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HSV keratitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902849/oral-antivirals-for-preventing-recurrent-herpes-simplex-keratitis-in-people-with-corneal-grafts
#1
REVIEW
Uday K Bhatt, M N Abdul Karim, Jeremy I Prydal, Senthil V Maharajan, Usama Fares
BACKGROUND: Ocular herpes is a viral infection of the eye caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), a double-stranded DNA virus. Corneal scarring caused by herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is the leading infectious cause of penetrating corneal graft in high-income countries. Acyclovir is an antiviral drug known to have a protective effect against recurrences in herpetic eye disease. While there are some studies which have evaluated the effects of intervention with oral antiviral in preventing such recurrences in people with corneal grafts, a systematic review of all comparative clinical trials has not been previously undertaken...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867111/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-punica-granatum-l-pomegranate-rind-extracts-applied-topically-to-ex-vivo-skin
#2
David M J Houston, Joachim Bugert, Stephen P Denyer, Charles M Heard
Coadministered pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and zinc (II) produces a potent virucidal activity against Herpes simplex virus (HSV); however, HSV infections are also associated with localised inflammation and pain. Here, the objective was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and relative depth penetration of PRE, total pomegranate tannins (TPT) and zinc (II) in skin, ex vivo. PRE, TPT and ZnSO4 were dosed onto freshly excised ex vivo porcine skin mounted in Franz diffusion cells and analysed for COX-2, as a marker for modulation of the arachidonic acid inflammation pathway, by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798158/loss-of-neurokinin-1-receptor-alters-ocular-surface-homeostasis-and-promotes-an-early-development-of-herpes-stromal-keratitis
#3
Subhash Gaddipati, Pushpa Rao, Andrew David Jerome, Bala Bharathi Burugula, Norma P Gerard, Susmit Suvas
Substance P neuropeptide and its receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), are reported to present on the ocular surface. In this study, mice lacking functional NK1R exhibited an excessive desquamation of apical corneal epithelial cells in association with an increased epithelial cell proliferation and increased epithelial cell density, but decreased epithelial cell size. The lack of NK1R also resulted in decreased density of corneal nerves, corneal epithelial dendritic cells (DCs), and a reduced volume of basal tears...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746299/long-term-outcomes-of-pediatric-penetrating-keratoplasty-for-herpes-simplex-virus-keratitis
#4
Juan Carlos Serna-Ojeda, Denise Loya-Garcia, Alejandro Navas, Alejandro Lichtinger, Arturo Ramirez-Miranda, Enrique O Graue-Hernandez
PURPOSE: To analyze the characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients that underwent pediatric penetrating keratoplasty (PPK) for herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional, consecutive case series. METHODS: Observational report of outcomes and findings for 9 patients with history of HSV keratitis that underwent PPK and were followed in a single institution. Difference between the median preoperative and final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed and the outcomes are reported...
January 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688274/clinical-spectrum-diagnostic-criteria-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-of-aqueous-humor-in-viral-and-toxoplasma-detection-in-fuchs-uveitis-syndrome
#5
Swapnali Sabhapandit, Somasheila I Murthy, Praveen K Balne, Virender Singh Sangwan, V Sumanth, Ashok K Reddy
AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and diagnostic criteria of Fuchs' uveitis (FU) and to determine whether it has an association with virus and toxoplasma in the aqueous humor during cataract surgery. SETTING AND DESIGN: This is a prospective, case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with FU (n = 25), anterior uveitis (n = 15), and no uveitis (normal) (n = 50) were included based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria for all three groups...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681121/immune-and-nonimmune-compartment-specific-interferon-responses-are-critical-determinants-of-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-generalized-infections-and-acute-liver-failure
#6
Zachary M Parker, Tracy Jo Pasieka, George A Parker, David A Leib
: The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598973/treatment-of-refractory-acute-retinal-necrosis-with-intravenous-foscarnet-or-cidofovir
#7
Tomasz P Stryjewski, Nathan L Scott, Miriam B Barshak, Ellis H Tobin, Joshua J Mali, Lucy H Young, C Stephen Foster, Ivana K Kim, Marlene L Durand
PURPOSE: To report use of intravenous foscarnet or cidofovir for the treatment of refractory acute retinal necrosis (ARN). METHODS: Retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Four immunocompetent men aged 45-90 years presented with ARN from 2008-2014. One patient with two prior episodes of herpes simplex virus (HSV) ARN developed ARN after 6 years of antiviral prophylaxis. His condition worsened on acyclovir followed by intravenous foscarnet but responded to intravenous cidofovir (final VA in involved eye 20/20)...
