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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098820/applying-human-adar1p110-and-adar1p150-for-site-directed-rna-editing-g-c-substitution-stabilizes-guidernas-against-editing
#1
Madeleine Heep, Pia Mach, Philipp Reautschnig, Jacqueline Wettengel, Thorsten Stafforst
Site-directed RNA editing is an approach to reprogram genetic information at the RNA level. We recently introduced a novel guideRNA that allows for the recruitment of human ADAR2 to manipulate genetic information. Here, we show that the current guideRNA design is already able to recruit another human deaminase, ADAR1, in both isoforms, p110 and p150. However, further optimization seems necessary as the current design is less efficient for ADAR1 isoforms. Furthermore, we describe hotspots at which the guideRNA itself is edited and show a way to circumvent this auto-editing without losing editing efficiency at the target...
January 14, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098434/method-for-the-unique-identification-of-hyperelastic-material-properties-using-full-field-measures-application-to-the-passive-myocardium-material-response
#2
Luigi E Perotti, Aditya V Ponnaluri, Shankarjee Krishnamoorthi, Daniel Balzani, Daniel B Ennis, William S Klug
Quantitative measurement of the material properties (e.g., stiffness) of biological tissues is poised to become a powerful diagnostic tool. There are currently several methods in the literature to estimating material stiffness and we extend this work by formulating a framework that leads to uniquely identified material properties. We design an approach to work with full field displacement data - i.e., we assume the displacement field due to the applied forces is known both on the boundaries and also within the interior of the body of interest - and seek stiffness parameters that lead to balanced internal and external forces in a model...
January 18, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098166/inferring-centrality-from-network-snapshots
#3
Haibin Shao, Mehran Mesbahi, Dewei Li, Yugeng Xi
The topology and dynamics of a complex network shape its functionality. However, the topologies of many large-scale networks are either unavailable or incomplete. Without the explicit knowledge of network topology, we show how the data generated from the network dynamics can be utilised to infer the tempo centrality, which is proposed to quantify the influence of nodes in a consensus network. We show that the tempo centrality can be used to construct an accurate estimate of both the propagation rate of influence exerted on consensus networks and the Kirchhoff index of the underlying graph...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097919/performance-of-methods-for-estimating-the-effect-of-covariates-on-group-membership-probabilities-in-group-based-trajectory-models
#4
Christopher E Davies, Lynne C Giles, Gary Fv Glonek
One purpose of a longitudinal study is to gain insight of how characteristics at earlier points in time can impact on subsequent outcomes. Typically, the outcome variable varies over time and the data for each individual can be used to form a discrete path of measurements, that is a trajectory. Group-based trajectory modelling methods seek to identify subgroups of individuals within a population with trajectories that are more similar to each other than to trajectories in distinct groups. An approach to modelling the influence of covariates measured at earlier time points in the group-based setting is to consider models wherein these covariates affect the group membership probabilities...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097779/the-mcgill-interactive-pediatric-oncogenetic-guidelines-an-approach-to-identifying-pediatric-oncology-patients-most-likely-to-benefit-from-a-genetic-evaluation
#5
Catherine Goudie, Hallie Coltin, Leora Witkowski, Stephanie Mourad, David Malkin, William D Foulkes
Identifying cancer predisposition syndromes in children with tumors is crucial, yet few clinical guidelines exist to identify children at high risk of having germline mutations. The McGill Interactive Pediatric OncoGenetic Guidelines project aims to create a validated pediatric guideline in the form of a smartphone/tablet application using algorithms to process clinical data and help determine whether to refer a child for genetic assessment. This paper discusses the initial stages of the project, focusing on its overall structure, the methodology underpinning the algorithms, and the upcoming algorithm validation process...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097693/distinguishing-between-biochemical-and-cellular-function-are-there-peptide-signatures-for-cellular-function-of-proteins
#6
Shruti Jain, Kausik Bhattacharyya, Rachit Bakshi, Ankita Narang, Vani Brahmachari
The genome annotation and identification of gene function depends on conserved biochemical activity. However, in the cell, proteins with the same biochemical function can participate in different cellular pathways and cannot complement one another. Similarly, two proteins of very different biochemical functions are put in the same class of cellular function; for example, the classification of a gene as an oncogene or a tumour suppressor gene is not related to its biochemical function, but is related to its cellular function...
January 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095135/respirator-use-among-us-farm-operators-with-asthma-results-from-the-2011-farm-and-ranch-safety-survey
#7
Megan L Casey, Jacek M Mazurek
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the national prevalence of respirator use among farm operators with farm work-related asthma and factors associated with respirator use. METHODS: The authors examined the 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey, a national survey collected from 11,210 actively farming farm operators in the United States. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPORs) of respirator use were calculated by demographic characteristics, farm characteristics, asthma characteristics and selected exposures and hazards...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095048/an-approach-to-using-data-mining-to-support-early-identification-of-acromegaly
#8
Michael S Broder, Eunice Chang, Sheila R Reddy, Maureen P Neary
OBJECTIVE: Data mining using insurance claims presents an opportunity to incorporate new analytic techniques in identifying rare conditions. This study aims to identify dyads of clinical conditions associated with acromegaly that may, with further validation and testing, be used to initially identify and diagnose this rare disease more accurately and efficiently. METHODS: This case-control study used two claims databases to identify acromegaly patients (cases) (ICD-9-CM: 253...
