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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920437/developing-a-scalable-artificial-photosynthesis-technology-through-nanomaterials-by-design
#1
Nathan S Lewis
An artificial photosynthetic system that directly produces fuels from sunlight could provide an approach to scalable energy storage and a technology for the carbon-neutral production of high-energy-density transportation fuels. A variety of designs are currently being explored to create a viable artificial photosynthetic system, and the most technologically advanced systems are based on semiconducting photoelectrodes. Here, I discuss the development of an approach that is based on an architecture, first conceived around a decade ago, that combines arrays of semiconducting microwires with flexible polymeric membranes...
December 6, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919885/-i-have-to-live-with-the-decisions-i-make-laying-a-foundation-for-decision-making-for-children-with-life-limiting-conditions-and-life-threatening-illnesses
#2
REVIEW
Myra Bluebond-Langner, Darren Hargrave, Ellen M Henderson, Richard Langner
The relationship between parents and clinician is critical to the care and treatment of children with life-limiting conditions (LLCs) and life-threatening illnesses (LTIs). This relationship is built and maintained largely in consultations. In this article we lay out factors that bear on the success of clinical consultations and the maintenance of the essential clinician-parent relationship at progression or deterioration of LLCs or LTIs. We suggest an approach to engaging parents in conversations about care and treatment that recognises and appreciates the dilemmas which clinicians and parents face and in so doing provides a way for everyone to live with the decisions that are made...
December 5, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918409/a-system-approach-to-advanced-practice-clinician-standardization-and-high-reliability
#3
Susan Okuno-Jones, Alice Siehoff, Jennifer Law, Patricia Juarez
Advanced practice clinicians (APCs) are an integral part of the health care team. Opportunities exist within Advocate Health Care to standardize and optimize APC practice across the system. To enhance the role and talents of APCs, an approach to role definition and optimization of practice and a structured approach to orientation and evaluation are shared. Although in the early stages of development, definition and standardization of accountabilities in a framework to support system changes are transforming the practice of APCs...
January 2017: Nursing Administration Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916539/inhibiting-the-sumo-pathway-represses-the-cancer-stem-cell-population-in-breast-and-colorectal-carcinomas
#4
Maria V Bogachek, Jung M Park, James P De Andrade, Allison W Lorenzen, Mikhail V Kulak, Jeffrey R White, Vivian W Gu, Vincent T Wu, Ronald J Weigel
Many solid cancers have an expanded CD44(+/hi)/CD24(-/low) cancer stem cell (CSC) population, which are relatively chemoresistant and drive recurrence and metastasis. Achieving a more durable response requires the development of therapies that specifically target CSCs. Recent evidence indicated that inhibiting the SUMO pathway repressed tumor growth and invasiveness, although the mechanism has yet to be clarified. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of the SUMO pathway repressed MMP14 and CD44 with a concomitant reduction in cell invasiveness and functional loss of CSCs in basal breast cancer...
November 24, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916363/tipping-the-scales-educating-surgeons-about-medical-malpractice
#5
Steven E Raper, Johncy Joseph, Wilda G Seymour, Patricia G Sullivan
BACKGROUND: In Pennsylvania, medical malpractice premiums are a major cost to surgeons. Yet surgeons often have little if any education in the basics of tort litigation or how to manage their risk. This work describes one approach for educating academic faculty surgeons on current concepts of medical malpractice and provide some guidance on how to "tip the scales of justice"; or minimize the risks of being named in a malpractice claim. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The course had five parts: the basics of medical malpractice, the cost of malpractice insurance, current departmental claims experience, strategies for decreasing the risk of being named in a claim, and an overview of malpractice reforms...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914061/probing-oligomerized-conformations-of-defensin-in-the-membrane
#6
Wenxun Gan, Dina Schneidman, Ning Zhang, Buyong Ma, Ruth Nussinov
Computational prediction and design of membrane protein-protein interactions facilitate biomedical engineering and biotechnological applications. Due to their antimicrobial activity, human defensins play an important role in the innate immune system. Human defensins are attractive pharmaceutical targets due to their small size, broad activity spectrum, reduced immunogenicity, and resistance to proteolysis. Protein engineering based modification of defensins can improve their pharmaceutical properties. Here we present an approach to computationally probe defensins' oligomerization states in the membrane...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913079/rash-decisions-an-approach-to-dangerous-rashes-based-on-morphology
#7
Jamie Santistevan, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Rash is a common complaint in the emergency department. Many causes of rash are benign; however, some patients may have a life-threatening diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This review will present an algorithmic approach to rashes, focusing on life-threatening causes of rash in each category. DISCUSSION: Rash is common, with a wide range of etiologies. The differential is broad, consisting of many conditions that are self-resolving. However, several conditions associated with rash are life threatening...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912912/passive-air-sampling-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-and-emerging-compounds-in-kolkata-megacity-and-rural-mangrove-wetland-sundarban-in-india-an-approach-to-regional-monitoring
#8
Karla Pozo, Santosh Kumar Sarkar, Victor H Estellano, Soumita Mitra, Ondrej Audi, Petr Kukucka, Petra Přibylová, Jana Klánová, Simonetta Corsolini
Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers were deployed concurrently at five sites across Kolkata megacity and the rural mangrove wetland of Sundarban (UNESCO World Heritage Site) between January-March in 2014. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltricholoroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Derived air concentrations (pg/m(3)) for Kolkata ranged: for ∑α- and γ-HCH between 70 and 207 (114 ± 62), ∑6DDTs: 127-216 (161 ± 36), ∑7PCBs: 53-213 (141 ± 64), and ∑10PBDEs: 0...
