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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092812/%C3%AE-14-co2-from-dark-respiration-in-plants-and-its-impact-on-the-estimation-of-atmospheric-fossil-fuel-co2
#1
Xiaohu Xiong, Weijian Zhou, Peng Cheng, Shugang Wu, Zhenchuan Niu, Hua Du, Xuefeng Lu, Yunchong Fu, George S Burr
Radiocarbon ((14)C) has been widely used for quantification of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) in the atmosphere and for ecosystem source partitioning studies. The strength of the technique lies in the intrinsic differences between the (14)C signature of fossil fuels and other sources. In past studies, the (14)C content of CO2 derived from plants has been equated with the (14)C content of the atmosphere. Carbon isotopic fractionation mechanisms vary among plants however, and experimental study on fractionation associated with dark respiration is lacking...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092765/cytotoxic-genotoxic-and-mutagenic-evaluation-of-surface-waters-from-a-coal-exploration-region
#2
Cynthia Silva Porta, Débora Lemes Dos Santos, Hélio Vieira Bernardes, Bruno Corrêa Bellagamba, Anaí Duarte, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Fernanda Rabaioli da Silva, Mauricio Lehmann, Juliana da Silva, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Coal mining generates a considerable amount of waste, which is disposed of in piles or dams near mining sites. As a result, leachates may reach rivers and streams, promoting the wide dispersion of contaminants in solution and as particulate matter. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic action of surface waters collected around a thermoelectric power plant and the largest mining area in Brazil (Candiota). Four sites in Candiota stream were selected, and samples were collected in winter and summer...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092683/case-control-association-mapping-by-proxy-using-family-history-of-disease
#3
Jimmy Z Liu, Yaniv Erlich, Joseph K Pickrell
Collecting cases for case-control genetic association studies can be time-consuming and expensive. In some situations (such as studies of late-onset or rapidly lethal diseases), it may be more practical to identify family members of cases. In randomly ascertained cohorts, replacing cases with their first-degree relatives enables studies of diseases that are absent (or nearly absent) in the cohort. We refer to this approach as genome-wide association study by proxy (GWAX) and apply it to 12 common diseases in 116,196 individuals from the UK Biobank...
January 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092057/maternal-nonstandard-work-schedules-and-breastfeeding-behaviors
#4
Afshin Zilanawala
Objectives Although maternal employment rates have increased in the last decade in the UK, there is very little research investigating the linkages between maternal nonstandard work schedules (i.e., work schedules outside of the Monday through Friday, 9-5 schedule) and breastfeeding initiation and duration, especially given the wide literature citing the health advantages of breastfeeding for mothers and children. Methods This paper uses a population-based, UK cohort study, the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 17,397), to investigate the association between types of maternal nonstandard work (evening, night, away from home overnight, and weekends) and breastfeeding behaviors...
January 13, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091955/genome-wide-exploration-of-silicon-si-transporter-genes-lsi1-and-lsi2-in-plants-insights-into-si-accumulation-status-capacity-of-plants
#5
Recep Vatansever, Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit, Ertugrul Filiz, Nermin Gozukara
Silicon (Si) is a nonessential, beneficial micronutrient for plants. It increases the plant stress tolerance in relation to its accumulation capacity. In this work, root Si transporter genes were characterized in 17 different plants and inferred for their Si-accumulation status. A total of 62 Si transporter genes (31 Lsi1 and 31 Lsi2) were identified in studied plants. Lsi1s were 261-324 residues protein with a MIP family domain whereas Lsi2s were 472-547 residues with a citrate transporter family domain. Lsi1s possessed characteristic sequence features that can be employed as benchmark in prediction of Si-accumulation status/capacity of the plants...
January 13, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091770/relevance-of-surgery-in-patients-with-non-variceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#6
S Dango, T Beißbarth, E Weiss, A Seif Amir Hosseini, D Raddatz, V Ellenrieder, J Lotz, B M Ghadimi, A Beham
INTRODUCTION: Upper GI bleeding remains one of the most common emergencies with a substantial overall mortality rate of up to 30%. In severe ill patients, death does not occur due to failure of hemostasis, either medical or surgical, but mainly from comorbidities, treatment complications, and decreased tolerated blood loss. Management strategies have changed dramatically over the last two decades and include primarily endoscopic intervention in combination with acid-suppressive therapy and decrease in surgical intervention...
