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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351598/smooth-muscle-cells-of-intracranial-vessels-from-development-to-disease
#1
Juhana Frösen, Anne Joutel
Cerebrovascular diseases that cause ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke with subsequent loss of life or functional capacity due to damage of the brain tissue are among the leading causes of human suffering and economic burden inflicted by diseases in the developed world. Diseases affecting intracranial vessels are significant contributors to ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM), which are a collection of abnormal blood vessels connecting arteries to veins, are the most common cause of intracranial hemorrhage in children and young adults...
January 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351434/cub-domain-containing-protein-1-cdcp1-negatively-regulates-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-and-myofibroblast-differentiation
#2
Nina Noskovičová, Katharina Heinzelmann, Gerald Burgstaller, Jürgen Behr, Oliver Eickelberg
Fibroblasts are thought to be the prime cell type for producing and secreting extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the connective tissue. The profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) activates and transdifferentiates fibroblasts into αSMA-expressing myofibroblasts, which exhibit increased ECM secretion, in particular collagens. Little information, however, exists about cell-surface molecules on fibroblasts that mediate this transdifferentiation process. We recently identified, using unbiased cell-surface proteome analysis, Cub domain containing protein 1 (CDCP1) to be strongly downregulated by TGFβ1...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351412/expression-of-ctgf-ccn2-in-response-to-lpa-is-stimulated-by-fibrotic-extracellular-matrix-via-the-integrin-fak-axis
#3
Camilo Riquelme-Guzman, Osvaldo Contreras, Enrique Brandan
Fibrosis is a common feature of several chronic diseases, and is characterized by exacerbated accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of this condition is crucial for designing efficient treatments for those pathologies. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a pleiotropic protein with strong pro-fibrotic activity. In this report, we present experimental evidence showing that ECM stimulates the synthesis of CTGF in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351389/proliferation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-mediated-by-yap-and-taz-contributes-to-liver-repair-and-regeneration-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Takanori Konishi, Rebecca M Schuster, Alex B Lentsch
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are key regulators of cell proliferation and organ size, however, their physiological contribution after liver injury has not been fully understood. In this study, we sought to determine the role of YAP and TAZ during liver recovery after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A murine model of partial (70%) I/R was used to induce liver injury and study the reparative and regenerative response. After liver injury, there was marked activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351386/protective-effect-of-c-peptide-on-experimentally-induced-diabetic-nephropathy-and-the-possible-link-between-c-peptide-and-nitric-oxide
#5
Eman A Elbassuoni, Neven M Aziz, Nashwa F El-Tahawy
Diabetic nephropathy one of the major microvascular diabetic complications. Besides hyperglycemia, other factors contribute to the development of diabetic complications as the proinsulin connecting peptide, C-peptide. We described the role of C-peptide replacement therapy on experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy, and its potential mechanisms of action by studying the role of Nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator of C-peptide effects by in vivo modulating its production by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)...
January 19, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350777/the-pathology-of-lumbosacral-lipomas-macroscopic-and-microscopic-disparity-have-implications-for-embryogenesis-and-mode-of-clinical-deterioration
#6
Victoria Jones, Victoria Wykes, Nicki Cohen, Dominic Thompson, Thomas S Jacques
AIMS: Lumbosacral lipomas (LSL) are congenital disorders of the terminal spinal cord region that have the potential to cause significant spinal cord dysfunction in children. They are of unknown embryogenesis with variable clinical presentation and natural history. It is unclear whether the spinal cord dysfunction reflects a primary developmental dysplasia or whether it occurs secondarily to mechanical traction (spinal cord tethering) with growth. Whilst different anatomical subtypes are recognised and classified according to radiological criteria, these subtypes correlate poorly with clinical prognosis...
