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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343239/improved-full-length-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-transcript-discovery-in-mauritian-cynomolgus-macaques
#1
Trent M Prall, Michael E Graham, Julie A Karl, Roger W Wiseman, Adam J Ericsen, Muthuswamy Raveendran, R Alan Harris, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Jeffrey Rogers, David H O'Connor
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) modulate disease progression of pathogens including HIV, malaria, and hepatitis C. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are widely used as nonhuman primate models to study human pathogens, and so, considerable effort has been put into characterizing their KIR genetics. However, previous studies have relied on cDNA cloning and Sanger sequencing that lack the throughput of current sequencing platforms. In this study, we present a high throughput, full-length allele discovery method utilizing Pacific Biosciences circular consensus sequencing (CCS)...
March 25, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343059/internal-cycling-not-external-loading-decides-the-nutrient-limitation-in-eutrophic-lake-a-dynamic-model-with-temporal-bayesian-hierarchical-inference
#2
Zhen Wu, Yong Liu, Zhongyao Liang, Sifeng Wu, Huaicheng Guo
Lake eutrophication is associated with excessive anthropogenic nutrients (mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) and unobserved internal nutrient cycling. Despite the advances in understanding the role of external loadings, the contribution of internal nutrient cycling is still an open question. A dynamic mass-balance model was developed to simulate and measure the contributions of internal cycling and external loading. It was based on the temporal Bayesian Hierarchical Framework (BHM), where we explored the seasonal patterns in the dynamics of nutrient cycling processes and the limitation of N and P on phytoplankton growth in hyper-eutrophic Lake Dianchi, China...
March 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343015/systemic-delivery-of-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-gene-to-tumors-by-a-novel-dual-dna-nanocomplex-in-a-nanoparticle-system
#3
Vasundhara Shukla, Manu Dalela, Manika Vij, Munia Ganguli, Ralph Weichselbaum, Surender Kharbanda, Donald Kufe, Harpal Singh
Many cancers fail to respond to immunotherapy as a result of immune suppression by the tumor microenvironment. The exogenous expression of immune cytokines to reprogram the tumor microenvironment represents an approach to circumvent this suppression. The present studies describe the development of a novel dual nanoparticle (DNP) system for driving DNA expression vectors encoding inflammatory cytokines in tumor cells. The DNP system consists of a DNA expression vector-cationic nanocomplex (NC) surrounded by a diblock polymeric NP...
March 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342906/citation-analysis-a-new-approach-to-assess-the-uptake-of-core-outcome-sets
#4
Karen L Barnes, Jamie J Kirkham, Mike Clarke, Paula R Williamson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate citation analysis as an approach to measuring core outcome set (COS) uptake, by assessing whether the number of citations for a COS report could be used as a surrogate measure of uptake of the COS by clinical trialists. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Citation data were obtained for COS reports published before 2010 in five disease areas (systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, eczema, sepsis and critical care, and female sexual dysfunction). Those publications identified as a report of a clinical trial were examined to identify whether or not all outcomes in the COS were measured in the trial...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340333/the-randomized-crm-an-approach-to-overcoming-the-long-memory-property-of-the-crm
#5
Joseph S Koopmeiners, Andrew Wey
The primary object of a Phase I clinical trial is to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Typically, the MTD is identified using a dose-escalation study, where initial subjects are treated at the lowest dose level and subsequent subjects are treated at progressively higher dose levels until the MTD is identified. The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a popular model-based dose-escalation design, which utilizes a formal model for the relationship between dose and toxicity to guide dose finding. Recently, it was shown that the CRM has a tendency to get "stuck" on a dose level, with little escalation or de-escalation in the late stages of the trial, due to the long-memory property of the CRM...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339135/integrated-models-to-support-multiobjective-ecological-restoration-decisions
#6
Hannah Fraser, Libby Rumpff, Jian D L Yen, Doug Robinson, Brendan A Wintle
Many objectives motivate ecological restoration including improving vegetation condition, increasing the range and abundance of threatened species, and improving aggregate measures of biodiversity such as richness and diversity. While ecological models have been used to examine the outcomes of ecological restoration, there are few attempts to develop models to account for multiple, potentially competing objectives. We develop the first predictive model that integrates a vegetation-focused state-and-transition model with species distribution models for birds...
