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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932337/development-of-a-critical-appraisal-tool-to-assess-the-quality-of-cross-sectional-studies-axis
#1
Martin J Downes, Marnie L Brennan, Hywel C Williams, Rachel S Dean
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a critical appraisal (CA) tool that addressed study design and reporting quality as well as the risk of bias in cross-sectional studies (CSSs). In addition, the aim was to produce a help document to guide the non-expert user through the tool. DESIGN: An initial scoping review of the published literature and key epidemiological texts was undertaken prior to the formation of a Delphi panel to establish key components for a CA tool for CSSs...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924912/next-generation-systematics-an-innovative-approach-to-resolve-the-structure-of-complex-prokaryotic-taxa
#2
Vartul Sangal, Michael Goodfellow, Amanda L Jones, Edward C Schwalbe, Jochen Blom, Paul A Hoskisson, Iain C Sutcliffe
Prokaryotic systematics provides the fundamental framework for microbiological research but remains a discipline that relies on a labour- and time-intensive polyphasic taxonomic approach, including DNA-DNA hybridization, variation in 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic characteristics. These techniques suffer from poor resolution in distinguishing between closely related species and often result in misclassification and misidentification of strains. Moreover, guidelines are unclear for the delineation of bacterial genera...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915307/diversity-and-antifungal-drug-susceptibility-of-cryptococcus-isolates-in-thailand
#3
Navaporn Worasilchai, Marut Tangwattanachuleeporn, Kornvalee Meesilpavikkai, Claudia Folba, Mourine Kangogo, Uwe Groß, Michael Weig, Oliver Bader, Ariya Chindamporn
Yeasts of the Cryptococcus species complex are the causative agent of cryptococcosis, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals. Cerebral or disseminated cryptococcosis has a very high mortality rate worldwide, including in Thailand. Additionally, an increasing rate of antifungal drug resistant cryptococcal isolates has been reported in several neighboring countries, complicating therapeutic approaches. To understand the situation of this infection in Thailand, we retrospectively investigated the molecular epidemiology and antifungal drug resistance in a collection of 74 clinical, 52 environmental and two veterinary isolates using the URA5-RFLP for typing and the EUCAST guideline for susceptibility testing...
December 3, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886775/a-simple-fast-and-sensitive-screening-lc-esi-ms-ms-method-for-antibiotics-in-fish
#5
Letícia Rocha Guidi, Flávio Alves Santos, Ana Cláudia S R Ribeiro, Christian Fernandes, Luiza H M Silva, Maria Beatriz A Gloria
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a fast, sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the screening of six classes of antibiotics (aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, macrolides, quinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines) in fish. Samples were extracted with trichloroacetic acid. LC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 column and gradient elution using 0.1% heptafluorobutyric acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase...
January 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873478/methods-and-processes-of-developing-the-strengthening-the-reporting-of-observational-studies-in-epidemiology-veterinary-strobe-vet-statement
#6
J M Sargeant, A M O'Connor, I R Dohoo, H N Erb, M Cevallos, M Egger, A K Ersbøll, S W Martin, L R Nielsen, D L Pearl, D U Pfeiffer, J Sanchez, M E Torrence, H Vigre, C Waldner, M P Ward
The reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents many challenges that often are not adequately addressed in published reporting guidelines. A consensus meeting of experts was organized to develop an extension of the STROBE statement to address observational studies in veterinary medicine with respect to animal health, animal production, animal welfare and food safety outcomes. The consensus meeting was held 11-13 May 2014 in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Seventeen experts from North America, Europe and Australia attended the meeting...