November 29, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911216/validation-of-antibody-reagents-for-mucin-analysis-in-chronic-inflammatory-airway-diseases
#9
Thorsten Krause, Niels Röckendorf, Karoline I Gaede, Katrin Ramaker, Heike Sinnecker, Andreas Frey
In chronic inflammatory airway diseases, mucins display disease-related alterations in quantity, composition and glycosylation. This opens the possibility to diagnose and monitor inflammatory airway disorders and their exacerbation based on mucin properties. For such an approach to be reasonably versatile and diagnostically meaningful, the mucin of interest must be captured in a reliable, patient-independent way. To identify appropriate mucin-specific reagents, we tested anti-mucin antibodies on mucin-content-standardized, human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples in immunoblot assays...
December 2, 2016: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911047/modified-mrna-as-a-therapeutic-tool-to-induce-cardiac-regeneration-in-ischemic-heart-disease
#10
REVIEW
Yoav Hadas, Michael G Katz, Charles R Bridges, Lior Zangi
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Current pharmacological and interventional therapies provide significant improvement in the life quality of patient; however, they are mostly symptom-oriented and not curative. A high disease and economic burden of IHD requires the search for new therapeutic strategies to significantly improve patients' prognosis and quality of life. One of the main challenges during IHD is the massive loss of cardiomyocytes that possess minimal regenerative capacity...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910826/enhancing-radiotherapy-for-lung-cancer-using-immunoadjuvants-delivered-in-situ-from-new-design-radiotherapy-biomaterials-a-preclinical-study
#11
Yao Hao, Sayeda Yasmin-Karim, Michele Moreau, Neeharika Sinha, Erno Sajo, Wilfred Ngwa
Studies show that radiotherapy of a primary tumor in combination with immunoadjuvants (IA) can result in increased survival or immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However, toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of IA have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. To minimize the toxicities and prime a more potent immune response, Ngwa et al have proposed that inert radiotherapy biomaterials such as fiducials could be upgraded to multifunctional ones loaded with IA for in situ delivery directly into the tumor sub-volume at no additional inconvenience to patients...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910789/methoxyflavones-from-new-lingzhi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lingzhi-agaricomycetes
#12
Kuniyoshi Shimizu, Yhiya M Amen, Satoru Kaifuchi
Ganoderma lingzhi is one of the most famous medicinal fungi in the world. It has been used in folk medicine, especially in East Asian countries. It is also a white-rot fungus with strong wood degradation ability, especially against lignin. Different classes of bioactive natural products have been reported in Ganoderma, including triterpenes, polysaccharides, sterols, and peptides. The triterpenes and polysaccharides are the primary bioactive compounds of Ganoderma. We report for the first time the presence of 3 methoxyflavones as minor constituents in G...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909440/introgressing-subgenome-components-from-brassica-rapa-and-b-carinata-to-b-juncea-for-broadening-its-genetic-base-and-exploring-intersubgenomic-heterosis
#13
Zili Wei, Meng Wang, Shihao Chang, Chao Wu, Peifa Liu, Jinling Meng, Jun Zou
Brassica juncea (A(j)A(j)B(j)B(j)), is an allotetraploid that arose from two diploid species, B. rapa (A(r)A(r)) and B. nigra (B(n)B(n)). It is an old oilseed crop with unique favorable traits, but the genetic improvement on this species is limited. We developed an approach to broaden its genetic base within several generations by intensive selection. The A(r) subgenome from the Asian oil crop B. rapa (A(r)A(r)) and the B(c) subgenome from the African oil crop B. carinata (B(c)B(c)C(c)C(c)) were combined in a synthesized allohexaploid (A(r)A(r)B(c)B(c)C(c)C(c)), which was crossed with traditional B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906772/an-approach-to-lumbar-revision-spine-surgery-in-adults
#14
Stanley R Askin, S Samuel Bederman, Vu H Le, Sohrab Pahlavan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906450/lovtrap-a-versatile-method-to-control-protein-function-with-light
#15
Hui Wang, Klaus M Hahn
