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Fluid an electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205588/hypoxia-induced-angiotensin-ii-by-the-lactate-chymase-dependent-mechanism-mediates-radioresistance-of-hypoxic-tumor-cells
#1
Guozhu Xie, Ying Liu, Qiwei Yao, Rong Zheng, Lanfang Zhang, Jie Lin, Zhaoze Guo, Shasha Du, Chen Ren, Quan Yuan, Yawei Yuan
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a principal determinant of arterial blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance. RAS component dysregulation was recently found in some malignancies and correlated with poor patient outcomes. However, the exact mechanism of local RAS activation in tumors is still unclear. Here, we find that the local angiotensin II predominantly exists in the hypoxic regions of tumor formed by nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, where these tumor cells autocrinely produce angiotensin II by a chymase-dependent rather than an angiotensin converting enzyme-dependent mechanism...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190443/neurologic-manifestations-of-major-electrolyte-abnormalities
#2
M Diringer
The brain operates in an extraordinarily intricate environment which demands precise regulation of electrolytes. Tight control over their concentrations and gradients across cellular compartments is essential and when these relationships are disturbed neurologic manifestations may develop. Perturbations of sodium are the electrolyte disturbances that most often lead to neurologic manifestations. Alterations in extracellular fluid sodium concentrations produce water shifts that lead to brain swelling or shrinkage...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177854/risk-factors-for-30-day-hospital-re-admission-with-an-infectious-complication-after-lower-extremity-vascular-procedures
#3
Joseph C Melvin, Jamie B Smith, Robin L Kruse, Todd R Vogel
BACKGROUND: Lowering the 30-d re-admission rate after vascular surgery offers the potential to improve healthcare quality. This study evaluated re-admission associated with infections after open and endovascular lower extremity (LE) procedures for peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: Patients admitted for elective LE procedures for PAD were selected from the Cerner Health Facts(®) database. Chi-square analysis evaluated the characteristics of the index admission associated with infection at 30-d re-admission...
February 8, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174411/-primary-lung-cancer-associated-with-dilated-phase-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-report-of-a-case
#4
Takehiro Sakai, Takao Tsushima, Daisuke Kimura, Ryo Hatanaka, Masahiro Sawada, Yutaka Sato
A 66-year-old man diagnosed as dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (D-HCM) was pointed out an abnormal shadow on routine chest radiography. The patient had past medical history of hypertension, congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The computed tomography showed a 3.8 cm-sized tumor in the left lower lobe of the lung, and histopathological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma (cT2aN0-1M0, cStage I B-II A). Cardiosonography showed diffuse hypokinesis from basal to mid area, and ejection fraction was 36...
February 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167686/high-salt-diet-causes-osmotic-gradients-and-hyperosmolality-in-skin-without-affecting-interstitial-fluid-and-lymph
#5
Elham Nikpey, Tine V Karlsen, Natalia Rakova, Jens M Titze, Olav Tenstad, Helge Wiig
The common notion is that the body Na(+) is maintained within narrow limits for fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. Several studies have, however, shown that considerable amounts of Na(+) can be retained or removed from the body without commensurate water loss and that the skin can serve as a major salt reservoir. Our own data from rats have suggested that the skin is hypertonic compared with plasma on salt storage and that this also applies to skin interstitial fluid. Even small electrolyte gradients between plasma and interstitial fluid would represent strong edema-generating forces...
February 6, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160269/infections-in-cancer-patients-with-solid-tumors-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Kenneth V I Rolston
Solid tumors are much more common than hematologic malignancies. Although severe and prolonged neutropenia is uncommon, several factors increase the risk of infection in patients with solid tumors, and the presence of multiple risk factors in the same patient is not uncommon. These include obstruction (most often caused by progression of the tumor), disruption of natural anatomic barriers such as the skin and mucosal surfaces, and treatment-related factors such as chemotherapy, radiation, diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures, and the increasing use of medical devices such as various catheters, stents, and prostheses...
February 3, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160037/effect-of-comorbidities-on-the-association-between-age-and-hospital-mortality-after-fall-related-hip-fracture-in-elderly-patients
#7
A Padrón-Monedero, T López-Cuadrado, I Galán, E V Martínez-Sánchez, P Martin, R Fernández-Cuenca
: The relation between age and mortality after hip fracture was analyzed in elderly patients. 5.5% of the 31,884 patients died. Compared to those 65-74 years old, the multivariate OR for mortality for those 75-84 and ≥85 were 2.11 (95% CI: 1.61-2.77) and 4.10 (95% CI: 3.14-5.35). PURPOSE: To analyze the impact of Elixhauser comorbidities on the relation between age and mortality after hip fracture in elderly patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of the population ≥65 years old hospitalized in Spain in 2013 with a diagnosis of fall-related hip fracture in the Basic Minimum Set Data (BMSD)...