January 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349817/anatomical-study-of-the-so-called-retromolar-gland-distinguishing-normal-anatomy-from-oral-cavity-pathology
#7
Joe Iwanaga, Ken Nakamura, Fernando Alonso, Christie Kirkpatrick, Rod J Oskouian, Koichi Watanabe, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: The minor salivary glands in the retromolar trigone have rarely been studied. The aim of this study was to better define the anatomy of the minor salivary glands in the retromolar trigone and establish the relationships between these and adjacent structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The gland in the retromolar trigone was exposed and its relationships to surrounding structures were observed on twenty cadaveric sides. RESULTS: The boundaries of the gland included the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, the tendon of the buccinator muscle, and loose connective tissue...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349730/ccn5-in-alveolar-epithelial-proliferation-and-differentiation-during-neonatal-lung-oxygen-injury
#8
Najla Fiaturi, Joshua W Russo, Heber C Nielsen, John J Castellot
Lung immaturity is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants, especially those born <28 weeks of gestation. These infants are at high risk of developing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), a lung disease caused by insufficient surfactant production and immaturity of saccular/alveolar type II epithelial cells in the lung. RDS treatment includes oxygen and respiratory support that improve survival but also increase the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease characterized by arrested alveolarization, airway hyperreactivity, and pulmonary hypertension...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349557/a-rare-ocular-complication-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#9
Thiago Gonçalves Dos Santos Martins, Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo Costa
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous formation of subconjunctival filtering blebs is rare and has been observed after penetrating ocular surgery, in association with connective tissue diseases and inflammatory conditions. METHOD: We describe here a case of a spontaneous formation of subconjunctival filtering bleb as sequelae of gonococcal conjunctivitis in an adult patient. RESULTS: Spontaneous filtering bleb is a rare complication of gonococcal conjunctivitis...
January 18, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349034/arthroscopic-microfracture-of-hip-chondral-lesions
#10
H Atil Atilla, T David Luo, Allston J Stubbs
Microfracture of hip chondral lesions has been performed for more than a decade with modified treatment principles and techniques from knee arthroscopy. This note and accompanying video review the pertinent techniques, pearls, and pitfalls of the microfracture procedure in the treatment of hip chondral lesions. After debridement of damaged chondral tissue, the size of the lesion is approximated to determine the number of microfracture holes to create. The working portal may be adjusted based on the site of the lesion...
December 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348999/open-repair-of-quadriceps-tendon-with-suture-anchors-and-semitendinosus-tendon-allograft-augmentation
#11
Jorge Chahla, Nicholas N DePhillipo, Mark E Cinque, Nicholas I Kennedy, George F Lebus, Filippo Familiari, Gilbert Moatshe, Robert F LaPrade
Quadriceps tendinopathy in an increasingly recognized diagnosis can lead to quadriceps tendon rupture, especially in the older population. It can be caused by repeated micro trauma or also predisposed by systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and connective tissue disorders that can in turn lead to extensor mechanism deficits. Although a trial of conservative treatment is advocated, operative treatment should be performed in cases of persistent pain, extension deficit, or complete rupture of the tendon...
December 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347981/radiation-induced-pulmonary-gene-expression-changes-are-attenuated-by-the-ctgf-antibody-pamrevlumab
#12
Mark D Sternlicht, Ute Wirkner, Sebastian Bickelhaupt, Ramon Lopez Perez, Alexandra Tietz, Kenneth E Lipson, Todd W Seeley, Peter E Huber
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a delayed side effect of radiation therapy (RT). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) promotes the development of fibrosis in multiple settings, including pulmonary radiation injury. METHODS: To better understand the cellular interactions involved in RT-induced lung injury and the role of CTGF in these responses, microarray expression profiling was performed on lungs of irradiated and non-irradiated mice, including mice treated with the anti-CTGF antibody pamrevlumab (FG-3019)...
January 18, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346558/thoraco-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-rupture-in-a-patient-with-shprintzen-goldberg-syndrome
#13
Naritaka Kimura, Yu Inaba, Kaori Kameyama, Hideyuki Shimizu
Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome is a rare systemic connective tissue disorder characterized by craniosynostosis, skeletal abnormalities, infantile hypotonia, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and cardiovascular anomalies. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome patient who developed a thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm. The aneurysm grew rapidly necessitating emergent thoraco-abdominal aortic replacement. The postoperative course was uneventful, and a careful lifetime follow-up was planned...
