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Karen R Sepucha, Maggie Breslin, Charles Graffeo, Christopher R Carpenter, Erik P Hess
Shared decision making (SDM) has been advocated as an approach to selecting medical tests and treatments for many situations. The goal of SDM is to ensure that patients are well informed, meaningfully involved in decisions, and receive treatments that meet their goals and preferences. There is considerable evidence about the tools used to promote SDM, called patient decision aids, and many different measures have been developed to assess the impact of SDM. However, fairly little is known about the applicability of the tools and measures in the emergency department setting...
October 21, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Rudolf Cejnar, Kateřina Hložková, Lukáš Jelínek, Pavel Kotrba, Pavel Dostálek
Compared to most other alcoholic beverages, the shelf life of beer is much more limited due to its instability in the bottle. That instability is most likely to appear as turbidity (haze), even sedimentation, during storage. The haze in beer is mostly caused by colloidal particles formed by interactions between proteins and polyphenols within the beer. Therefore, beers are usually stabilized by removing at least one of these components. We developed and constructed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with a proline-rich QPF peptide attached to the cell wall, using the C-terminal anchoring domain of α-agglutinin...
October 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
J L Vilas, J Navas, J Gómez-Blanco, J M de la Rosa-Trevín, R Melero, I Peschiera, I Ferlenghi, J Cuenca, R Marabini, J M Carazo, J Vargas, C O S Sorzano
Random conical tilt (RCT) and orthogonal tilt reconstruction (OTR) are two remarkable methods for reconstructing the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules at low resolution. These techniques use two images at two different sample tilts. One of the most demanding steps in these methods at the image processing level is to identify corresponding particles on both micrographs, and manual or semiautomatic matching methods are usually used. Here we present an approach to solve this bottleneck with a fully automatic method for assigning particle tilt pairs...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Luca Santini, Santiago Saura, Carlo Rondinini
One of the biggest challenges in large-scale conservation is quantifying connectivity at broad geographic scales and for a large set of species. Because connectivity analyses can be computationally intensive, and the planning process quite complex when multiple taxa are involved, assessing connectivity at large spatial extents for many species turns to be often intractable. Such limitation results in that conducted assessments are often partial by focusing on a few key species only, or are generic by considering a range of dispersal distances and a fixed set of areas to connect that are not directly linked to the actual spatial distribution or mobility of particular species...
2016: PloS One
A G Dimitrov
The membrane transporters (pumps and co-transporters) are the main players in maintaining the cell homeostasis. Models of various types, each with their own drawbacks, describe transporter behavior. The aim of this study is to find the link between the biophysically based and empirical models to face and solve their specific problems. Instead of decreasing the number of states and using few complex rate constants as is usually done, we use the number of states as great as possible. Then, each transition in the cycle can represent an elementary process and we can apply the mass action law, according to which if rate constants depend on concentrations the dependence is linear...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Nathalie L Maitre, Olena Chorna, Domenico M Romeo, Andrea Guzzetta
BACKGROUND: High-risk infant follow-up programs provide early identification and referral for treatment of neurodevelopmental delays and impairments. In these programs, a standardized neurological examination is a critical component of evaluation for clinical and research purposes. METHODS: To address primary challenges of provider educational diversity and standardized documentation, we designed an approach to training and implementation of the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination with precourse materials, a workshop model, and adaptation of the electronic medical record...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Joana Roßberg, Falko O Rottke, Burkhard Schulz, Andreas Lendlein
The influence of terminal functionalization of oligo(ε-caprolactone)s (OCL) with phenylboronic acid pinacol ester or phenylboronic acid on the enzymatic degradation behavior at the air-water interface is investigated by the Langmuir monolayer degradation technique. While the unsubstituted OCL immediately degrades after injection of the enzyme lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia, enzyme molecules are incorporated into the films based on end-capped OCL before degradation. This incorporation of enzymes does not inhibit or suppress the film degradation, but retards it significantly...