February 3, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123500/effects-of-low-dose-tolvaptan-on-electrolyte-abnormality-and-hemodynamic-parameters-in-a-liver-cirrhosis-associated-portopulmonary-hypertension-patient-a-case-report
#8
Yoshito Ogihara, Norikazu Yamada, Kaoru Dohi, Akimasa Matsuda, Satoshi Ota, Ken Ishikura, Mashio Nakamura, Masaaki Ito
The present study reported a case of portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) that was secondary to underlying liver cirrhosis in a 58-year-old woman, who was successfully treated with low-dose tolvaptan. The patient had suffered from refractory peripheral edema and electrolyte abnormalities, including severe hypokalemia, under the combination therapy of sildenafil, ambrisentan, furosemide and spironolactone. Subsequent to the initiation of low-dose tolvaptan at 3.75 mg/day with concurrent de-escalation of the dose of furosemide, the daily urine volume increased, peripheral edema improved and the serum potassium level increased immediately...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117000/vasopressin-and-related-peptides-potential-value-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-of-clinical-disorders
#9
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Tymoteusz Zera, Piotr Sosnowski, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Anna Puszko, Aleksandra Misicka
Vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors play a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. As a consequence, the vasopressin system has emerged as an important target for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in a number of medical conditions. Stoichiometric generation of AVP with copeptin, which is relatively accessible in the blood for measurements, makes copeptin a valuable surrogate of AVP. In this review, we present the regulation of release of AVP and activation of V1a, V1b, and V2 vasopressin receptors under physiological and pathological conditions...
January 19, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116714/dopaminergic-immunofluorescence-studies-in-kidney-tissue
#10
J J Gildea, R E Van Sciver, H E McGrath, B A Kemp, P A Jose, R M Carey, R A Felder
The kidney is a highly integrated system of specialized differentiated cells that are responsible for fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. While much of today's research focuses on isolated nephron segments or cells from nephron segments grown in tissue culture, an often overlooked technique that can provide a unique view of many cell types in the kidney is slice culture. Here, we describe techniques that use freshly excised kidney tissue from rats to perform a variety of experiments shortly after isolating the tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114128/intravenous-fluids-and-acute-kidney-injury
#11
Xiaoqiang Ding, Zhen Cheng, Qi Qian
Over 50% of the human body is comprised of fluids that are distributed in defined compartments. Although compartmentalized, these fluids are dynamically connected. Fluids, electrolytes, and acid-base balance in each compartment are tightly regulated, mostly in an energy-dependent manner to achieve their designed functions. For over a century, our understanding of the microvascular fluid homeostasis has evolved from hypothesized Ernest Starling principle to evidence-based and the revised Starling principle, incorporating the functional endothelial surface layer...
January 24, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108035/feline-hepatic-lipidosis
#12
REVIEW
Chiara Valtolina, Robert P Favier
Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies...
January 18, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105745/thin-soft-skin-mounted-microfluidic-networks-with-capillary-bursting-valves-for-chrono-sampling-of-sweat
#13
Jungil Choi, Daeshik Kang, Seungyong Han, Sung Bong Kim, John A Rogers
Systems for time sequential capture of microliter volumes of sweat released from targeted regions of the skin offer the potential to enable analysis of temporal variations in electrolyte balance and biomarker concentration throughout a period of interest. Current methods that rely on absorbent pads taped to the skin do not offer the ease of use in sweat capture needed for quantitative tracking; emerging classes of electronic wearable sweat analysis systems do not directly manage sweat-induced fluid flows for sample isolation...
