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Swine manure

Ranran Zhang, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Xun Qian, Manli Duan, Wei Sun, Yajun Zhang, Haichao Li, Yang Li
In this study, swine manure containing sulfachloropyridazine sodium (SCPS) and zinc was subjected to mesophilic (37°C) anaerobic digestion (AD). The absolute abundances (AAs) of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were evaluated, as well as intI1 and intI2, and the degradation of SCPS according to variation in the amount of bio-available zinc (bio-Zn). In digester that only contained SCPS, the concentrations of SCPS were lower than that digesters both contain SCPS and Zn. Compared with the control digester, the addition of SCPS increased the AAs of sul1, sul3, drfA1, and drfA7 by 1...
October 21, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Melvin T Yokoyama, Cheryl Spence, Susan M Hengemuehle, Terence R Whitehead, Robert von Bernuth, Michael Cotta
Emission of odorous and toxic gases from stored livestock manure is well documented and poses a serious health risk to farmers and livestock. Hydrogen sulfide emissions have been sharply rising with increasingly intensive livestock production and are of particular concern because of the acute toxicity of this gas. Numerous strategies, technologies, and chemical treatments have been used to control hydrogen sulfide emissions, but none have worked particularly well because they are neither cost-effective nor environmentally sustainable, or they are too toxic for animals...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Terence R Whitehead, Christelle Anoma, Richard W McLaughlin
Robinsoniella peoriensis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium initially isolated and characterized from swine manure and feces. Since then strains of this species have been identified from a variety of mammalian and other GI tracts. More recently strains of this species have been isolated from a plethora of human infections. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop methods to rapidly identify this microorganism in the medical and other laboratories. This report describes the use of PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of R...
November 24, 2016: Anaerobe
Gilbert R Patterson, Alicia H Mohr, Tim P Snider, Thomas A Lindsay, Peter R Davies, Tim J Goldsmith, Fernando Sampedro
In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States, local, state, and federal authorities will implement a foreign animal disease emergency response plan restricting the pork supply chain movements and likely disrupting the continuity of the swine industry business. To minimize disruptions of the food supply while providing an effective response in an outbreak, it is necessary to have proactive measures in place to ensure minimal disease spread and maximum continuation of business...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Kristin J Bondo, David L Pearl, Nicol Janecko, Patrick Boerlin, Richard J Reid-Smith, Jane Parmley, Claire M Jardine
Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to livestock, human and environmental health. Although resistant bacteria have been detected in wildlife, their role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance is not clear. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal and climatic factors associated with carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in raccoons and the environment. We collected samples from raccoon paws and feces and from soil, manure pit and dumpsters on five swine farms and five conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013 and tested them for E...
2016: PloS One
Wan-Ying Xie, Xin-Ping Yang, Qian Li, Long-Hua Wu, Qi-Rong Shen, Fang-Jie Zhao
The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China...
October 27, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Hongmei Jin, Caiyun Xu, Jing Du, Huashan Wu, Hongying Huang, Zhizhou Chang, Yueding Xu, Lixiang Zhou
The effects of hydraulic retention time (20 and 15 days) and swine manure to rice straw ratios on distribution of sulfonamides (SAs) in liquid and solid anaerobic digestates were studied using bench-scale completely stirred tank reactors at (37 ± 1) °C. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment exhibited a good removal effect on sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimidine (SM2) and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), especially at HRT = 20 days and co-digestion with swine manure and rice straw. The removal rates of SDZ and SM2 were more than 90%, but only 72...
October 31, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Suchawan Pornsukarom, Siddhartha Thakur
Land application of swine manure in commercial hog farms is an integral part of their waste management system which recycles the nutrients back to the soil. However, manure application can lead to the dissemination of bacterial pathogens in the environment and pose a serious public health threat. The aim of this study was to determine the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in the environment due to manure application in commercial swine farms in North Carolina (n = 6) and Iowa (n = 7), two leading pork producing states in the US...
2016: PloS One
Xue Zhou, Min Qiao, Feng-Hua Wang, Yong-Guan Zhu
The application of manure-based commercial organic fertilizers (COFs) is becoming increasingly extensive because of the expanding market for organic food. The present study examined the effects of repeated applications of chicken or swine manure-based COFs on the fate of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil by conducting a soil microcosm experiment. Application of COFs significantly increased antibiotics residues, as well as the relative abundance of ARGs and the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intΙ1) in soil...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M G Mostofa Amin, Christina Østerballe Pedersen, Anita Forslund, Tamie L Veith, Mette Laegdsmand
Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Weiwei Ben, Jian Wang, Xun Pan, Zhimin Qiang
This work investigated the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) encoding resistance to sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics in nine swine feedlots located in Shandong Province of China, and examined their potential removal by various on-farm treatment processes. Results indicate that the target ARGs were widely distributed in swine wastes, with mean relative abundances ranging from 3.3 × 10(-5) (tetC) to 5.2 × 10(-1) (tetO) in swine manure and from 7.3 × 10(-3) (tetC) to 1.7 × 10(-1) (tetO) in swine wastewater...
