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Toby Sanders, Ilke Arslan
Electron tomography has become an essential tool for three-dimensional (3D) characterization of nanomaterials. In recent years, advances have been made in specimen preparation and mounting, acquisition geometries, and reconstruction algorithms. All of these components work together to optimize the resolution and clarity of an electron tomogram. However, one important component of the data-processing has received less attention: the 2D tilt series alignment. This is challenging for a number of reasons, namely because the nature of the data sets and the need to be coherently aligned over the full range of angles...
November 16, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Akhtar Ebrahimi Ghassemi
The continuous and rapid evolution of medical technology and the complexity of delivering person-centered care in the 21st century calls for collaboration among health care professionals. Global health now "involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and promotes interdisciplinary collaboration; and is a synthesis of population-based prevention with individual-clinical care" (Koplan et al., 2009, p. 1995). The need for mental health practitioners to work in interprofessional contexts requires graduate and postgraduate programs to incorporate interprofessional education into their student training...
November 1, 2017: Creative Nursing
Zhijun Li, Kim A Munro, Iraklii I Ebralidze, Mina R Narouz, J Daniel Padmos, Hongxia Hao, Cathleen M Crudden, J Hugh Horton
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensing is a powerful tool to study the recognition processes between biomole-cules in real-time without need for labels. The use of thiol chemistry is a critical component in surface functionalization of various SPR biosensor surfaces on gold. However, its use is hampered by the high propensity for oxidation of the gold-thiol linkage even in ambient atmosphere, resulting in a short lifetime of SPR sensor chips unless strict precautions are taken. Herein, we describe an approach to overcome this limitation by employing highly robust self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkylated N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) on gold...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jacqueline A R Shea, Eric Neuscamman
We demonstrate that a broad class of excited state variational principles is not size consistent. In light of this difficulty, we develop and test an approach to excited state optimization that transforms between variational principles in order to achieve state selectivity, size consistency, and compatibility with quantum Monte Carlo. To complement our formal analysis, we provide numerical examples that confirm these properties and demonstrate how they contribute to a more black box approach to excited states in quantum Monte Carlo...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
A J Phelps, Z Steel, O Metcalf, N Alkemade, K Kerr, M O'Donnell, J Nursey, J Cooper, A Howard, R Armstrong, D Forbes
BACKGROUND: To determine the patterns and predictors of treatment response trajectories for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Conditional latent growth mixture modelling was used to identify classes and predictors of class membership. In total, 2686 veterans treated for PTSD between 2002 and 2015 across 14 hospitals in Australia completed the PTSD Checklist at intake, discharge, and 3 and 9 months follow-up. Predictor variables included co-morbid mental health problems, relationship functioning, employment and compensation status...
November 15, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
Naida Suleymanova, Caitrin Crudden, Claire Worrall, Anica Dricu, Ada Girnita, Leonard Girnita
Due to its ability to compensate for signals lost following therapeutic MAPK-inhibition, insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) co-targeting is a rational approach for melanoma treatment. However IGF-1R conformational changes associated with its inhibition can preferentially activate MAPK-pathway in a kinase-independent manner, through a process known as biased signaling. We explored the impact of biased IGF-1R signaling, on response to MAPK inhibition in a panel of skin melanoma cell lines with differing MAPK and p53 mutation statuses...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Zhengqiang Xia, Xu Jing, Cheng He, Xiaoge Wang, Chunying Duan
The production and availability of enantiomerically pure compounds that spurred the development of chiral technologies and materials are very important to the fine chemicals and pharmaceutical industries. By coordinative alignment of enantiopure guests in the metal‒organic frameworks, we reported an approach to control over the chirality of homochiral crystallization and asymmetric transformation. Synthesized by achiral triphenylamine derivatives, the chirality of silver frameworks was determined by the encapsulated enantiopure azomethine ylides, from which clear interaction patterns were observed to explore the chiral induction principles...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
George Kovacs, Nicholas Sowers
Airway management in the trauma patient presents numerous unique challenges beyond placement of an endotracheal tube and outcomes are dependent on the provider's ability to anticipate difficulty. Airway management strategies for the care of the polytrauma patient are reviewed, with specific considerations for those presenting with traumatic brain injury, suspected c-spine injury, the contaminated airway, the agitated trauma patient, maxillofacial trauma, and the traumatized airway. An approach to airway management that considers the potential anatomic and physiologic challenges in caring for these complicated trauma patients is presented...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
A Antanovich, A W Achtstein, A Matsukovich, A Prudnikau, P Bhaskar, V Gurin, M Molinari, M Artemyev
We study the influence of surface passivating ligands on the optical and structural properties of zinc blende CdSe nanoplatelets. Ligand exchange of native oleic acid with aliphatic thiol or phosphonic acid on the surface of nanoplatelets results in a large shift of exciton transition energy for up to 240 meV. Ligand exchange also leads to structural changes (strain) in the nanoplatelet's core analysed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction. By correlating the experimental data with theoretical calculations we demonstrate that the exciton energy shift is mainly caused by the ligand-induced anisotropic transformation of the crystalline structure altering the well width of the CdSe core...
November 13, 2017: Nanoscale
Bactrin M Killingo, Trisa B Taro, Wame N Mosime
INTRODUCTION: HIV treatment outcomes are dependent on the use of viral load measurement. Despite global and national guidelines recommending the use of routine viral load testing, these policies alone have not translated into widespread implementation or sufficiently increased access for people living with HIV (PLHIV). Civil society and communities of PLHIV recognize the need to close this gap and to enable the scale up of routine viral load testing. METHODS: The International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC) developed an approach to community-led demand creation for the use of routine viral load testing...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Benjamin H Han, Alison A Moore
The number of older adults who engage in unhealthy substance use is expected to increase substantially to levels never seen before. Older adults, owing to physiologic changes in aging, are at high risk for the adverse effects of alcohol and illegal drug use. Screening and prevention can help older patients to be better informed of the risks of substance use, and reduce high-risk behaviors and its potential negative outcomes. The authors review the prevalence and trends of substance use and their potential impact on health outcomes, and discuss an approach to screening and prevention for older adults...
