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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428907/palliative-care-in-huntington-disease-personal-reflections-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Christopher G Tarolli, Amy M Chesire, Kevin M Biglan
BACKGROUND: Huntington disease is a fatal, autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder manifest by the triad of a movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and dementia. At present, no curative or disease modifying therapies exist for the condition and current treatments are symptomatic. Palliative care is an approach to care that focuses on symptom relief, patient and caregiver support, and end of life care. There is increasing evidence of the benefit of palliative care throughout the course of neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427479/mainstreaming-gender-and-promoting-intersectionality-in-papua-new-guinea-s-health-policy-a-triangulated-analysis-applying-data-mining-and-content-analytic-techniques
#2
G Lamprell, J Braithwaite
BACKGROUND: Gender mainstreaming is an approach to policy and planning that emphasizes equality between the sexes. It is the stated policy for gender equity in Papua New Guinea's (PNG) health sector, as well as all other sectors, and is enshrined in the policies of its biggest aid givers. However, there is criticism that gender mainstreaming's application has too often been technocratic and lacking in conceptual clarity not only in PNG but elsewhere. In the health sector this is further exacerbated by a traditional bio-medical approach, which is often paternalistic and insufficiently patient- and family-centered...
April 20, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426169/microsecond-dynamics-in-ubiquitin-probed-by-solid-state-nmr-15n-r1rho-relaxation-experiments-under-fast-mas-60-110-khz
#3
Nils-Alexander Lakomek, Susanne Penzel, Alons Lends, Riccardo Cadalbert, Matthias Ernst, Beat H Meier
15N R1ρ relaxation experiments in solid-state NMR are sensitive to timescales and amplitudes of internal protein motions in the hundreds of ns to µs time window, difficult to probe with solution-state NMR. Using 15N R1ρ relaxation experiments with variable MAS frequency (60-110 kHz) and a model-free analysis, we describe an approach to detect hundreds of ns to low µs protein dynamics and determine residue-specific correlation times from the ratio of 15N R1ρ rate constants at different MAS frequencies. We find that microcrystalline ubiquitin exhibits small-amplitude dynamics on a timescale of about 1 µs across the entire protein, and larger amplitude motions, also on the 1 µs timescale, for several sites, including the β1-β2 turn and the N-terminus of the α-helix...
April 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425587/hybrid-finite-difference-finite-element-immersed-boundary-method
#4
Boyce E Griffith, Xiaoyu Luo
The immersed boundary method is an approach to fluid-structure interaction that uses a Lagrangian description of the structural deformations, stresses, and forces along with an Eulerian description of the momentum, viscosity, and incompressibility of the fluid-structure system. The original immersed boundary methods described immersed elastic structures using systems of flexible fibers, and even now, most immersed boundary methods still require Lagrangian meshes that are finer than the Eulerian grid. This work introduces a coupling scheme for the immersed boundary method to link the Lagrangian and Eulerian variables that facilitates independent spatial discretizations for the structure and background grid...
April 20, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425058/finding-the-traces-of-behavioral-and-cognitive-processes-in-big-data-and-naturally-occurring-datasets
#5
Alexandra Paxton, Thomas L Griffiths
Today, people generate and store more data than ever before as they interact with both real and virtual environments. These digital traces of behavior and cognition offer cognitive scientists and psychologists an unprecedented opportunity to test theories outside the laboratory. Despite general excitement about big data and naturally occurring datasets among researchers, three "gaps" stand in the way of their wider adoption in theory-driven research: the imagination gap, the skills gap, and the culture gap...