October 20, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Mesude Ozturk, Dimitrios V Papavassiliou, Edgar A O'Rear
In this work, contributing factors for red blood cell damage in turbulence were investigated by simulating jet flow experiments. Results showed that dissipative eddies comparable or smaller in size to the red blood cells cause hemolysis and that hemolysis corresponds to the number and the surface area of eddies that are associated with Kolmogorov length scale smaller than about 10 µm. The size distribution of Kolmogorov scale eddies was used to define a turbulent flow extensive property with eddies serving as a means to assess the turbulence effectiveness in damaging cells, and a new hemolysis model was proposed...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Stephen P Bird, William J Markwick
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Youth participation in basketball is on the rise, with basketball one of the top five participation sports in Australia. With increased participation there is a need for greater awareness of the importance of the pre-participation examination, including musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing as part of a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the risk for future injuries. As majority of all basketball injuries affect the lower extremities, pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing should assess fundamental movement qualities throughout the kinetic chain with an emphasis on lower extremity force characteristics, specifically eccentric loading tasks...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Gilles Darcis, Sophie Bouchat, Anna Kula, Benoit Van Driessche, Nadège Delacourt, Caroline Vanhulle, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Stéphane De Wit, Olivier Rohr, Christine Rouzioux, Carine Van Lint
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 reservoirs are the major hurdle to virus clearance in cART-treated patients. An approach to eradicating HIV-1 involves reversing latency in cART-treated patients in order to make latent cells visible to the host immune system. Stimulation of patient cell cultures with LRAs ex vivo results in heterogeneous responses among HIV-infected patients. Determinants of this heterogeneity are unknown and consequently, important to determine. DESIGN AND METHODS: Here, we grouped and retrospectively analyzed the data from our two recent HIV-1 reactivation studies to investigate the role of the HIV-1 reservoir size in the reactivation capacity by LRAs in ex vivo cultures of CD8-depleted PBMCs isolated from 54 cART-treated patients and of resting CD4 T cells isolated from 30 cART-treated patients...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Yating Zhao, Binbin Huang, Chao Yang, Qingqing Chen, Wujiong Xia
A photoredox catalytic route to carbamates enabled by visible irradiation (or simply sunlight) has been developed. This process leads to a novel approach to the construction of heterocyclic rings wherein the amide or ester motifs of carbamates were assembled from three isolated components. Large-scale experiments were realized by employing continuous flow techniques, and reuse of photocatalyst demonstrated the green and sustainable aspects of this method.
October 18, 2016: Organic Letters
Álvaro Franco-Giraldo
This article presents a Latin American vision of global health from a counterhegemonic perspective, applicable to various countries of the world in similar circumstances. It begins by reviewing several concepts and trends in global health and outlining the differences between conventional public health, international health, and global health, but without seeing them as antagonistic, instead situating them in a model that is based on global health and also includes the other two disciplines. It is understood that global factors influenced earlier theories, schemes, and models of classic international health...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Lars Lindholm
Evidence based medicine, EBM is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision making by use of evidence from well designed and well conducted research.EBM classifies evidence by its strength and requires that only the strongest types (RCTs, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews can yield strong recommendations.EBP has, however, been criticized and found to have many limitations such as:EBM classifies the strength in three grades for recommendationsBut how do we decide what is high, medium or low quality?The impact on recommendations of different types study designs will be discussed...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Christine H Stortini, Denis Chabot, Nancy L Shackell
We have learned much about the impacts of warming on the productivity and distribution of marine organisms, but less about the impact of warming combined with other environmental stressors, including oxygen depletion. Also, the combined impact of multiple environmental stressors requires evaluation at the scales most relevant to resource managers. We use the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, characterized by a large permanently hypoxic zone, as a case study. Species Distribution Models were used to predict the impact of multiple scenarios of warming and oxygen depletion on the local density of three commercially and ecologically important species...
October 18, 2016: Global Change Biology
Chuan Ku, William F Martin
BACKGROUND: The literature harbors many claims for lateral gene transfer (LGT) from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Such claims are typically founded in analyses of genome sequences. It is undisputed that many genes entered the eukaryotic lineage via the origin of mitochondria and the origin of plastids. Claims for lineage-specific LGT to eukaryotes outside the context of organelle origins and claims of continuous LGT to eukaryotic lineages are more problematic. If eukaryotes acquire genes from prokaryotes continuously during evolution, then sequenced eukaryote genomes should harbor evidence for recent LGT, like prokaryotic genomes do...