November 22, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859753/methods-and-processes-of-developing-the-strengthening-the-reporting-of-observational-studies-in-epidemiology-veterinary-strobe-vet-statement
#7
J M Sargeant, A M O'Connor, I R Dohoo, H N Erb, M Cevallos, M Egger, A K Ersbøll, S W Martin, L R Nielsen, D L Pearl, D U Pfeiffer, J Sanchez, M E Torrence, H Vigre, C Waldner, M P Ward
BACKGROUND: Reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents challenges that often are not addressed in published reporting guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement that addresses unique reporting requirements for observational studies in veterinary medicine related to health, production, welfare, and food safety. DESIGN: Consensus meeting of experts...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836042/methods-and-processes-of-developing-the-strengthening-the-reporting-of-observational-studies-in-epidemiology-veterinary-strobe-vet-statement
#8
J M Sargeant, A M O'Connor, I R Dohoo, H N Erb, M Cevallos, M Egger, A K Ersbøll, S W Martin, L R Nielsen, D L Pearl, D U Pfeiffer, J Sanchez, M E Torrence, H Vigre, C Waldner, M P Ward
BACKGROUND: The reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents many challenges that often are not adequately addressed in published reporting guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement that addresses unique reporting requirements for observational studies in veterinary medicine related to health, production, welfare, and food safety. DESIGN: A consensus meeting of experts was organized to develop an extension of the STROBE statement to address observational studies in veterinary medicine with respect to animal health, animal production, animal welfare, and food safety outcomes...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836037/factors-affecting-chinese-broiler-farmers-main-preventive-practices-in-response-to-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza
#9
Zeying Huang, Di Zeng, Jimin Wang
Preventive practices are highly important in response to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). As biosecurity guidelines, HPAI vaccination, antiviral medication, farm cleaning and disinfection jointly focus on mitigating the risk of infectious pathogen spread, yet much less is known about the association between broiler farmer's socio-economic characteristics and their adoption decision of these preventive practices. The current study aims to bridge this gap using a nationally representative household survey of 331 Chinese chicken farm owners, among whom the practices are far from fully adopted (only 58% of the farmers adopt all four types)...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789857/dentistry-guidelines-aim-to-bridge-a-significant-gap-in-veterinary-education
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779921/an-interactive-teddy-bear-clinic-tour-teaching-veterinary-students-how-to-interact-with-young-children
#11
Jessica S Dalley, Patricia R Creary, Tiffany Durzi, C Meghan McMurtry
Although there are existing guidelines for teaching and learning skillful client communication, there remains a need to integrate a developmental focus into veterinary medical curricula to prepare students for interactions with children who accompany their companion animals. The objectives of this Teaching Tip are (1) to describe the use of a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour as an innovative, applied practice method for teaching veterinary students about clinical communication with children, and (2) to provide accompanying resources to enable use of this method to teach clinical communication at other facilities...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774745/repeatability-and-reliability-of-glomerular-filtration-rate-determination-via-gamma-camera-uptake-of-tc-99m-dtpa-in-cats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Amy E Felumlee, Angela J Marolf, Elissa K Randall, Annette M Bachand, Jessica M Quimby
Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) via gamma camera uptake of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid is a standard method for quantifying renal function. Aims of this retrospective, observer agreement study were to determine intra- and interobserver variation in GFR values for cats with chronic kidney disease and to determine whether renal insufficiency classification changed between observers. Guideline cut-points were established for the difference in repeated GFRs to differentiate changes caused by therapeutic effect vs...
October 23, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752455/results-of-extended-plant-tests-using-more-realistic-exposure-scenarios-for-improving-environmental-risk-assessment-of-veterinary-pharmaceuticals
#13
Elisabeth Richter, Silvia Berkner, Ina Ebert, Bernhard Förster, Nadin Graf, Monika Herrchen, Ute Kühnen, Jörg Römbke, Markus Simon
BACKGROUND: Residues of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) enter the environment via application of manure onto agricultural areas where in particular antibiotics can cause phytotoxicity. Terrestrial plant tests according to OECD guideline 208 are part of the environmental risk assessment of VMPs. However, this standard approach might not be appropriate for VMPs which form non-extractable residues or transformation products in manure and manure-amended soil. Therefore, a new test design with a more realistic exposure scenario via manure application is needed...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733792/semi-quantitative-digital-analysis-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-electrophoresis-gel-potential-applications-in-low-income-veterinary-laboratories
#14
John F Antiabong, Mafora G Ngoepe, Adakole S Abechi
AIM: The interpretation of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay results is often limited to either positive or negative (non-detectable). The more robust quantitative PCR (qPCR) method is mostly reserved for quantitation studies and not a readily accessible technology in laboratories across developing nations. The aim of this study was to evaluate a semi-quantitative method for conventional PCR amplicons using digital image analysis of electrophoretic gel. The potential applications are also discussed...
