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HSV keratitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155164/a-new-promising-candidate-to-overcome-drug-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-infections
#1
Elisabeth Zinser, Adalbert Krawczyk, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Ulrich Aufderhorst, Lena Stich, Mirko Zaja, Stefan Strobl, Alexander Steinkasserer, Christiane Silke Heilingloh
Infections with Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) belong to the most common human diseases worldwide, resulting in symptoms ranging from painful, but commonly self-limiting lesions of the orofacial or genital tract to severe infections of the eye or life-threatening generalized infections. Frequent HSV-reactivations at the eye may lead to the development of herpetic stromal keratitis, which is one of the major causes of infectious blindness in developed countries. The vast majority of life-threatening generalized infections occur in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients or patients suffering from advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with concurrent HSV-reactivation...
November 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129651/dendritic-cells-in-the-cornea-during-herpes-simplex-viral-infection-and-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Min S Kwon, Nicole A Carnt, Naomi R Truong, Ushasree Pattamatta, Andrew J White, Chameen Samarawickrama, Anthony L Cunningham
Herpes simplex keratitis is commonly caused by Herpes simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1), which primarily infects eyelids, corneas or conjunctiva. HSV-1- through sophisticated interactions with dendritic cells (DCs), a type of antigen-presenting cell)-initiates pro-inflammatory responses in the cornea. Corneas were once thought to be an immune privileged region; however, with the recent discovery of DCs that reside in the cornea, this long held conjecture has been overturned. Therefore, evaluating the clinical, preclinical, and cell-based studies that investigate the roles of DCs in corneas infected with HSV is critical...
November 9, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954259/roles-of-trim32-in-corneal-epithelial-cells-after-infection-with-herpes-simplex-virus
#3
Hao Cui, Ying Liu, Yifei Huang
BACKGROUND: Epithelial cells play important roles as a critical barrier in protecting the cornea from microbial pathogens infection. METHODS: In this study, we were aiming to investigate the role of E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32) in corneal epithelial cells in response to Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: We found the expression of TRIM32 was increased after infected with HSV-1 both in murine corneas and cultured human epithelial (HCE) cells...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939476/recurrent-herpetic-keratitis-despite-antiviral-prophylaxis-a-virological-and-pharmacological-study
#4
Antoine Rousseau, David Boutolleau, Karine Titier, Tristan Bourcier, Christophe Chiquet, Michel Weber, Joseph Colin, Julie Gueudry, Mohamed M'Garrech, Bahram Bodaghi, Sonia Burrel, Henri Agut, Claire Deback, Marc Labetoulle
Recurrent herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is a leading infectious cause of blindness in industrialized countries. Antiviral prophylaxis (AVP) may fail to prevent recurrence of HSK due to viral resistance, inadequate dosing, or poor patient compliance. In this prospective multicenter study, we enrolled immunocompetent patients with recurrent HSK despite AVP. Ocular samples were tested by PCR for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 drug resistance was assessed with a genotypic assay based on UL23 and UL30 gene sequencing...
October 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903153/colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-expressing-cells-infiltrating-the-cornea-control-corneal-nerve-degeneration-in-response-to-hsv-1-infection
#5
Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Hem R Gurung, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Purpose: Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis, characterized by decreased or absent corneal sensation due to damage to the sensory corneal innervation. We previously reported the elicited immune response to infection contributes to the mechanism of corneal nerve regression/damage during acute HSV-1 infection. Our aim is to further establish the involvement of infiltrated macrophages in the mechanism of nerve loss upon infection. Methods: Macrophage Fas-Induced Apoptosis (MAFIA) transgenic C57BL/6 mice were systemically treated with AP20187 dimerizer or vehicle (VEH), and their corneas, lymph nodes, and blood were assessed for CD45+CD11b+GFP+ cell depletion by flow cytometry (FC)...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892949/corneal-collagen-cross-linking-for-treatment-of-bacterial-and-herpetic-keratitis
#6
Mohammad Reza Khalili, Hamid Reza Jahadi, Mashaallah Karimi, Masoud Yasemi
INTRODUCTION: Optimal management of infective keratitis is a formidable challenge and subject of ongoing studies. Recently, Collagen Cross-Linking (CXL) of the cornea has been considered to be a new effective therapeutic approach for resistant infectious keratitis. AIM: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CXL with Ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and riboflavin for treatment of the refractory bacterial and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) keratitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective interventional study, eight patients with diagnosis of infectious keratitis who were referred to Khalili Hospital eye emergency room, between 2014 and 2015 were included in the study...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710254/the-plasticity-and-stability-of-regulatory-t-cells-during-viral-induced-inflammatory-lesions
#7
Siddheshvar Bhela, Siva Karthik Varanasi, Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Sarah S Sloan, Naveen K Rajasagi, Barry T Rouse
Ocular infection with HSV causes a chronic T cell-mediated inflammatory lesion in the cornea. Lesion severity is affected by the balance of different CD4 T cell subsets, with greater severity occurring when the activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is compromised. In this study, fate-mapping mice were used to assess the stability of Treg function in ocular lesions. We show that cells that were once Foxp3(+) functional Tregs may lose Foxp3 and become Th1 cells that could contribute to lesion expression. The instability primarily occurred with IL-2R(lo) Tregs and was shown, in part, to be the consequence of exposure to IL-12...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688026/indications-and-graft-survival-analysis-in-optical-penetrating-keratoplasty-in-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india-a-5-year-study
#8
Sudesh Kumar Arya, Amit Raj, Ravi Kant Bamotra, Anubha Bhatti, Jyoti Deswal, Meenakshi Sindhu
PURPOSE: To study the indications and variables correlating with graft survival in optical penetrating keratoplasty in a tertiary care hospital in north India. PARTICIPANTS: All patients who underwent optical keratoplasty, except those undergoing lamellar grafts, tectonic grafts transplants and penetrating keratoplasty done for therapeutic purposes were included in the study. Patients with follow-up less than 2 years were excluded from the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained by reviewing the records of 101 patients who underwent optical penetrating keratoplasty from 2008 to 2013 for various indications...