October 8, 2016: Chemosphere
Anna Vilajeliu-Pons, Lluis Bañeras, Sebastià Puig, Daniele Molognoni, Albert Vilà-Rovira, Elena Hernández-Del Amo, Maria D Balaguer, Jesús Colprim
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC)...
2016: PloS One
D Kumaragamage, O O Akinremi, G J Racz
The accumulation of phosphorus (P) and metals is a serious concern with the continuous application of manure to agricultural soils. Solid-liquid separation of swine slurry is a promising approach to reduce P and metal loadings through application of separated liquid (SL) as a nutrient source. However, little information is available on nutrient and metal loadings with the application of SL compared with unseparated raw manure (RM). We analyzed element concentrations and calculated nutrient and metal loadings for RM and their respective SL applications, considering an application rate of 100 kg total nitrogen (N) ha...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Bradd J Haley, Seon Woo Kim, Terence R Whitehead
The swine gastrointestinal tract and stored swine manure may serve as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, as well as sources of novel bacteria. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a novel taxon in the Erysipelotrichaceae family, isolated from a swine manure storage pit that is resistant to multiple antibiotics.
2016: Genome Announcements
Kristin J Bondo, David L Pearl, Nicol Janecko, Patrick Boerlin, Richard J Reid-Smith, Jane Parmley, Claire M Jardine
Salmonella has been detected in the feces of many wildlife species, including raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella in wildlife living in different habitat types. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal, and climatic factors associated with the carriage of Salmonella in raccoons and their environment on swine farms and conservation areas. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we collected fecal samples from raccoons and environmental samples (soil, manure pits, dumpsters) on 5 swine farms and 5 conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013...
2016: PloS One
M Fernandez-Lopez, G J Pedrosa-Castro, J L Valverde, L Sanchez-Silva
Due to the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the environmental issues derived from their use, biomass seems to be an excellent source of renewable energy. In this work, the kinetics of the pyrolysis and combustion of three different biomass waste samples (two dairy manure samples before (Pre) and after (Dig R) anaerobic digestion and one swine manure sample (SW)) was studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis. In this work, three iso-conversional methods (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS)) were compared with the Coats-Redfern method...
August 29, 2016: Waste Management
B N Roberts, R H Bailey, M R McLaughlin, J P Brooks
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to establish inactivation decay constants of foodborne pathogens and coliphage in clay and sandy soils for future "downstream" analyses such as quantitative microbial risk analysis and to compare cultivation-dependent and -independent (e.g. qPCR) methods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Clostridium perfringens, were seeded together with MS2 and ØX174 phages, into three waste matrices (Class B biosolids, swine lagoon effluent, cattle manure), and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as a control, and applied to two soil types (sandy loam, clay loam) using two management practices (incorporated, surface applied)...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Qin Zhao, Yang Wang, Shaolin Wang, Zheng Wang, Xiang-Dang Du, Haiyang Jiang, Xi Xia, Zhangqi Shen, Shuangyang Ding, Congming Wu, Bingrui Zhou, Yongning Wu, Jianzhong Shen
Florfenicol is extensively used in livestock to prevent or cure bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether the administration of florfenicol has resulted in the emergence and dissemination of florfenicol resistance genes (FRGs, including fexA, fexB, cfr, optrA, floR, and pexA) in microbial populations in surrounding farm environments. Here we collected soil samples for the detection of FRGs and the residue of florfenicol from six swine farms with the record of florfenicol usage. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing revealed a significantly higher relative abundance of FRGs in the soils adjacent to the three swine farms where florfenicol was heavily used compared with the other sites...
2016: Scientific Reports
Margaret Carrel, Sean G Young, Eric Tate
Given the primacy of Iowa in pork production for the U.S. and global markets, we sought to understand if the same relationship with traditional environmental justice (EJ) variables such as low income and minority populations observed in other concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) studies exists in the relationship with swine CAFO densities in Iowa. We examined the potential for spatial clustering of swine CAFOs in certain parts of the state and used spatial regression techniques to determine the relationships of high swine concentrations to these EJ variables...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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