October 17, 2016: BMC Biology
Loïc Peter, Diana Mateus, Pierre Chatelain, Denis Declara, Noemi Schworm, Stefan Stangl, Gabriele Multhoff, Nassir Navab
The examination of biopsy samples plays a central role in the diagnosis and staging of numerous diseases, including most cancer types. However, because of the large size of the acquired images, the localization and quantification of diseased portions of a tissue is usually time-consuming, as pathologists must scroll through the whole slide to look for objects of interest which are often only scarcely distributed. In this work, we introduce an approach to facilitate the visual inspection of large digital histopathological slides...
October 5, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Elizabeth S Ng, Lisa Azzola, Freya F Bruveris, Vincenzo Calvanese, Belinda Phipson, Katerina Vlahos, Claire Hirst, Vanta J Jokubaitis, Qing C Yu, Jovana Maksimovic, Simone Liebscher, Vania Januar, Zhen Zhang, Brenda Williams, Aude Conscience, Jennifer Durnall, Steven Jackson, Magdaline Costa, David Elliott, David N Haylock, Susan K Nilsson, Richard Saffery, Katja Schenke-Layland, Alicia Oshlack, Hanna K A Mikkola, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty
The ability to generate hematopoietic stem cells from human pluripotent cells would enable many biomedical applications. We find that hematopoietic CD34(+) cells in spin embryoid bodies derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) lack HOXA expression compared with repopulation-competent human cord blood CD34(+) cells, indicating incorrect mesoderm patterning. Using reporter hESC lines to track the endothelial (SOX17) to hematopoietic (RUNX1C) transition that occurs in development, we show that simultaneous modulation of WNT and ACTIVIN signaling yields CD34(+) hematopoietic cells with HOXA expression that more closely resembles that of cord blood...
October 17, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
Mateo Alajarin, Adrian Egea, Raul-Angel Orenes, Angel Vidal
The [3 + 2] annulation reaction of C,C,N-trisubstituted ketenimines with donor-acceptor cyclopropanes bearing aryl, styryl and vinyl substituents at the C2 position, triggered by the Lewis acid Sc(OTf)3, supplies highly substituted pyrrolidines. Activated cyclopropanes fused to naphthalene and [1]benzopyrane nuclei are also suitable substrates in similar transformations, yielding partially saturated benz[g]indoles and [1]benzopyran[4,3-b]pyrroles. An intramolecular version of this ketenimine/cyclopropane [3 + 2] annulation has also been developed leading to the pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindole framework...
October 17, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Sverre U Johnson, Asle Hoffart
We aimed to systematically evaluate a generic model of metacognitive therapy (MCT) with a highly comorbid anxiety disorder patient, that had been treated with diagnosis-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) without significant effect. Traditionally, CBT has progressed within a disorder-specific approach, however, it has been suggested that this could be less optimal with highly comorbid patients. To address comorbidity, transdiagnostic treatment models have been emerging. This case study used an AB-design with repeated assessments during each therapy session and a 1-year follow-up assessment to evaluate the effectiveness of MCT...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Arun Ramchandran, Kaushal Kishor Agrawal, Pooran Chand, Ramashanker, Raghuwar Dayal Singh, Anusar Gupta
The Kennedy Class I and II distal extension situation poses a challenge to the prosthodontist as it inherently possesses a lack of stability, which may be attributed to the difference in compressibility of the mucosa and the periodontal ligament surrounding the distal-most abutment tooth. This results in a rotational tendency of the prosthesis around the line connecting its terminal abutments. Placement of osseointegrated dental implants in the posterior edentulous regions, distal to the terminal abutment provides improved vertical support to the distal extension removable partial denture, effectively converting its intraoral performance from a Kennedy Class I to a Class III situation, thereby resulting in improved stability of the prosthesis and consequently, enhanced patient satisfaction...
October 2016: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
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