January 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094509/harvesting-ambient-vibration-energy-over-a-wide-frequency-range-for-self-powered-electronics
#9
Xiaofeng Wang, Simiao Niu, Fang Yi, Yajiang Yin, Chenglong Hao, Keren Dai, Yue Zhang, Zheng You, Zhong Lin Wang
Vibration is one of the most common energy sources in ambient environment. Harvesting vibration energy is a promising route to sustainably drive small electronics. This work introduces an approach to scavenge vibrational energy over a wide frequency range as an exclusive power source for continuous operation of electronics. An elastic multiunit triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is rationally designed to efficiently harvest low-frequency vibration energy, which can provide a maximum instantaneous output power density of 102 W·m(-3) at as low as 7 Hz and maintain its stable current outputs from 5 to 25 Hz...
January 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094497/an-approach-to-fabricate-pdms-encapsulated-all-solid-state-advanced-asymmetric-supercapacitor-device-with-vertically-aligned-hierarchical-zn%C3%AF-fe%C3%AF-co-ternary-oxide-nanowire-and-nitrogen-doped-graphene-nanosheet-for-high-power-device-applications
#10
Anirban Maitra, Amit Kumar Das, Ranadip Bera, Sumanta Kumar Karan, Sarbaranjan Paria, Suman Kumar Si, Bhanu Bhusan Khatua
Here, we highlight the design and fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) encapsulated advanced all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device consisting of hierarchical mesoporous zincironcobalt ternary oxide (ZICO) nanowire coated nickel (Ni) foam (ZICO@Ni foam) as a promising positive electrode and nitrogen doped graphene coated Ni foam (N-G@Ni foam) as negative electrode in presence of PVAKOH gel electrolyte. Owing to outstanding electrochemical behavior and ultrahigh specific capacitance of ZICO (≈ 2587...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094220/molecular-docking-discovery-synthesis-and-pharmacological-properties-of-new-6-substituted-2-3-phenoxyphenyl-4-phenyl-quinoline-derivatives-an-approach-to-developing-potent-dna-gyrase-inhibitors-antibacterial-agents
#11
Manikandan Alagumuthu, Sivakumar Arumugam
Synthesis and molecular validation of 6-substituted-2-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-4-phenylquinoline derivatives (4a-h) as antibacterial/DNA gyrase inhibitors reported. Primarily, 6-substituted-2-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-4-phenylquinoline derivatives were docked into the active sites of DNA gyrase A&B, to ensure the binding mode of the compounds, and the results were superior on DNA gyrase A over DNA gyrase B. Based on this, S. aureus DNA gyrase A assay was proposed and executed. Most prominent DNA gyrase inhibition showed by 6-fluoro-2-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-4-phenylquinoline (4c), IC50 0...
January 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089346/detection-of-unusual-very-long-chain-fatty-acid-and-ether-lipid-derivatives-in-the-fibroblasts-and-plasma-of-patients-with-peroxisomal-diseases-using-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#12
Shigeo Takashima, Kayoko Toyoshi, Takahiro Itoh, Naomi Kajiwara, Ayako Honda, Akiko Ohba, Shoko Takemoto, Satoshi Yoshida, Nobuyuki Shimozawa
Metabolic changes occur in patients with peroxisomal diseases owing to impairments in the genes involved in peroxisome function. For diagnostic purposes, saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) such as C24:0 and C26:0, phytanic acid, pristanic acid, and plasmalogens are often measured as metabolic hallmarks. As the direct pathology of peroxisomal disease is yet to be fully elucidated, we sought to explore the fatty acid species that accumulate in patients with peroxisomal diseases. We developed a method for detecting a range of fatty acids implicated in peroxisomal diseases such as Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD)...
January 7, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088442/the-in-vivo-fate-of-nanocrystals
#13
REVIEW
Yi Lu, Jianping Qi, Xiaochun Dong, Weili Zhao, Wei Wu
There has been significant research interest in, and development of, nanocrystals in recent years for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs via various routes. However, there is a common misinterpretation of nanocrystallization as an approach to modulate, and more specifically to enhance, the dissolution of drug crystals. Nevertheless, it is possible for nanocrystals to interact with biological tissues because nanocrystals can survive for a longer duration in vivo compared with XXXX. Therefore, understanding the in vivo fate of nanocrystals and determining its contribution to XXXX is of tremendous significance for optimizing the performance of nanocrystals...