September 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726988/effects-of-common-equine-endocrine-diseases-on-reproduction
#15
REVIEW
Teresa A Burns
Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720116/multi-residue-analysis-of-pesticides-plant-hormones-veterinary-drugs-and-mycotoxins-using-hilic-chromatography-ms-ms-in-various-food-matrices
#16
G P Danezis, C J Anagnostopoulos, K Liapis, M A Koupparis
One of the recent trends in Analytical Chemistry is the development of economic, quick and easy hyphenated methods to be used in a field that includes analytes of different classes and physicochemical properties. In this work a multi-residue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 28 xenobiotics (polar and hydrophilic) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography technique (HILIC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. The scope of the method includes plant growth regulators (chlormequat, daminozide, diquat, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat, paraquat), pesticides (cyromazine, the metabolite of the fungicide propineb PTU (propylenethiourea), amitrole), various multiclass antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides quinolones, kasugamycin and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A)...
October 26, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697349/sustainable-use-of-veterinary-pharmaceuticals-on-the-territory-sust-pharm-linking-available-database-of-manure-management-and-environmental-fate-models
#17
Andrea Di Guardo, Antonio Finizio
Analogously to the evolution of the EU legislation on pesticides, there is an increasing need of strategies aiming to reach a "sustainable use of veterinary pharmaceuticals". To this end, it is essential to develop tools, such as supporting information systems (SIS), for managing the environmental risks of veterinary pharmaceuticals on a territorial scale. In this context, we propose Sust-PHarm (SUSTainable use of veterinary Pharmaceuticals), a SIS useful to identify groundwater vulnerable areas to veterinary pharmaceuticals at both local and regional scale...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689948/professional-veterinary-programs-perceptions-and-experiences-pertaining-to-emotional-support-animals-and-service-animals-and-recommendations-for-policy-development
#18
Regina Schoenfeld-Tacher, Lori R Kogan
Given the unique nature of programs in professional veterinary medicine (PVM), the increasing numbers of students requesting accommodations for emotional support animals (ESAs) in higher education settings is of growing interest to student affairs and administrative staff in PVM settings. Since the legislation pertaining to this type of support animal differs from the laws governing disability service animals, colleges and universities now need to develop new policies and guidelines. Representatives from a sample of 28 PVM programs completed a survey about the prevalence of student requests for ESAs and service animals...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687946/evaluation-of-different-sampling-methods-and-criteria-for-diagnosing-canine-urinary-tract-infection-by-quantitative-bacterial-culture
#19
T M Sørensen, A B Jensen, P Damborg, C R Bjørnvad, L Guardabassi, L R Jessen
The use of voided urine specimens for bacteriological culture in dogs is discouraged because contamination from external genitalia could lead to misinterpretation of laboratory results. Quantitative culturing and defining significant bacteriuria could increase the usefulness of voided specimens. However, limited evidence exists for the cut-offs currently recommended. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of current veterinary cut-off values for significant bacteriuria in voided canine urine. A secondary aim was to investigate if accuracy improved when applying qualitative criteria used in humans...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681933/the-impact-of-item-writing-flaws-and-item-complexity-on-examination-item-difficulty-and-discrimination-value
#20
Bonnie R Rush, David C Rankin, Brad J White
BACKGROUND: Failure to adhere to standard item-writing guidelines may render examination questions easier or more difficult than intended. Item complexity describes the cognitive skill level required to obtain a correct answer. Higher cognitive examination items promote critical thinking and are recommended to prepare students for clinical training. This study evaluated faculty-authored examinations to determine the impact of item-writing flaws and item complexity on the difficulty and discrimination value of examination items used to assess third year veterinary students...
September 29, 2016: BMC Medical Education
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