September 6, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537375/volatile-organic-compound-gamma-butyrolactone-released-upon-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-acute-infection-modulated-membrane-potential-and-repressed-viral-infection-in-human-neuron-like-cells
#8
Kevin Rochford, Feng Chen, Yan Waguespack, Robert W Figliozzi, Madan K Kharel, Qiaojuan Zhang, Miguel Martin-Caraballo, S Victor Hsia
Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497323/il-6-contributes-to-corneal-nerve-degeneration-after-herpes-simplex-virus-type-i-infection
#9
Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Jeremy Jinkins, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis characterized by decreased corneal sensation because of damage to the corneal sensory fibers. We and others have reported regression of corneal nerves during acute HSV-1 infection. To determine whether denervation is caused directly by the virus or indirectly by the elicited immune response, mice were infected with HSV-1 and topically treated with dexamethasone (DEX) or control eye drops. Corneal sensitivity was measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer and nerve network structure via immunohistochemistry...
October 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362483/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-of-herpesviruses-limits-productive-and-latent-infections
#10
Ferdy R van Diemen, Elisabeth M Kruse, Marjolein J G Hooykaas, Carlijn E Bruggeling, Anita C Schürch, Petra M van Ham, Saskia M Imhof, Monique Nijhuis, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz, Robert Jan Lebbink
Herpesviruses infect the majority of the human population and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 causes cold sores and herpes simplex keratitis, whereas HSV-2 is responsible for genital herpes. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common viral cause of congenital defects and is responsible for serious disease in immuno-compromised individuals. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a broad range of malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin's disease, and post-transplant lymphomas...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306564/antiviral-resistance-in-herpes-simplex-virus-and-varicella-zoster-virus-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#11
Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aciclovir (ACV) is the first-line drug for the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Long-term administration of ACV for the treatment of severe infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to the development of drug resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of isolates resistant to ACV is increasingly recognized in immunocompetent individuals with herpetic keratitis. This review describes the mechanisms involved in drug resistance for HSV and VZV, the laboratory diagnosis and management of patients with infections refractory to ACV therapy...
June 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27275421/real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-the-diagnosis-of-necrotizing-herpes-stromal-keratitis
#12
Jun-Xin Ma, Lin-Nong Wang, Ru-Xia Zhou, Yang Yu, Tong-Xin Du
AIM: To design, optimize and validate a rapid, internally controlled real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the diagnosis of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis. METHODS: Tears alone or together with corneal epithelium scrapings from 30 patients (30 eyes) suspected of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis were tested for HSV DNA by RT-PCR. The samples were collected during the first visit and then on the subsequent 7, 14, 28, 42, and 56d...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262904/a-novel-rare-sugar-inhibitor-of-murine-herpes-simplex-keratitis
#13
Syed Muniruzzaman, Megan McIntosh, Ahamed Hossain, Ken Izumori, Partha S Bhattacharjee
PURPOSE: To determine the therapeutic efficacy of a novel rare sugar, l-psicose, for the treatment of HSV-1 induced herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) in a mouse eye model. METHODS: One rare sugar l-psicose was assayed for HSV-1 inhibition of in vitro virus adsorption. The IC50 and IC90 values of l-psicose were determined using plaque reduction assay (PRA) in CV-1 cell. Female Balb/c mice were corneally infected with HSV-1, strain KOS-GFP; A topical eye drop treatment of l-psicose was started 24 h after infection and continued four times daily for ten consecutive days...
June 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236644/clinical-and-corneal-microbial-profile-of-infectious-keratitis-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting-in-rural-south-africa
#14
E Schaftenaar, R P H Peters, G S Baarsma, C Meenken, N S Khosa, S Getu, J A McIntyre, A D M E Osterhaus, G M G M Verjans
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the clinical and corneal microbial profile of infectious keratitis in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence setting in rural South Africa. Data in this cross-sectional study were collected from patients presenting with symptoms of infectious keratitis (n = 46) at the ophthalmology outpatient department of three hospitals in rural South Africa. Corneal swabs were tested for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and adenovirus DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for bacteria and fungi by culture...