January 11, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087158/echocardiographic-approach-to-cardiac-tamponade-in-critically-ill-patients
#14
REVIEW
Peter McCanny, Frances Colreavy
Cardiac tamponade should be considered in a critically ill patient in whom the cause of haemodynamic shock is unclear. When considering tamponade, transthoracic echocardiography plays an essential role and is the initial investigation of choice. Diagnostic sensitivity of transthoracic echocardiography is dependent on image quality, and in some cases a transoesophageal approach may be required to confirm the diagnosis. Knowledge of the pathophysiology and echocardiographic features of cardiac tamponade are essential for the practicing Intensivist...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079754/ultrasound-guided-needle-technique-accuracy-prospective-comparison-of-passive-magnetic-tracking-versus-unassisted-echogenic-needle-localization
#15
Angela N Johnson, Jeffery S Peiffer, Nahi Halmann, Luke Delaney, Cindy A Owen, Jeff Hersh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia facilitates an approach to sensitive targets such as nerve clusters without contact or inadvertent puncture. We compared accuracy of needle placement with a novel passive magnetic ultrasound needle guidance technology (NGT) versus conventional ultrasound (CU) with echogenic needles. METHODS: Sixteen anesthesiologists and 19 residents performed a series of 16 needle insertion tasks each, 8 using NGT (n = 280) and 8 using CU (n = 280), in high-fidelity porcine phantoms...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078804/a-low-protein-diet-induces-body-weight-loss-and-browning-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-through-enhanced-expression-of-hepatic-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21
#16
Albert Pérez-Martí, Maite Garcia-Guasch, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Alexandra Carrilho-Do-Rosário, Ramon Estruch, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Rosa Lamuela-Raventós, Pedro F Marrero, Diego Haro, Joana Relat
SCOPE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity. Since FGF21 production is regulated by various nutritional factors, we analyze the impact of low protein intake on circulating levels of this growth hormone in mice and in a sub cohort of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. We also describe the role of hepatic FGF21 in metabolic adaptation to a low-protein diet (LPD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We fed control and liver-specific Fgf21 knockout (LFgf21KO) mice a LPD...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075375/an-approach-to-biometric-verification-based-on-human-body-communication-in-wearable-devices
#17
Jingzhen Li, Yuhang Liu, Zedong Nie, Wenjian Qin, Zengyao Pang, Lei Wang
In this paper, an approach to biometric verification based on human body communication (HBC) is presented for wearable devices. For this purpose, the transmission gain S21 of volunteer's forearm is measured by vector network analyzer (VNA). Specifically, in order to determine the chosen frequency for biometric verification, 1800 groups of data are acquired from 10 volunteers in the frequency range 0.3 MHz to 1500 MHz, and each group includes 1601 sample data. In addition, to achieve the rapid verification, 30 groups of data for each volunteer are acquired at the chosen frequency, and each group contains only 21 sample data...
January 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074781/mechanically-tunable-sub-10-nm-metal-gap-by-stretching-pdms-substrate
#18
Wenjie Liu, Yang Shen, Guohui Xiao, Xiaoyi She, Jianfang Wang, Chongjun Jin
Manipulating light in sub-10 nm or subnanometer metal nanogaps is crucial to study the strong interaction between electromagnetic waves and matters. However, the fabrication of metallic nanogaps with precisely controlled size and high-throughput still remains a challenge. Here, we developed an approach to actively control the gap distance between adjacent metal nanoparticles from 140 nm to sub-10 nm or even 0 nm via mechanical stretching process. To demonstrate this method, we manufactured the gold disk arrays in a square lattice on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate through interference lithography and gold deposition, and sub-10 nm interparticle gap was achieved as exerting a strain of 100% to the PDMS substrate...
January 11, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073474/challenges-for-mapping-cyanotoxin-patterns-from-remote-sensing-of-cyanobacteria
#19
REVIEW
Richard P Stumpf, Timothy W Davis, Timothy T Wynne, Jennifer L Graham, Keith A Loftin, Thomas H Johengen, Duane Gossiaux, Danna Palladino, Ashley Burtner
Using satellite imagery to quantify the spatial patterns of cyanobacterial toxins has several challenges. These challenges include the need for surrogate pigments - since cyanotoxins cannot be directly detected by remote sensing, the variability in the relationship between the pigments and cyanotoxins - especially microcystins (MC), and the lack of standardization of the various measurement methods. A dual-model strategy can provide an approach to address these challenges. One model uses either chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) or phycocyanin (PC) collected in situ as a surrogate to estimate the MC concentration...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072412/glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-gene-sets-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-association-to-overlapping-traits-in-adhd-and-autism
#20
J Naaijen, J Bralten, G Poelmans, J C Glennon, B Franke, J K Buitelaar
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often co-occur. Both are highly heritable; however, it has been difficult to discover genetic risk variants. Glutamate and GABA are main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain; their balance is essential for proper brain development and functioning. In this study we investigated the role of glutamate and GABA genetics in ADHD severity, autism symptom severity and inhibitory performance, based on gene set analysis, an approach to investigate multiple genetic variants simultaneously...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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