January 20, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105603/resuscitation-fluid-composition-affects-hepatic-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-early-sepsis
#14
Amanda L Patrick, Peter M Grin, Nicole Kraus, Michelle Gold, Matthew Berardocco, Patricia C Liaw, Alison E Fox-Robichaud
BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation is a crucial therapy for sepsis, and the use of balanced fluids and/or isotonic albumin may improve patient survival. We have previously demonstrated that resuscitation with normal saline results in increased hepatic leukocyte recruitment in a murine model of sepsis. Given that clinical formulations of albumin are in saline, our objectives were to develop a novel balanced electrolyte solution specifically for sepsis and to determine if supplementing this solution with albumin would improve the inflammatory response in sepsis...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102316/electrolyte-sensing-transistor-decals-enabled-by-ultrathin-microbial-nanocellulose
#15
Jonathan D Yuen, Scott A Walper, Brian J Melde, Michael A Daniele, David A Stenger
We report an ultra-thin electronic decal that can simultaneously collect, transmit and interrogate a bio-fluid. The described technology effectively integrates a thin-film organic electrochemical transistor (sensing component) with an ultrathin microbial nanocellulose wicking membrane (sample handling component). As far as we are aware, OECTs have not been integrated in thin, permeable membrane substrates for epidermal electronics. The design of the biocompatible decal allows for the physical isolation of the electronics from the human body while enabling efficient bio-fluid delivery to the transistor via vertical wicking...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099643/balanced-crystalloids-for-septic-shock-resuscitation
#16
Thiago Domingos Corrêa, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Murillo Santucci Cesar de Assunção
Timely fluid administration is crucial to maintain tissue perfusion in septic shock patients. However, the question concerning which fluid should be used for septic shock resuscitation remains a matter of debate. A growing body of evidence suggests that the type, amount and timing of fluid administration during the course of sepsis may affect patient outcomes. Crystalloids have been recommended as the first-line fluids for septic shock resuscitation. Nevertheless, given the inconclusive nature of the available literature, no definitive recommendations about the most appropriate crystalloid solution can be made...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098465/rejection-of-commonly-used-electrolytes-in-asymmetric-flow-field-flow-fractionation-effects-of-membrane-molecular-weight-cutoff-size-fluid-dynamics-and-valence-of-electrolytes
#17
Thilak K Mudalige, Haiou Qu, Sean W Linder
Asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) is an efficient size-based separation technique for the characterization of submicron size particulates. In AF4, membranes having various molecular weight cutoff sizes are used as a barrier to retain particles while allowing the carrier fluid containing electrolytes to permeate. Here, we have hypothesized that electrolyte rejection by the barrier membrane leads to the accumulation of electrolytes in the channel during operation. Electrolyte accumulation can cause various adverse effects that can lead to membrane fouling...
January 31, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090366/bosutinib-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-practical-considerations-for-management-of-side-effects
#18
REVIEW
Patricia S Ault, John Rose PharmD, Lisa A Nodzon PhD, Elizabeth S Kaled
The past decade has witnessed great advances in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), brought about in large part by the development of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Bosutinib joins the armamentarium of approved TKIs for the treatment of chronic phase (CP), accelerated phase (AP), and blast phase (BP) Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive CML resistant to or intolerant of prior therapy. Bosutinib has an adverse-event (AE) profile distinct from that of other TKIs. Diarrhea is the predominant toxicity associated with bosutinib treatment; other commonly reported nonhematologic AEs include rash and liver enzyme elevations...
March 2016: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079789/the-impact-of-irrigating-fluid-absorption-on-blood-coagulation-in-patients-undergoing-transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate-a-prospective-observational-study-using-rotational-thromboelastometry
#19
Hyun-Jung Shin, Hyo-Seok Na, Young-Tae Jeon, Hee-Pyoung Park, Sun-Woo Nam, Jung-Won Hwang
Although endoscopic transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a well-established procedure as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia, its complications remain a concern. Among these, coagulopathy may be caused by the absorption of irrigating fluid. This study aimed to evaluate such phenomenon using a rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM).A total of 20 patients undergoing TURP participated in this study. A mixture of 2.7% sorbitol-0.54% mannitol solution and 1% ethanol was used as an irrigating fluid, and fluid absorption was measured via the ethanol concentration in expired breath...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073139/-influence-of-comorbidities-on-revision-rate-within-the-first-year-after-primary-total-hip-arthroplasty
#20
Roman Nesslage, Kerstin Radtke, Lisa Hohloch, Thilo Flörkemeier, Henning Windhagen, Gabriela von Lewinski
: Background Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is very frequently performed. Despite low complication rates, revisions play an important clinical and economical role. The aim of this study was to identify comorbid diseases of patients undergoing primary THA and their potential influence on the survival of hip replacements. Patients/Material and Methods A total of 867 patients were included in this retrospective study. All revisions were reviewed that took place at our hospital within one year of primary implantation of THA...
January 10, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
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