April 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423817/persona-development-and-educational-needs-to-support-informal-caregivers
#6
Zeina Al Awar, Craig Kuziemsky
Informal caregivers are playing an increasing role in community based care delivery. Research is needed that looks at the educational needs of informal caregivers as a precursor to HIT design to support community care delivery. A challenge is informal caregivers have very diverse educational needs. Personas are an approach to describe user characteristics as part of systems design and this approach could be used to understand and categorize the various educational needs of informal caregivers. This paper addresses this research need and provides a method for persona development and the identification of educational needs for informal caregivers...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423792/acronym-disambiguation-in-spanish-electronic-health-narratives-using-machine-learning-techniques
#7
Ignacio Rubio-López, Roberto Costumero, Héctor Ambit, Consuelo Gonzalo-Martín, Ernestina Menasalvas, Alejandro Rodríguez González
Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are now being massively used in hospitals what has motivated current developments of new methods to process clinical narratives (unstructured data) making it possible to perform context-based searches. Current approaches to process the unstructured texts in EHRs are based in applying text mining or natural language processing (NLP) techniques over the data. In particular Named Entity Recognition (NER) is of paramount importance to retrieve specific biomedical concepts from the text providing the semantic type of the concept retrieved...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423791/medical-text-classification-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#8
Mark Hughes, Irene Li, Spyros Kotoulas, Toyotaro Suzumura
We present an approach to automatically classify clinical text at a sentence level. We are using deep convolutional neural networks to represent complex features. We train the network on a dataset providing a broad categorization of health information. Through a detailed evaluation, we demonstrate that our method outperforms several approaches widely used in natural language processing tasks by about 15%.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423785/automated-identification-of-national-health-survey-research-topics-in-the-academic-literature
#9
Dean William Yergens, Daniel James Dutton, Kirsten Marie Fiest
National health surveys are routinely conducted to provide value data about a country's health status and the health services being consumed by the population. This information is used for surveillance, research, and the planning of healthcare services at local and national levels. Although these national health surveys are viewed as important resources for public and population health, there is limited information as to the type of research being conducted with these surveys. This study investigates, through the use of automated text data mining, an approach to identify and collate the type of academic literature being published using national health surveys...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423774/the-pearl-data-warehouse-initial-challenges-faced-with-semantic-and-syntactic-interoperability
#10
Samhar Mahmoud, Andy Boyd, Vasa Curcin, Richard Bache, Asad Ali, Simon Miles, Adel Taweel, Brendan Delaney, John Macleod
Data about patients are available from diverse sources, including those routinely collected as individuals interact with service providers, and those provided directly by individuals through surveys. Linking these data can lead to a more complete picture about the individual, to inform either care decision making or research investigations. However, post-linkage, differences in data recording systems and formats present barriers to achieving these aims. This paper describes an approach to combine linked GP records with study observations, and reports initial challenges related to semantic and syntactic interoperability issues...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423228/targeting-dna-pk-for-cancer-therapy
#11
Céline Cano, Suzannah J Harnor
The catalytic activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is critical to its ability to repair lethal DNA-double strand breaks (DSBs). This includes repair of DSB lesions resulting from oxidative stress, oncogene-induced transcription, or following therapeutic treatment of cancer cells. Armed with this knowledge, many attempts have been made to identify small molecule inhibitors of DNA-PK activity as an approach to induce tumour chemo- and radio-sensitisation. This review examines the structures of known reversible and irreversible inhibitors, including those based upon chromen-4-one, arylmorpholine, and benzaldehyde scaffolds...
April 19, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422503/predicting-protein-interactions-of-concentrated-globular-protein-solutions-using-colloidal-models
#12
Mahlet Asfaw Woldeyes, Cesar Calero-Rubio, Eric M Furst, Christopher J Roberts
Protein interactions of α-chymotrypsinogen A (aCgn) were quantified using light scattering from low to high protein concentrations. Static light scattering (SLS) was used to determine the excess Rayleigh ratio (R(ex)) and osmotic second virial coefficients (B22) as a function of pH and total ionic strength (TIS). Repulsive (attractive) protein-protein interactions (PPI) were observed at pH 5 (pH 7), with decreasing repulsions (attractions) upon increasing TIS. Simple colloidal potential-of-mean force models (PMF) that account for short-range non-electrostatic attractions and screened electrostatic interactions were used to fit model parameters from data for B22 vs TIS at both pH values...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421156/the-personalization-of-clopidogrel-antiplatelet-therapy-the-role-of-integrative-pharmacogenetics-and-pharmacometabolomics
#13
REVIEW
Arwa M Amin, Lim Sheau Chin, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Muhamad Ali Sk Abdul Kader, Yuen Kah Hay, Baharudin Ibrahim
Dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin and clopidogrel is pivotal for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the variable platelets reactivity response to clopidogrel may lead to outcome failure and recurrence of cardiovascular events. Although many genetic and nongenetic factors are known, great portion of clopidogrel variable platelets reactivity remain unexplained which challenges the personalization of clopidogrel therapy. Current methods for clopidogrel personalization include CYP2C19 genotyping, pharmacokinetics, and platelets function testing...