January 14, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091563/androgen-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-prostate-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#7
Hong Weng, Sheng Li, Jing-Yu Huang, Zi-Qi He, Xiang-Yu Meng, Yue Cao, Cheng Fang, Xian-Tao Zeng
Although the association between CAG and GGN repeats in the androgen receptor gene and prostate cancer risk has been widely studied, it remains controversial from previous meta-analyses and narrative reviews. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to provide more precise estimates with sufficient power. A total of 51 publications with 61 studies for CAG repeats and 14 publications with 16 studies for GGN repeats were identified in the meta-analysis. The results showed that short CAG repeats (<22 repeats) carriers presented an elevated risk of prostate cancer than long CAG repeats (≥22) carriers (OR = 1...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091177/waste-to-biofuel-production-of-biobutanol-from-sago-waste-residues
#8
D Johnravindar, Kumarasamy Murugesan, Jonathan W C Wong, N Elangovan
The main concern of extensive production of biobutanol has been associated with the high cost of the substrate and the relatively low tolerance of Clostridia to biobutanol production. In this study, the use of fermentable cassava waste residue (CWR) as substrate for biobutanol production was investigated using solvent tolerant Clostridium sp. Four of obligatory, solvent producing bacteria were isolated from sago industry waste sites. The NSW, PNAS1, SB5 and SBI4 strains showed identical profile of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of Bacillus coagulans, Clostridium bifermentans and Clostridium sp...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090731/addition-of-ezetimibe-to-statins-for-patients-at-high-cardiovascular-risk-systematic-review-of-patient-important-outcomes
#9
REVIEW
Yutong Fei, Gordon Henry Guyatt, Paul Elias Alexander, Regina El Dib, Reed A C Siemieniuk, Per Olav Vandvik, Mark E Nunnally, Huda Gomaa, Rebecca L Morgan, Arnav Agarwal, Ying Zhang, Neera Bhatnagar, Frederick A Spencer
Ezetimibe is widely used in combination with statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein. We sought to examine the impact of ezetimibe when added to statins on patient-important outcomes. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched through July, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ezetimibe combined with statins versus statins alone that followed patients for at least 6 months and reported on at least one of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, non-fatal myocardial infarctions (MI), and non-fatal strokes were included...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090672/a-powerful-statistical-framework-for-generalization-testing-in-gwas-with-application-to-the-hchs-sol
#10
Tamar Sofer, Ruth Heller, Marina Bogomolov, Christy L Avery, Mariaelisa Graff, Kari E North, Alex P Reiner, Timothy A Thornton, Kenneth Rice, Yoav Benjamini, Cathy C Laurie, Kathleen F Kerr
In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), "generalization" is the replication of genotype-phenotype association in a population with different ancestry than the population in which it was first identified. Current practices for declaring generalizations rely on testing associations while controlling the family-wise error rate (FWER) in the discovery study, then separately controlling error measures in the follow-up study. This approach does not guarantee control over the FWER or false discovery rate (FDR) of the generalization null hypotheses...
January 15, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090653/genome-wide-study-links-pnpla3-variant-with-elevated-hepatic-transaminase-after-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-therapy
#11
Yiwei Liu, Christian A Fernandez, Colton Smith, Wenjian Yang, Cheng Cheng, John C Panetta, Nancy Kornegay, Chengcheng Liu, Laura B Ramsey, Seth E Karol, Laura J Janke, Eric C Larsen, Naomi Winick, William L Carroll, Mignon L Loh, Elizabeth A Raetz, Stephen P Hunger, Meenakshi Devidas, Jun J Yang, Charles G Mullighan, Jinghui Zhang, William E Evans, Sima Jeha, Ching-Hon Pui, Mary V Relling
Remission induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) includes medications that may cause hepatotoxicity, including asparaginase. We used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify loci associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels after induction therapy in children with ALL enrolled on St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (SJCRH) protocols. Germline DNA was genotyped using arrays and exome sequencing. Adjusting for age, body mass index, ancestry, asparaginase preparation and dosage, the PNPLA3 rs738409 (C>G) I148M variant, previously associated with fatty liver disease risk, had the strongest genetic association with ALT (P = 2...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090608/elevated-expression-of-serine-threonine-phosphatase-type-5-correlates-with-malignant-proliferation-in-human-osteosarcoma
#12
Kun Han, Zhihua Gan, Shuchen Lin, Haiyan Hu, Zan Shen, Daliu Min
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in adolescents and young adults. However, the involvement of serine/threonine phosphatase type 5 (PP5) in osteosarcoma remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional role of PP5 in osteosarcoma cells. Firstly, we found that PP5 is widely expressed in several human osteosarcoma cell lines. Then we used lentivirus-delivered siRNA to silence PP5 expression in Saos-2 and U2OS cell lines. Knockdown of endogenous PP5 expression by shRNA-expressing lentivirus significantly decreased the viability and proliferation of the osteosarcoma cells...
January 13, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090565/thbs2-is-a-candidate-modifier-of-liver-disease-severity-in-alagille-syndrome
#13
Ellen A Tsai, Melissa A Gilbert, Christopher M Grochowski, Lara A Underkoffler, He Meng, Xiaojie Zhang, Michael M Wang, Hailu Shitaye, Kurt D Hankenson, David Piccoli, Henry Lin, Binita M Kamath, Marcella Devoto, Nancy B Spinner, Kathleen M Loomes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alagille syndrome is an autosomal-dominant, multisystem disorder caused primarily by mutations in JAG1, resulting in bile duct paucity, cholestasis, cardiac disease, and other features. Liver disease severity in Alagille syndrome is highly variable, however, factors influencing the hepatic phenotype are unknown. We hypothesized that genetic modifiers may contribute to the variable expressivity of this disorder. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of Caucasian subjects with known pathogenic JAG1 mutations, comparing patients with mild vs severe liver disease, followed by functional characterization of a candidate locus...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090093/upar-promotes-tumor-like-biologic-behaviors-of-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-through-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Yan Liu, Yun Feng Pan, You-Qiu Xue, Lin-Kai Fang, Xing-Hua Guo, Xin Guo, Meng Liu, Bi-Yao Mo, Meng-Ru Yang, Fang Liu, Yun-Ting Wu, Nancy Olsen, Song Guo Zheng
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), is a multifunctional receptor on cell surface, widely present in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and a variety of malignant cells. Current studies have suggested that uPAR overexpressed on synovial tissues or in synovial fluid or plasma in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, there are limited researches regarding the role of uPAR on fibroblast-like synoviocytes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA-FLSs) and its underlying mechanisms. Here, our studies show that the expression of uPAR protein was significantly higher in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from RA than those from osteoarthritis or traumatic injury patients...
