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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641336/suppression-of-forkhead-box-protein-o1-foxo1-transcription-factor-may-promote-adrenocortical-tumorigenesis
#1
Adam Stenman, Timothy Murtha, Reju Korah, Tobias Carling
Despite recent comprehensive genetic analyses, molecular evidence for a pathophysiological continuum linking benign adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and highly aggressive adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is still elusive. Using human tumor samples and the established ACC cell line SW-13, this study investigated potential regulatory roles for FOXO transcription factors, in modulating adrenocortical tumorigenesis. Adrenocortical tumor specimens (20 ACAs, 10 ACCs, and 9 normal adrenal tissue samples) obtained from 30 patients were analyzed for ubiquitously expressed FOXO transcription factors, FOXO1 and FOXO3 using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry...
June 22, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630428/nuclear-accumulation-of-symplekin-promotes-cellular-proliferation-and-dedifferentiation-in-an-erk1-2-dependent-manner
#2
Chen Zhang, Hai-Lei Mao, Yi Cao
Symplekin is a multifunctional protein that localizes to both tight junctions and the nucleus in polarized epithelial cells, with confirmed roles in mRNA maturation, transcriptional modulation and tight-junction assembly. However, the mechanisms governing its subcellular distribution and related functions remain unclear. In this study, we found that symplekin primarily localizes to the nuclei of cultured dedifferentiated colorectal cancer cells, and nuclear symplekin showed higher phosphorylation and binding affinity with YBX3 than its membrane fraction...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629371/combined-targeting-of-mdm2-and-cdk4-is-synergistic-in-dedifferentiated-liposarcomas
#3
Audrey Laroche-Clary, Vanessa Chaire, Marie-Paule Algeo, Marie-Alix Derieppe, François L Loarer, Antoine Italiano
PURPOSE: MDM2 and CDK4 are frequently co-amplified in well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS/DDLPS). We aimed to determine whether combined MDM2/CDK4 targeting is associated with higher antitumour activity than a single agent in preclinical models of DDLPS. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: DDLPS cells were exposed to RG7388 (MDM2 antagonist) and palbociclib (CDK4 inhibitor), and apoptosis and signalling/survival pathway perturbations were monitored by flow cytometry and Western blotting...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626027/selective-activation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-renal-proximal-tubule-induces-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#4
Jessica M Overstreet, Yinqiu Wang, Xin Wang, Aolei Niu, Leslie S Gewin, Bing Yao, Raymond C Harris, Ming-Zhi Zhang
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and renal fibrosis; however, the causative role of sustained EGFR activation is unclear. Here, we generated a novel kidney fibrotic mouse model of persistent EGFR activation by selectively expressing the EGFR ligand, human heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), in renal proximal tubule epithelium. Human HB-EGF expression increased tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of EGFR and the subsequent activation of downstream signaling pathways, including ERK and AKT, as well as the profibrotic TGF-β1/SMAD pathway...
June 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622298/tgf%C3%AE-pathway-limits-dedifferentiation-following-wnt-and-mapk-pathway-activation-to-suppress-intestinal-tumourigenesis
#5
Patrizia Cammareri, David F Vincent, Michael C Hodder, Rachel A Ridgway, Claudio Murgia, Max Nobis, Andrew D Campbell, Julia Varga, David J Huels, Chithra Subramani, Katie L H Prescott, Colin Nixon, Ann Hedley, Simon T Barry, Florian R Greten, Gareth J Inman, Owen J Sansom
Recent studies have suggested increased plasticity of differentiated cells within the intestine to act both as intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and tumour-initiating cells. However, little is known of the processes that regulate this plasticity. Our previous work has shown that activating mutations of Kras or the NF-κB pathway can drive dedifferentiation of intestinal cells lacking Apc. To investigate this process further, we profiled both cells undergoing dedifferentiation in vitro and tumours generated from these cells in vivo by gene expression analysis...