2017: Cardiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420788/reconstructing-the-spectrotemporal-modulations-of-real-life-sounds-from-fmri-response-patterns
#14
Roberta Santoro, Michelle Moerel, Federico De Martino, Giancarlo Valente, Kamil Ugurbil, Essa Yacoub, Elia Formisano
Ethological views of brain functioning suggest that sound representations and computations in the auditory neural system are optimized finely to process and discriminate behaviorally relevant acoustic features and sounds (e.g., spectrotemporal modulations in the songs of zebra finches). Here, we show that modeling of neural sound representations in terms of frequency-specific spectrotemporal modulations enables accurate and specific reconstruction of real-life sounds from high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response patterns in the human auditory cortex...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420352/assessing-the-reliability-of-self-reported-weight-for-the-management-of-heart-failure-application-of-fraud-detection-methods-to-a-randomised-trial-of-telemonitoring
#15
Adam Steventon, Sarwat I Chaudhry, Zhenqiu Lin, Jennifer A Mattera, Harlan M Krumholz
BACKGROUND: Since clinical management of heart failure relies on weights that are self-reported by the patient, errors in reporting will negatively impact the ability of health care professionals to offer timely and effective preventive care. Errors might often result from rounding, or more generally from individual preferences for numbers ending in certain digits, such as 0 or 5. We apply fraud detection methods to assess preferences for numbers ending in these digits in order to inform medical decision making...
April 18, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419591/application-of-spin-echoes-in-the-regime-of-weak-dephasing-to-t1-mapping-of-the-lung
#16
Jakob Assländer, Steffen J Glaser, Jürgen Hennig
PURPOSE: This work presents an approach to mapping the entire lung's proton density and T1 within a single breath-hold and analyzes the apparent T1 when exciting with a spin echo generating pulse in comparison to a standard gradient echo acquisition. METHODS: An inversion-recovery SNAPSHOT-FLASH sequence with a stack-of-stars k-space readout with a golden angle increment was modified to use a spin echo generating radiofrequency-pulse for excitation. Data of five volunteers were acquired on a 3T scanner and image reconstruction was performed by an iterative algorithm adopted from MR-Fingerprinting...
April 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419276/molecular-features-of-the-v1-v4-coding-region-of-sexually-transmitted-hiv-1
#17
Jun Yong Choi, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Christy M Anderson, Douglas D Richman, Davey M Smith
Background: Investigations into which HIV-1 sequence features may be selected for transmission during sexual exposure have been hampered by the small number of characterized transmission pairs in individual studies. Methods: To boost statistical power to detect differences in glycosylation, length, and electrical charge in the HIV-1 V1-V4 coding region, we re-analyzed all available 2,485 env sequences derived from 114 subjects representing 58 transmission pairs from previous studies using mixed effects linear regression and an approach to approximate the unobserved transmitted virus...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419122/lauric-acid-as-feed-additive-an-approach-to-reducing-campylobacter-spp-in-broiler-meat
#18
Katrin Zeiger, Johanna Popp, André Becker, Julia Hankel, Christian Visscher, Guenter Klein, Diana Meemken
The increasing prevalence of Campylobacter spp. within broiler populations is a major problem for food safety and consumer protection worldwide. In vitro studies could already demonstrate that Campylobacter spp. are susceptible to lauric acid. The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo the influence of lauric acid as a feed additive on slaughter parameters, muscle fatty acid profile, meat quality traits and the reduction of Campylobacter coli in inoculated meat of Ross 308 (R308) and Hubbard JA 757 (HJA) broilers in three independent trials (n = 3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417983/an-approach-to-and-web-based-tool-for-infectious-disease-outbreak-intervention-analysis
#19
Ashlynn R Daughton, Nicholas Generous, Reid Priedhorsky, Alina Deshpande
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death globally. Decisions surrounding how to control an infectious disease outbreak currently rely on a subjective process involving surveillance and expert opinion. However, there are many situations where neither may be available. Modeling can fill gaps in the decision making process by using available data to provide quantitative estimates of outbreak trajectories. Effective reduction of the spread of infectious diseases can be achieved through collaboration between the modeling community and public health policy community...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415688/inhibitor-sbfi26-suppresses-the-malignant-progression-of-castration-resistant-pc3-m-cells-by-competitively-binding-to-oncogenic-fabp5
#20
Waseem Al-Jameel, Xiaojun Gou, Shiva S Forootan, Majed Saad Al Fayi, Philip S Rudland, Farzad S Forootan, Jiacheng Zhang, Philip A Cornford, Syed A Hussain, Youqiang Ke
Castration resistant-prostate cancer is largely impervious to feather hormonal therapy and hence the outlook for patients is grim. Here we use an approach to attach the recently discovered Achilles heel. The experimental treatment established in this study is based on the recent discovery that it is the FABP5-PPARγ-VEGF signalling axis, rather than the androgen receptor pathway, played a dominant role in promoting the malignant progression of castration resistant prostate cancer cells. Treatments have been established in mice by suppressing the biological activity of FABP5 using a chemical inhibitor SBFI26...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
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