September 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221681/clinical-efficacy-of-oral-and-topical-acyclovir-in-herpes-simplex-virus-stromal-necrotizing-keratitis
#15
Surabhi Dutt, Manisha Acharya, Abha Gour, Neelam Sapra, Lokesh Chauhan, Umang Mathur
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of systemic and topical antiviral therapy in the treatment of active herpes simplex virus (HSV) necrotizing stromal keratitis (NSK). DESIGN: Prospective interventional case series. METHODOLOGY: Patients with a diagnosis of HSV NSK based on history and clinical findings were enrolled in the study. A standard protocol was used for microbiologic investigations. Ten weeks regime of systemic acyclovir and 2 weeks of topical acyclovir was given...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27191509/inhibition-of-clinical-pathogenic-herpes-simplex-virus-1-strains-with-enzymatically-created-sirna-pools
#16
Henrik Paavilainen, Jenni Lehtinen, Alesia Romanovskaya, Michaela Nygårdas, Dennis H Bamford, Minna M Poranen, Veijo Hukkanen
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen causing severe diseases such as encephalitis, keratitis, and neonatal herpes. There is no vaccine against HSV and the current antiviral chemotherapy fails to treat certain forms of the disease. Here we evaluated the antiviral activity of enzymatically-created small interfering (si)RNA pools against various pathogenic HSV strains as potential candidates for antiviral therapies. Pools of siRNA targeting 0.5-0.8 kbp of essential HSV genes UL54, UL29 or UL27 were enzymatically synthesized...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126382/a-diagnostic-method-for-herpes-simplex-keratitis-by-simultaneous-measurement-of-viral-dna-and-virus-specific-secretory-iga-in-tears-an-evaluation
#17
Jun Shoji, Tohru Sakimoto, Noriko Inada, Yuko Kamei, Masao Matsubara, Etsuko Takamura, Mitsuru Sawa
PURPOSE: We performed simultaneous measurement of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and of HSV-specific secretory IgA antibody (HSV-sIgA) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in tears obtained using Schirmer strips in order to investigate its diagnostic efficacy for herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). METHODS: A total of 59 affected eyes from 59 patients with clinically suspected HSK (HSK group) and 23 eyes from 23 healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study...
July 2016: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070108/a-central-role-for-sympathetic-nerves-in-herpes-stromal-keratitis-in-mice
#18
Hongmin Yun, Kira L Lathrop, Robert L Hendricks
PURPOSE: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotrophic virus that can cause herpes stromal keratitis (HSK), a severe corneal inflammation that can lead to corneal scarring and blindness. This study identified neurologic changes that occur in HSV-1-infected corneas and related them to HSV-1-induced immunopathology. METHODS: Corneas of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were infected with HSV-1 strains that induce HSK. Changes in sensory nerves were identified by immunofluorescence staining of sensory and sympathetic nerves for substance P (SP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), respectively, and confocal microscopic examination...
April 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050878/high-risk-corneal-graft-rejection-in-the-setting-of-previous-corneal-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-1-infection
#19
Lucia Kuffova, Jared E Knickelbein, Tian Yu, Carlos Medina, Guillermo Amescua, Alexander M Rowe, Robert L Hendricks, John V Forrester
PURPOSE: The "high-risk phenotype" of corneal graft recipients is considered to be related to preexisting vascularization such as that associated with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) keratitis (HSK). The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunologic mechanisms underlying accelerated corneal graft rejection using a mouse model of HSK. METHODS: Herpes simplex virus type 1 keratitis was induced in BALB/c mice. Syngeneic and allogeneic (C57BL/6 mice) corneal grafts were performed in mice with HSK at different times after infection...
April 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030264/a-highly-efficacious-herpes-simplex-virus-1-vaccine-blocks-viral-pathogenesis-and-prevents-corneal-immunopathology-via-humoral-immunity
#20
Derek J Royer, Hem R Gurung, Jeremy K Jinkins, Joshua J Geltz, Jennifer L Wu, William P Halford, Daniel J J Carr
UNLABELLED: Correlates of immunologic protection requisite for an efficacious herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) vaccine remain unclear with respect to viral pathogenesis and clinical disease. In the present study, mice were vaccinated with a novel avirulent, live attenuated virus (0ΔNLS) or an adjuvanted glycoprotein D subunit (gD-2) similar to that used in several human clinical trials. Mice vaccinated with 0ΔNLS showed superior protection against early viral replication, neuroinvasion, latency, and mortality compared to that of gD-2-vaccinated or naive mice following ocular challenge with a neurovirulent clinical isolate of HSV-1...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
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