January 16, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089900/the-rs4238326-polymorphism-in-aldh1a2-gene-potentially-associated-with-non-post-traumatic-knee-osteoarthritis-susceptibility-a-two-stage-population-based-study
#15
Minjie Chu, Xiaoyue Zhu, Chunli Wang, Jiesheng Rong, Yidan Wang, Shengyu Wang, Baifen Xing, Yuchun Tao, Xun Zhuang, Liying Jiang
OBJECTIVE: A recent genome-wide association study reported significant associations of genetic variants within the ALDH1A2 gene with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand in European populations. However, these findings have not been well generalized to other joints, or to other populations. METHODS: We performed a two-stage population-based case-control study including 196 non-post traumatic knee OA cases and 442 controls in the first stage and independent 143 non-post traumatic knee OA cases and 238 controls in the second stage in a Chinese population by genotyping 8 tagging polymorphisms in ALDH1A2...
January 12, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089773/mitochondrial-diseases-yeast-as-a-model-for-the-study-of-suppressors
#16
Silvia Francisci, Arianna Montanari
Mitochondrial (mt) tRNA gene mutations are an important cause of human morbidity and are associated with different syndromes. We have previously shown that the mitochondrial protein synthesis elongation factor EF-Tu and isolated sequences from the carboxy-terminal domain of yeast and human mt leucyl-tRNA synthetases (LeuRS), have a wide range of suppression capability among different yeast mt tRNA mutants having defective respiratory phenotype. Here we show that the rescuing capability can be restricted to a specific sequence of six amino acids from the carboxy-terminal domain of mt LeuRS...
January 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089695/the-pharmacology-of-tacrine-at-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors
#17
REVIEW
Martin Horak, Kristina Holubova, Eugenie Nepovimova, Jan Krusek, Martina Kaniakova, Jan Korabecny, Ladislav Vyklicky, Kamil Kuca, Ales Stuchlik, Jan Ricny, Karel Vales, Ondrej Soukup
The mechanism of tacrine as a precognitive drug has been considered to be complex and not fully understood. It has been reported to involve a wide spectrum of targets involving cholinergic, gabaergic, nitrinergic and glutamatergic pathways. Here, we review the effect of tacrine and its derivatives on the NMDA receptors (NMDAR) with a focus on the mechanism of action and biological consequences related to the Alzheimer's disease treatment. Our findings indicate that effect of tacrine on glutamatergic neurons is both direct and indirect...
January 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089652/hippocampal-prefrontal-connectivity-as-a-translational-phenotype-for-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Florian Bähner, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Finding novel biological targets in psychiatry has been difficult, partly because current diagnostic categories are not defined by pathophysiology and difficult to model in animals. The study of species-conserved systems-level mechanisms implicated in psychiatric disease could be a promising strategy to address some of these difficulties. Altered hippocampal-prefrontal (HC-PFC) connectivity during working memory (WM) processing is a candidate for such a translational phenotype as it has been repeatedly associated with impaired cognition in schizophrenia patients and animal models for psychiatric risk factors...
January 12, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089502/an-extended-fatty-liver-index-to-predict-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
K Kantartzis, I Rettig, H Staiger, J Machann, F Schick, L Scheja, A Gastaldelli, E Bugianesi, A Peter, M B Schulze, A Fritsche, H-U Häring, N Stefan
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, there is a strong interest in non-invasive markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our hypothesis was that the fold-change in plasma triglycerides (TG) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (fold-change TGOGTT) in concert with blood glucose and lipid parameters, and the rs738409 C>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PNPLA3 might improve the power of the widely used fatty liver index (FLI) to predict NAFLD. METHODS: The liver fat content of 330 subjects was quantified by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 12, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089486/molecular-genetics-of-human-obesity-a-comprehensive-review
#20
Rajan Kumar Singh, Permendra Kumar, Kulandaivelu Mahalingam
Obesity and its related health complications is a major problem worldwide. Hypothalamus and their signalling molecules play a critical role in the intervening and coordination with energy balance and homeostasis. Genetic factors play a crucial role in determining an individual's predisposition to the weight gain and being obese. In the past few years, several genetic variants were identified as monogenic forms of human obesity having success over common polygenic forms. In the context of molecular genetics, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) approach and their findings signified a number of genetic variants predisposing to obesity...
January 12, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
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