Hernandes Granato, Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima
Objective: Bacterial keratitis occurs worldwide, and despite recent developments, it remains a potentially blinding condition. This study assesses the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and -2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in corneal scrapings from patients with bacterial keratitis. Methods: A total of 65 patients with clinical diagnoses of infectious corneal ulcers prospectively underwent clinical eye examinations...
March 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584076/frontline-science-aspirin-triggered-resolvin-d1-controls-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-corneal-immunopathology
#7
Naveen K Rajasagi, Siddheshvar Bhela, Siva Karthik Varanasi, Barry T Rouse
Stromal keratitis (SK) is a chronic immunopathological lesion of the eye, caused by HSV-1 infection, and a common cause of vision impairment in humans. The inflammatory lesions in the cornea are primarily caused by neutrophils with the active participation of CD4(+) T cells. Therefore, the targeting of these immune cell types and their products represents a potentially valuable form of therapy to reduce the severity of disease. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its epimer aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) are lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and were shown to promote resolution in several inflammatory disease models...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520594/amplivue-is-a-practical-and-timely-test-for-the-detection-of-hsv-from-keratitis-specimens
#8
Regis P Kowalski, Lisa M Karenchak, Deepinder K Dhaliwal, Alex Mammen
OBJECTIVE: The laboratory diagnostic detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from eye samples must be practical, timely, and definitive for appropriate therapy. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or cell culture can be definitive, HSV results can be delayed. Enzyme Linked Virus Inducible System (ELVIS) is a test that can provide results within 24 to 48 hr. We evaluated "AmpliVue HSV 1+2 Assay" as a molecular colorimetric test that can detect HSV (1 or 2) DNA within 1 hr. METHODS: Cornea/conjunctival samples were tested retrospectively with AmpliVue against 53 true-positive and 20 true-negative specimens collected in chlamydial transport medium...
May 16, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513490/coexistence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-in-microsporidial-stromal-keratitis-associated-with-granulomatous-inflammation
#9
Ruchi Mittal, Praveen K Balne, Srikant Sahu, Sujata Das, Savitri Sharma
BACKGROUND: Microsporidial stromal keratitis poses several diagnostic challenges. Patients may present with corneal ulceration, marked stromal thinning, or even as a quite corneal scar. The presentation of microsporidial stromal keratitis commonly mimics viral keratitis. Microbiology scrapings are usually helpful; however, scraping and culture-negative cases pose a significant diagnostic dilemma. Histopathological examination is diagnostic but shows varying degree of inflammation, predominantly composed of polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495905/long-term-outcomes-of-the-boston-type-i-keratoprosthesis-in-eyes-with-previous-herpes-simplex-virus-keratitis
#10
Melinda Fry, Carolina Aravena, Fei Yu, Jaffer Kattan, Anthony J Aldave
PURPOSE: To report the long-term outcomes of the Boston type I keratoprosthesis (Kpro) in eyes with prior herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective review of all Kpro procedures performed by a single surgeon from 1 May 2004 to 1 January 2015. RESULTS: 13 of 173 Kpro procedures were performed in 11 eyes with prior HSV keratitis. There was not a significant difference in the percentage of eyes with and without prior HSV keratitis with preoperative (9% vs 8%, p=1...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491875/understanding-the-role-of-chemokines-and-cytokines-in-experimental-models-of-herpes-simplex-keratitis
#11
REVIEW
Tayaba N Azher, Xiao-Tang Yin, Patrick M Stuart
Herpes simplex keratitis is a disease of the cornea caused by HSV-1. It is a leading cause of corneal blindness in the world. Underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown, but experimental models have helped give a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathology. Cytokines and chemokines are small proteins released by cells that play an important proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory role in modulating the disease process. Cytokines such as IL-17, IL-6, IL-1α, and IFN-γ and chemokines such as MIP-2, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β have proinflammatory role in the destruction caused by HSV including neutrophil infiltration and corneal inflammation, and other chemokines and cytokines such as IL-10 and CCL3 can have a protective role...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451758/the-evaluation-of-diagnostic-efficiency-for-stromal-herpes-simplex-keratitis-by-the-combination-of-tear-hsv-siga-and-hsv-dna
#12
Jini Qiu, Feifei Huang, Zhujian Wang, Jianjiang Xu, Chaoran Zhang
PURPOSE: To assess the differential diagnostic values for stromal herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) by using tear HSV-sIgA, tear HSV-DNA, and the combination. METHODS: Tear samples for both eyes and the paired serum were collected from 187 stromal HSK and 56 controls. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze the tear HSV-sIgA and serum IgG/IgM/IgA. The levels of tear HSV-DNA were measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The positive rates for tear HSV-sIgA and HSV-DNA were 36...
July 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386160/a%C3%A2-serious-adverse-surgical-event-management-of-suspected-hsv-1-keratitis-in-a%C3%A2-donor-cornea
#13
Rebecca Kaye, Bernhard Steger, Jern Y Chen, Vito Romano
PURPOSE: To describe the management of a serious adverse event in a patient undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PK). CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old man underwent PK for an aphakic bullous keratopathy following previous complicated cataract surgery. He had no past history of herpetic disease. Storage of the corneoscleral disc in the transport bottle precluded microscopic examination. After placement of the trephined donor cornea on the open eye of the recipient, a large dendritiform geographic ulcer was noted on the donor cornea...