July 7, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637763/analysis-of-herpes-simplex-virus-reactivation-in-explant-reveals-a-method-dependent-difference-in-measured-timing-of-reactivation
#9
Jessica R Doll, Nancy M Sawtell
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is widespread in the human population. Following orofacial infection, HSV establishes latency in innervating sensory neurons, primarily located in the trigeminal ganglia. A central feature of HSV pathogenesis is the ability to periodically reactivate in those neurons and be transported back to the body surface. Both transmission and disease, such as keratitis, encephalitis, and neurodegeneration, have been linked to reactivation. Despite invaluable insights obtained from model systems, interactions between viral and host functions that regulate reactivation are still incompletely understood...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591279/detection-of-herpes-simplex-1-and-2-and-varicella-zoster-virus-by-quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-corneas-from-patients-with-bacterial-keratitis
#10
Heloisa Nascimento, Aripuanã Watanabe, Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira, Andrea Pelegrini, Maria Cecília Yu, Paulo José Martins Bispo, Celso Francisco Hernandes Granato, Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima
Objective: Bacterial keratitis occurs worldwide, and despite recent developments, it remains a potentially blinding condition. This study assesses the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and -2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in corneal scrapings from patients with bacterial keratitis. Methods: A total of 65 patients with clinical diagnoses of infectious corneal ulcers prospectively underwent clinical eye examinations...
March 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584076/frontline-science-aspirin-triggered-resolvin-d1-controls-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-corneal-immunopathology
#11
Naveen K Rajasagi, Siddheshvar Bhela, Siva Karthik Varanasi, Barry T Rouse
Stromal keratitis (SK) is a chronic immunopathological lesion of the eye, caused by HSV-1 infection, and a common cause of vision impairment in humans. The inflammatory lesions in the cornea are primarily caused by neutrophils with the active participation of CD4(+) T cells. Therefore, the targeting of these immune cell types and their products represents a potentially valuable form of therapy to reduce the severity of disease. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its epimer aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) are lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and were shown to promote resolution in several inflammatory disease models...
November 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520594/amplivue-is-a-practical-and-timely-test-for-the-detection-of-hsv-from-keratitis-specimens
#12
Regis P Kowalski, Lisa M Karenchak, Deepinder K Dhaliwal, Alex Mammen
OBJECTIVE: The laboratory diagnostic detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from eye samples must be practical, timely, and definitive for appropriate therapy. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or cell culture can be definitive, HSV results can be delayed. Enzyme Linked Virus Inducible System (ELVIS) is a test that can provide results within 24 to 48 hr. We evaluated "AmpliVue HSV 1+2 Assay" as a molecular colorimetric test that can detect HSV (1 or 2) DNA within 1 hr. METHODS: Cornea/conjunctival samples were tested retrospectively with AmpliVue against 53 true-positive and 20 true-negative specimens collected in chlamydial transport medium...