March 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338706/estimating-mean-change-in-population-salt-intake-using-spot-urine-samples
#7
Kristina S Petersen, Jason H Y Wu, Jacqui Webster, Carley Grimes, Mark Woodward, Caryl A Nowson, Bruce Neal
Background: : Spot urine samples are easier to collect than 24-h urine samples and have been used with estimating equations to derive the mean daily salt intake of a population. Whether equations using data from spot urine samples can also be used to estimate change in mean daily population salt intake over time is unknown. We compared estimates of change in mean daily population salt intake based upon 24-h urine collections with estimates derived using equations based on spot urine samples...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338696/polymer-confined-growth-of-perforated-mose2-single-crystals-on-n-doped-graphene-toward-enhanced-hydrogen-evolution
#8
Minghao Zhuang, Yao Ding, Xuewu Ou, Zhengtang Luo
The edge and corner atoms of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are the main electrocatalytically active sites for electrochemical reaction. Here, we demonstrate an approach to generate abundant edge/corner atoms in molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) nanocrystals supported by nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) which consequently leads to significantly enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity. These structures were fabricated by firstly absorbing the Mo-containing precursor within polymer-functionalized graphene oxide, then selenized to obtain MoSe2 nanocrystals on the surface, and finally H2 etching was performed to form perforated structures...
March 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337712/mandatory-publications-an-approach-to-kill-lack-of-will-or-lack-of-skill
#9
Neelam Dehal, Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan, Amarjeet Singh
The issue of 'mandatory publications' has generated serious flak about its usefulness among the various stakeholders. A lot of debate centers around the question of 'lack of will' or 'lack of skill' as a reason for the diminishing research interests among the medical faculty in India. In our view, it is the lack of will to publish good quality research which is to be blamed rather than the lack of skill to do good quality research.
March 23, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337200/metabolic-hallmarks-of-tumor-and-immune-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#10
REVIEW
Kathrin Renner, Katrin Singer, Gudrun E Koehl, Edward K Geissler, Katrin Peter, Peter J Siska, Marina Kreutz
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells play an important role in eliminating malignant tumor cells and the number and activity of tumor-infiltrating T cells represent a good marker for tumor prognosis. Based on these findings, immunotherapy, e.g., checkpoint blockade, has received considerable attention during the last couple of years. However, for the majority of patients, immune control of their tumors is gray theory as malignant cells use effective mechanisms to outsmart the immune system. Increasing evidence suggests that changes in tumor metabolism not only ensure an effective energy supply and generation of building blocks for tumor growth but also contribute to inhibition of the antitumor response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336611/self-assembly-of-genetically-encoded-dna-protein-hybrid-nanoscale-shapes
#11
Florian Praetorius, Hendrik Dietz
We describe an approach to bottom-up fabrication that allows integration of the functional diversity of proteins into designed three-dimensional structural frameworks. A set of custom staple proteins based on transcription activator-like effector proteins folds a double-stranded DNA template into a user-defined shape. Each staple protein is designed to recognize and closely link two distinct double-helical DNA sequences at separate positions on the template. We present design rules for constructing megadalton-scale DNA-protein hybrid shapes; introduce various structural motifs, such as custom curvature, corners, and vertices; and describe principles for creating multilayer DNA-protein objects with enhanced rigidity...
March 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336398/modulation-of-mammary-tumor-vascularization-by-mast-cells-ultrasonographic-and-histopathological-approaches
#12
Ana I Faustino-Rocha, Adelina Gama, Paula A Oliveira, Katrien Vanderperren, Jimmy H Saunders, Maria J Pires, Rita Ferreira, Mário Ginja
AIMS: The inhibition of mast cells' degranulation may be an approach to prevent the formation of new vessels during the mammary carcinogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups. Mammary tumors were induced by intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals from group II were treated with ketotifen for 18weeks immediately after the MNU administration, while animals from group III only received the ketotifen after the development of the first mammary tumor...