February 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
Amy Juliano, Gul Moonis
This article provides a practical overview of head and neck cancers, outlining an approach to evaluating these lesions and optimizing imaging strategies. Recognition of key anatomic landmarks as suggested by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) criteria is emphasized. Further, the recently updated eighth edition of the AJCC staging manual has introduced some modifications that influence the TNM staging. These modifications are discussed throughout the article to provide an updated review on head and neck cancer...
February 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Marcus M Fischer, V Pete Yeung, Fiore Cattaruzza, Rajaa Hussein, Wan-Ching Yen, Christopher Murriel, James W Evans, Gilbert O'Young, Alayne L Brunner, Min Wang, Jennifer Cain, Belinda Cancilla, Ann Kapoun, Timothy Hoey
Activating mutations in the Wnt pathway are a characteristic feature of colorectal cancer (CRC). The R-spondin (RSPO) family is a group of secreted proteins that enhance Wnt signaling and RSPO2 and RSPO3 gene fusions have been reported in CRC. We have previously shown that Wnt pathway blockers exhibit potent combinatorial activity with taxanes to inhibit tumor growth. Here we show that RSPO3 antagonism synergizes with paclitaxel based chemotherapies in patient-derived xenograft models (PDX) with RSPO3 fusions and in tumors with common CRC mutations such as APC, β-catenin, or RNF43...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mohamed Hagras, Youssef A Hegazy, Amr H Elkabbany, Haroon Mohammad, Adel Ghiaty, Tamer M Abdelghany, Mohamed N Seleem, Abdelrahman S Mayhoub
A new series of oxadiazolylbiphenylthiazoles was prepared with the objective of improving the limited solubility of first-generation derivatives while maintaining antibacterial activity against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Studying the structure-activity relationship at the cationic part provided the piperazine-1-carboximidamide derivative 27 with a MIC (MRSA) value of 1.1 μg/mL, bactericidal mode of action, and a 50-fold improvement in aqueous solubility. Additionally, 27 exhibited a wider safety margin against mammalian cells, and most importantly, a significant improvement in oral bioavailability...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Mélanie Douziech, Rosalie van Zelm, Rik Oldenkamp, Antonio Franco, A Jan Hendriks, Henry King, Mark A J Huijbregts
Deriving reliable estimates of chemical emissions to the environment is a key challenge for impact and risk assessment methods and typically the associated uncertainty is not characterised. We have developed an approach to spatially quantify annual chemical emission loads to the aquatic environment together with their associated uncertainty using consumer survey data and publicly accessible and non-confidential data sources. The approach is applicable for chemicals widely used across a product sector. Product usage data from consumer survey studies in France, the Netherlands, South Korea and the USA were combined with information on typical product formulations, wastewater removal rates, and the spatial distribution of populations and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the four countries...
November 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Bin Cai, S Murty Goddu, Sridhar Yaddanapudi, Douglas Caruthers, Jie Wen, Camille Noel, Sasa Mutic, Baozhou Sun
Normalize the response of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is the first step toward an EPID-based standardization of Linear Accelerator (linac) dosimetry quality assurance. In this study, we described an approach to generate two-dimensional (2D) pixel sensitivity maps (PSM) for EPIDs response normalization utilizing an alternative beam and dark-field (ABDF) image acquisition technique and large overlapping field irradiations. The automated image acquisition was performed by XML-controlled machine operation and the PSM was generated based on a recursive calculation algorithm for Varian linacs equipped with aS1000 and aS1200 imager panels...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Anne Meißner, Dirk Hasenclever, Oana Brosteanu, Iris Freya Chaberny
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections are serious complications that increase morbidity, mortality and costs and could potentially be avoidable. Antiseptic body wash is an approach to reduce dermal micro-organisms as potential pathogens on the skin. Large-scale trials with chlorhexidine as the antiseptic agent suggest a reduction of nosocomial infection rates. Octenidine is a promising alternative agent which could be more effective against Gram-negative organisms. We hypothesise that daily antiseptic body wash with octenidine reduces the risk of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired primary bacteraemia and ICU-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in a standard care setting...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
Andrea E Wahner Hendrickson, Scott H Kaufmann, Elizabeth M Swisher
Immunotherapy is changing the landscape of cancer treatment. Nonetheless, not all malignancies respond, possibly due to low mutational load. Recent work in a TP53(-/-)BRCA1-mutant murine breast cancer model indicates that double blockade with two immune checkpoint inhibitors increases the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and overall survival after DNA damaging chemotherapy, whereas single blockade does not. These findings suggest an approach to enhance the impact of immune checkpoint blockade in BRCA-mutated tumors...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
Joo-Young Kim, Chang-Heon Suhl, Joon-Ho Lee, Cheon-Gyu Cho
A conceptually new synthetic approach that provides general access to the aspidosperma alkaloids (+)-aspidospermidine and (-)-tabersonine was developed. This method is based on the regioselective indolization of an ene-hydrazide, which was obtained via a base-catalyzed intramolecular aza-Michael reaction, in situ trapping of the resulting enolate, and subsequent C-N coupling with phenyl hydrazide.
November 17, 2017: Organic Letters
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