January 16, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346490/composition-architecture-and-functional-implications-of-the-connective-tissue-network-of-the-extraocular-muscles
#14
Linda K McLoon, André Vicente, Krysta R Fitzpatrick, Mona Lindström, Fatima Pedrosa Domellöf
Purpose: We examined the pattern and extent of connective tissue distribution in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and determined the ability of the interconnected connective tissues to disseminate force laterally. Methods: Human EOMs were examined for collagens I, III, IV, and VI; fibronectin; laminin; and elastin using immunohistochemistry. Connective tissue distribution was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Rabbit EOMs were examined for levels of force transmission longitudinally and transversely using in vitro force assessment...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346445/transcriptome-analysis-of-skin-fibroblasts-with-dominant-negative-col3a1-mutations-provides-molecular-insights-into-the-etiopathology-of-vascular-ehlers-danlos-syndrome
#15
Nicola Chiarelli, Giulia Carini, Nicoletta Zoppi, Marco Ritelli, Marina Colombi
Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene that encodes type III collagen (COLLIII), which is the major expressed collagen in blood vessels and hollow organs. The majority of disease-causing variants in COL3A1 are glycine substitutions and in-frame splice mutations in the triple helix domain that through a dominant negative effect are associated with the severe clinical spectrum potentially lethal of vEDS, characterized by fragility of soft connective tissues with arterial and organ ruptures...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346437/tissue-specific-transcriptome-analyses-provide-new-insights-into-gpcr-signalling-in-adult-schistosoma-mansoni
#16
REVIEW
Steffen Hahnel, Nic Wheeler, Zhigang Lu, Arporn Wangwiwatsin, Paul McVeigh, Aaron Maule, Matthew Berriman, Timothy Day, Paula Ribeiro, Christoph G Grevelding
Schistosomes are blood-dwelling trematodes with global impact on human and animal health. Because medical treatment is currently based on a single drug, praziquantel, there is urgent need for the development of alternative control strategies. The Schistosoma mansoni genome project provides a platform to study and connect the genetic repertoire of schistosomes to specific biological functions essential for successful parasitism. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest superfamily of transmembrane receptors throughout the Eumetazoan phyla, including platyhelminths...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345715/tendon-function-related-structure-simple-healing-process-and-mysterious-ageing
#17
Jan Zabrzyński, Łukasz Łapaj, Łukasz Paczesny, Agnieszka Zabrzyńska, Dariusz Grzanka
Tendons are connective tissue structures of paramount importance to human ability of locomotion. The understanding of their physiology and pathology is gaining importance as advances in regenerative medicine are being made today. So far, very few studies were conducted to extend the knowledge about pathology, healing response and management of tendon lesions. In this paper we summarize actual knowledge on structure, process of healing and ageing of the tendons. The structure of tendon is optimized for the best performance of the tissue...
January 18, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345167/dietary-supplements-for-health-adaptation-and-recovery-in-athletes
#18
Eric S Rawson, Mary P Miles, D Enette Larson-Meyer
Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve: recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344854/laser-microdissection-workflow-for-isolating-nucleic-acids-from-fixed-and-frozen-tissue-samples
#19
Yelena G Golubeva, Andrew C Warner
Laser Capture Microdissection has earned a permanent place among modern techniques connecting histology and molecular biology. Laser Capture Microdissection has become an invaluable tool in medical research as a means for collection of specific cell populations isolated from their environment. Such genomic sample enrichment dramatically increases the sensitivity and precision of downstream molecular assays used for biomarker discovery, monitoring disease onset and progression, and in the development of personalized medicine...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344133/improved-treatment-of-early-small-hepatocellular-carcinoma-using-sorafenib-in-combination-with-radiofrequency-ablation
#20
Quanyou Gong, Zhaoxia Qin, Fangli Hou
Small hepatocellular carcinoma is an important leading cause of death amongst cancer patients, our study was designed in order to test the hypothesis that radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with a chemotherapeutic drug would improve the outcome for patients. Two groups of patients presenting early small hepatocellular carcinoma were treated with either conventional RFA alone (50 individuals in the control group), or with a combination of RFA and oral sorafenib (40 individuals in an observation group). Individual clinical and laboratory evaluations were done during an average follow-up time of 35 months, and all the data recorded was used to compare results of both treatment approaches...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
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