March 20, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335779/activity-of-amp2041-against-human-and-animal-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-isolates
#13
Clotilde Silvia Cabassi, Andrea Sala, Davide Santospirito, Giovanni Loris Alborali, Edoardo Carretto, Giovanni Ghibaudo, Simone Taddei
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to public health. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a relevant pathogen causing human and animal infections, frequently displaying high levels of resistance to commonly used antimicrobials. The increasing difficulty to develop new effective antibiotics have discouraged investment in this area and only a few new antibiotics are currently under development. An approach to overcome antibiotic resistance could be based on antimicrobial peptides since they offer advantages over currently used microbicides...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333823/committee-opinion-no-695-sterilization-of-women-ethical-issues-and-considerations
#14
(no author information available yet)
Sterilization is the most common method of contraception among married couples, with nearly twice as many couples choosing female partner sterilization over male sterilization. Although sterilization is among the most straightforward surgical procedures an obstetrician-gynecologist performs, it is enormously complex when considered from a historical, sociological, or ethical perspective. Sterilization practices have embodied a problematic tension, in which some women who desired fertility were sterilized without their knowledge or consent, and other women who wanted sterilization to limit their family size lacked access to it...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333815/committee-opinion-no-695-summary-sterilization-of-women-ethical-issues-and-considerations
#15
(no author information available yet)
Sterilization is the most common method of contraception among married couples, with nearly twice as many couples choosing female partner sterilization over male sterilization. Although sterilization is among the most straightforward surgical procedures an obstetrician-gynecologist performs, it is enormously complex when considered from a historical, sociological, or ethical perspective. Sterilization practices have embodied a problematic tension, in which some women who desired fertility were sterilized without their knowledge or consent, and other women who wanted sterilization to limit their family size lacked access to it...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333649/multi-scale-rotation-invariant-convolutional-neural-networks-for-lung-texture-classification
#16
Qiangchang Wang, Yuanjie Zheng, Gongping Yang, Weidong Jin, Xinjian Chen, Yilong Yin
We propose a new Multi-scale Rotation-invariant Convolutional Neural Network (MRCNN) model for classifying various lung tissue types on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). MRCNN employs Gabor-local binary pattern (Gabor-LBP) which introduces a good property in image analysis - invariance to image scales and rotations. In addition, we offer an approach to deal with the problems caused by imbalanced number of samples between different classes in most of the existing works, accomplished by changing the overlapping size between the adjacent patches...
March 21, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333434/measurement-of-in-vivo-protein-binding-affinities-in-a-signaling-network-with-mass-spectrometry
#17
Mumun Gencoglu, Alexander Schmidt, Attila Becskei
Protein interaction networks play a key role in signal processing. Despite the progress in identifying the interactions, the quantification of their strengths lags behind. Here we present an approach to quantify the in vivo binding of proteins to their binding partners in signaling-transcriptional networks, by the pairwise genetic isolation of each interaction and by varying the concentration of the interacting components over time. The absolute quantification of the protein concentrations was performed with targeted mass spectrometry...
March 23, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332654/vp1-sequencing-protocol-for-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-molecular-epidemiology
#18
N J Knowles, J Wadsworth, K Bachanek-Bankowska, D P King
Nucleotide sequences of field strains of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) contribute to our understanding of the distribution and evolution of viral lineages that circulate in different regions of the world. This paper outlines a practical reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing strategy that can be used to generate RNA sequences encoding the VP1 (1D) region of FMDV. The protocol contains a panel of PCR and sequencing primers that can be selected to characterise genetically diverse isolates representing all seven FMDV serotypes...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331494/an-approach-to-macroscopic-central-lymph-nodes-detected-during-surgery-in-patients-with-thyroid-micropapillary-carcinoma-should-we-resort-to-dissection
#19
Osman Kurukahvecioglu, Kursat Dikmen, Hasan Bostanci, Murat Akin, Ferit Taneri
Background. High-resolution ultrasonography and the ability to perform fine-needle aspiration biopsy even for nodules smaller than three millimeters have considerably increased the detection rate of thyroid micropapillary carcinoma (TMPC). Despite favorable prognosis, the prevalence of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with TMPC is approximately 30%. Aim. In this study, we aimed to determine the central lymph node metastasis rate and its relation to the characteristics of the tumor. Methods. One hundred nine patients who underwent surgery due to TMPC between December 2009 and January 2014 were analyzed retrospectively...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329800/characterizing-readiness-for-advance-care-planning-from-the-perspective-of-residents-families-and-clinicians-an-interpretive-descriptive-study-in-supportive-living
#20
Marta Shaw, Jennifer Hewson, David B Hogan, Shelley Raffin Bouchal, Jessica Simon
Background and Objectives: Advance care planning (ACP) involves reflection on health care preferences and communication of the person's wishes in case of future incapacity. ACP is particularly pertinent in supportive living (SL) as residents are at high risk of cognitive decline and changes in health status, but the readiness of residents, families, and health care practitioners to engage in ACP discussions is not known. The purpose of this study was to explore the readiness among these stakeholders and the factors that influence the degree of readiness...
February 18, 2017: Gerontologist
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