2017: Spektrum der Augenheilkunde: Zeitschrift der Österreichischen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft, ÖOG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380101/the-outcome-of-penetrating-keratoplasty-for-corneal-scarring-due-to-herpes-simplex-keratitis
#14
Yesim Altay, Sema Tamer, Abdullah Sencer Kaya, Ozgur Balta, Ayse Burcu, Firdevs Ornek
Purpose: To determine the outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for treatment of corneal scarring caused by Herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis, and whether the corneal scar type affects treatment outcome. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent PK for HSV-related corneal scarring between January 2008 and July 2011 was performed. The patients were categorized into two groups. Group 1 consisted of patients with a quiescent herpetic corneal scar and group 2 consisted of patients who developed a corneal descemetocele or perforation secondary to persistent epithelial defects with no active stromal inflammation...
January 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378806/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-drives-and-maintains-progressive-corneal-neovascularization-following-hsv-1-infection
#15
H R Gurung, M M Carr, K Bryant, A J Chucair-Elliott, D Jj Carr
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea induces vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-dependent lymphangiogenesis that continues to develop well beyond the resolution of infection. Inflammatory leukocytes infiltrate the cornea and have been implicated to be essential for corneal neovascularization, an important clinically relevant manifestation of stromal keratitis. Here we report that cornea infiltrating leukocytes including neutrophils and T cells do not have a significant role in corneal neovascularization past virus clearance...
April 5, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374243/development-of-recombinant-hsv-based-vaccine-vectors
#16
Richard Voellmy, David C Bloom, Nuria Vilaboa, Joyce Feller
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes significant morbidity on the human population through such clinical syndromes as cold sores, genital herpes, herpes stromal keratitis, and encephalitis. Attempts to generate efficacious vaccines to date have failed. We have recently described the use of a conditionally replication-competent HSV-1 vector to immunize mice against a lethal challenge of HSV-1. The unique feature of this vaccine vector is that its replication is tightly controlled and can only occur in the presence of local heat and the presence of a small molecule inducer (an antiprogestin)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320407/association-between-sensitivity-of-viral-thymidine-kinase-associated-acyclovir-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-and-virulence
#17
Natsumi Omura, Hikaru Fujii, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Souichi Yamada, Shizuko Harada, Takuya Inagaki, Miho Shibamura, Haruko Takeyama, Masayuki Saijo
BACKGROUND: Acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACVr) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections are concern in immunocompromised patients. Most clinical ACVr HSV-1 isolates have mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (vTK) genes. The vTK-associated ACVr HSV-1 shows reduced virulence, but the association between the level of resistance and the virulence of the vTK-associated ACVr HSV-1 is still unclear. METHODS: The virulence in mice of 5 vTK-associated ACVr HSV-1 clones with a variety of ACV sensitivities, when inoculated through intracerebral and corneal routes, was evaluated in comparison with ACV-sensitive (ACVs) parent HSV-1 TAS...
March 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282568/cxcl9-compensates-for-the-absence-of-cxcl10-during-recurrent-herpetic-stromal-keratitis
#18
Deena Tajfirouz, Devin M West, Xiao-Tang Yin, Chloe A Potter, Robyn Klein, Patrick M Stuart
Herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) is a disease that is typically associated with reactivation of a latent HSV-1 infection. This disease is driven, in part, by chemokines that recruit leukocytes to the cornea. Surprisingly, neutralization of CXCL10 significantly reduced disease, while B6-CXCL10-/- mice exhibited worse disease compared with similarly infected wild-type controls. We hypothesized that compensatory up-regulation of CXCL9 occurs in the absence of CXCL10. Analysis of CXCL9 expression in HSV-1-infected B6 mice and B6-CXCL10-/- mice revealed significantly more CXCL9 in B6-XCL10-/- mice...
June 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278385/the-type-i-interferon-response-and-age-dependent-susceptibility-to-herpes-simplex-virus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Daniel Giraldo, Douglas R Wilcox, Richard Longnecker
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a highly prevalent human neurotropic pathogen. HSV-1 infection is associated with a variety of diseases ranging from benign orolabial lesions to more serious and even life-threatening conditions such as herpes simplex keratitis and herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is a rare occurrence among healthy adult individuals, but newborns are a particularly susceptible population. Type I IFN signaling has been identified as a crucial component of the innate immune response to the control of HSV-1 infection...
May 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115476/long-term-consequences-of-topical-dexamethasone-treatment-during-acute-corneal-hsv-1-infection-on-the-immune-system
#20
Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis (NTK). NTK is characterized by decreased corneal sensation from damage to the corneal sensory fibers. We have reported on the regression of corneal nerves and their function during acute HSV-1 infection. That nerve loss is followed by an aberrant process of nerve regeneration during the latent phase of infection that lacks functional recovery. We recently showed the elicited immune response in the infected cornea, and not viral replication itself, is part of the mechanism responsible for the nerve degeneration process after infection...
May 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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