May 16, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513490/coexistence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-in-microsporidial-stromal-keratitis-associated-with-granulomatous-inflammation
#13
Ruchi Mittal, Praveen K Balne, Srikant Sahu, Sujata Das, Savitri Sharma
BACKGROUND: Microsporidial stromal keratitis poses several diagnostic challenges. Patients may present with corneal ulceration, marked stromal thinning, or even as a quite corneal scar. The presentation of microsporidial stromal keratitis commonly mimics viral keratitis. Microbiology scrapings are usually helpful; however, scraping and culture-negative cases pose a significant diagnostic dilemma. Histopathological examination is diagnostic but shows varying degree of inflammation, predominantly composed of polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495905/long-term-outcomes-of-the-boston-type-i-keratoprosthesis-in-eyes-with-previous-herpes-simplex-virus-keratitis
#14
Melinda Fry, Carolina Aravena, Fei Yu, Jaffer Kattan, Anthony J Aldave
PURPOSE: To report the long-term outcomes of the Boston type I keratoprosthesis (Kpro) in eyes with prior herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective review of all Kpro procedures performed by a single surgeon from 1 May 2004 to 1 January 2015. RESULTS: 13 of 173 Kpro procedures were performed in 11 eyes with prior HSV keratitis. There was not a significant difference in the percentage of eyes with and without prior HSV keratitis with preoperative (9% vs 8%, p=1...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491875/understanding-the-role-of-chemokines-and-cytokines-in-experimental-models-of-herpes-simplex-keratitis
#15
REVIEW
Tayaba N Azher, Xiao-Tang Yin, Patrick M Stuart
Herpes simplex keratitis is a disease of the cornea caused by HSV-1. It is a leading cause of corneal blindness in the world. Underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown, but experimental models have helped give a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathology. Cytokines and chemokines are small proteins released by cells that play an important proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory role in modulating the disease process. Cytokines such as IL-17, IL-6, IL-1α, and IFN-γ and chemokines such as MIP-2, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β have proinflammatory role in the destruction caused by HSV including neutrophil infiltration and corneal inflammation, and other chemokines and cytokines such as IL-10 and CCL3 can have a protective role...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451758/the-evaluation-of-diagnostic-efficiency-for-stromal-herpes-simplex-keratitis-by-the-combination-of-tear-hsv-siga-and-hsv-dna
#16
Jini Qiu, Feifei Huang, Zhujian Wang, Jianjiang Xu, Chaoran Zhang
PURPOSE: To assess the differential diagnostic values for stromal herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) by using tear HSV-sIgA, tear HSV-DNA, and the combination. METHODS: Tear samples for both eyes and the paired serum were collected from 187 stromal HSK and 56 controls. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze the tear HSV-sIgA and serum IgG/IgM/IgA. The levels of tear HSV-DNA were measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The positive rates for tear HSV-sIgA and HSV-DNA were 36...
July 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386160/a%C3%A2-serious-adverse-surgical-event-management-of-suspected-hsv-1-keratitis-in-a%C3%A2-donor-cornea
#17
Rebecca Kaye, Bernhard Steger, Jern Y Chen, Vito Romano
PURPOSE: To describe the management of a serious adverse event in a patient undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PK). CASE REPORT: A 68-year-old man underwent PK for an aphakic bullous keratopathy following previous complicated cataract surgery. He had no past history of herpetic disease. Storage of the corneoscleral disc in the transport bottle precluded microscopic examination. After placement of the trephined donor cornea on the open eye of the recipient, a large dendritiform geographic ulcer was noted on the donor cornea...
2017: Spektrum der Augenheilkunde: Zeitschrift der Österreichischen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft, ÖOG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380101/the-outcome-of-penetrating-keratoplasty-for-corneal-scarring-due-to-herpes-simplex-keratitis
#18
Yesim Altay, Sema Tamer, Abdullah Sencer Kaya, Ozgur Balta, Ayse Burcu, Firdevs Ornek
Purpose: To determine the outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for treatment of corneal scarring caused by Herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis, and whether the corneal scar type affects treatment outcome. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent PK for HSV-related corneal scarring between January 2008 and July 2011 was performed. The patients were categorized into two groups. Group 1 consisted of patients with a quiescent herpetic corneal scar and group 2 consisted of patients who developed a corneal descemetocele or perforation secondary to persistent epithelial defects with no active stromal inflammation...
January 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378806/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-drives-and-maintains-progressive-corneal-neovascularization-following-hsv-1-infection
#19
H R Gurung, M M Carr, K Bryant, A J Chucair-Elliott, D Jj Carr
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea induces vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-dependent lymphangiogenesis that continues to develop well beyond the resolution of infection. Inflammatory leukocytes infiltrate the cornea and have been implicated to be essential for corneal neovascularization, an important clinically relevant manifestation of stromal keratitis. Here we report that cornea infiltrating leukocytes including neutrophils and T cells do not have a significant role in corneal neovascularization past virus clearance...
April 5, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374243/development-of-recombinant-hsv-based-vaccine-vectors
#20
Richard Voellmy, David C Bloom, Nuria Vilaboa, Joyce Feller
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes significant morbidity on the human population through such clinical syndromes as cold sores, genital herpes, herpes stromal keratitis, and encephalitis. Attempts to generate efficacious vaccines to date have failed. We have recently described the use of a conditionally replication-competent HSV-1 vector to immunize mice against a lethal challenge of HSV-1. The unique feature of this vaccine vector is that its replication is tightly controlled and can only occur in the presence of local heat and the presence of a small molecule inducer (an antiprogestin)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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