We describe a detailed procedure for the use of LOVTRAP, an approach to reversibly sequester and release proteins from cellular membranes using light. In the application described here, proteins that act at the plasma membrane are held at mitochondria in the dark, and reversibly released by irradiation. The technique relies on binding of an engineered Zdk domain to a LOV2 domain, with affinity <30 nM in the dark and >500 nM upon irradiation between 400 and 500 nm. LOVTRAP can be applied to diverse proteins, as it requires attaching only one member of the Zdk/LOV2 pair to the target protein, and the other to the membrane where the target protein is to be sequestered...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906211/simultaneous-generation-of-multiple-perfect-polarization-vortices-with-selective-spatial-states-in-various-diffraction-orders
#16
Shiyao Fu, Chunqing Gao, Tonglu Wang, Shikun Zhang, Yanwang Zhai
We demonstrate an approach to generate multiple perfect polarization vortices (PPVs) with selective spatial polarization distribution in various diffraction orders. The key is the design of a hologram with an anisotropic polarization diffraction grating. In the experiment, a setup consisting of two spatial light modulators is built. By encoding the specially designed holograms, PPVs with various states are obtained in different diffraction orders simultaneously, for instance, in radial and azimuthal polarized states...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906043/exosomes-play-an-important-role-in-the-process-of-psoralen-reverse-multidrug-resistance-of-breast-cancer
#17
Xiaohong Wang, Chengfeng Xu, Yitong Hua, Leitao Sun, Kai Cheng, Zhongming Jia, Yong Han, Jianli Dong, Yuzhen Cui, Zhenlin Yang
BACKGROUND: Release of exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in drug resistance by delivering cargo. Targeting the transfer of exosomes from resistant cells to sensitive cells may be an approach to overcome some cases of drug resistance. METHOD: In this study, we investigated the potential role of exosomes in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation of culture media from MCF-7/ADR cells (ADR/exo) and MCF-7 parental cells (S/exo)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904052/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#18
Yinggai Song, Yi Ren, Xiaowen Wang, Ruoyu Li
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a prototypical opportunistic pathogen, causing an asymptomatic or mild infection in normal hosts and fulminating pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia, PCP) in immunocompromised hosts. PCP is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as AIDS patients. Microscopic detection of cysts and trophic forms of P. jirovecii in respiratory secretions is simple and useful but may underestimate the P. jirovecii infection. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR increase the sensitivity and specificity to identify PCP and provide an approach to discriminate PCP from pulmonary P...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903137/consumer-outcomes-after-implementing-commonground-as-an-approach-to-shared-decision-making
#19
Michelle P Salyers, Sadaaki Fukui, Kelsey A Bonfils, Ruth L Firmin, Lauren Luther, Rick Goscha, Charles A Rapp, Mark C Holter
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined consumer outcomes before and after implementing CommonGround, a computer-based shared decision-making program. METHODS: Consumers with severe mental illness (N=167) were interviewed prior to implementation and 12 and 18 months later to assess changes in active treatment involvement, symptoms, and recovery-related attitudes. Providers also rated consumers on level of treatment involvement. RESULTS: Most consumers used CommonGround at least once (67%), but few used the program regularly...
December 1, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903035/the-inherited-chronic-pain-patient
#20
Paul Grinzi
BACKGROUND: The 'inherited' patient, where a patient switches to a new doctor, is a common and potentially challenging scenario, especially where drugs of dependence are involved. There are few resources to guide general practitioners (GPs) with an approach that ensures compassion and rational clinical decision-making. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to guide GPs in an approach to taking over the care of an inherited patient and focuses on considerations of rational prescribing...
December 2016: Australian Family Physician
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