June 16, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621310/single-cell-profiling-reveals-heterogeneity-and-functional-patterning-of-gpcr-expression-in-the-vascular-system
#6
H Kaur, J Carvalho, M Looso, P Singh, R Chennupati, J Preussner, S Günther, J Albarrán-Juárez, D Tischner, S Classen, S Offermanns, N Wettschureck
G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expression is extensively studied in bulk cDNA, but heterogeneity and functional patterning of GPCR expression in individual vascular cells is poorly understood. Here, we perform a microfluidic-based single-cell GPCR expression analysis in primary smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC). GPCR expression is highly heterogeneous in all cell types, which is confirmed in reporter mice, on the protein level and in human cells. Inflammatory activation in murine models of sepsis or atherosclerosis results in characteristic changes in the GPCR repertoire, and we identify functionally relevant subgroups of cells that are characterized by specific GPCR patterns...
June 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619030/integrative-analysis-of-dna-methylation-mrnas-and-small-rnas-during-maize-embryo-dedifferentiation
#7
Hongjun Liu, Langlang Ma, Xuerong Yang, Lin Zhang, Xing Zeng, Shupeng Xie, Huanwei Peng, Shibin Gao, Haijian Lin, Guangtang Pan, Yongrui Wu, Yaou Shen
BACKGROUND: Maize (Zea mays) is an important model crop for transgenic studies. However, genetic transformation of maize requires embryonic calli derived from immature embryo, and the impact of utilizing tissue culture methods on the maize epigenome is poorly understood. Here, we generated whole-genome MeDIP-seq data examining DNA methylation in dedifferentiated and normal immature maize embryos. RESULTS: We observed that most of the dedifferentiated embryos exhibited a methylation increase compared to normal embryos...
June 15, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612481/review-biological-and-molecular-differences-between-tail-regeneration-and-limb-scarring-in-lizard-an-inspiring-model-addressing-limb-regeneration-in-amniotes
#8
REVIEW
Lorenzo Alibardi
Tissue regeneration in lizards represents a unique model of regeneration and scarring in amniotes. The tail and limb contain putative stem cells but also dedifferentiating cells contribute to regeneration. Following tail amputation, inflammation is low and cell proliferation high, leading to regeneration while the intense inflammation in the limb leads to low proliferation and scarring. FGFs stimulate tail and limb regeneration and are present in the wound epidermis and blastema while they disappear in the limb wound epidermis 2-3 weeks postamputation in the scarring outgrowth...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612031/microrna-29b-contributes-to-collagens-imbalance-in-human-osteoarthritic-and-dedifferentiated-articular-chondrocytes
#9
David Moulin, Véronique Salone, Meriem Koufany, Thomas Clément, Isabelle Behm-Ansmant, Christiane Branlant, Bruno Charpentier, Jean-Yves Jouzeau
OBJECTIVE: Decreased expression of collagen type II in favour of collagen type I or X is one hallmark of chondrocyte phenotype changes in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. MicroRNA- (miR-) 29b was previously shown to target collagens in several tissues. We studied whether it could contribute to collagen imbalance in chondrocytes with an impaired phenotype. METHODS: After preliminary microarrays screening, miR-29b levels were measured by RT- quantitative PCR in in vitro models of chondrocyte phenotype changes (IL-1β challenge or serial subculturing) and in chondrocytes from OA and non-OA patients...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611444/ep4-inhibition-attenuates-the-development-of-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-experimental-kidney-disease
#10
Karina Thieme, Syamantak Majumder, Angela S Brijmohan, Sri N Batchu, Bridgit B Bowskill, Tamadher A Alghamdi, Suzanne L Advani, M Golam Kabir, Youan Liu, Andrew Advani
The therapeutic targeting of prostanoid subtype receptors may slow the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) through mechanisms that are distinct from those of upstream COX inhibition. Here, employing multiple experimental models of CKD, we studied the effects of inhibition of the EP4 receptor, one of four receptor subtypes for the prostanoid prostaglandin E2. In streptozotocin-diabetic endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice, EP4 inhibition attenuated the development of albuminuria, whereas the COX inhibitor indomethacin did not...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611395/shear-stress-induces-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-the-transcription-factor-snail
#11
Marwa M Mahmoud, Jovana Serbanovic-Canic, Shuang Feng, Celine Souilhol, Rouyu Xing, Sarah Hsiao, Akiko Mammoto, Jing Chen, Markus Ariaans, Sheila E Francis, Kim Van der Heiden, Victoria Ridger, Paul C Evans
Blood flow influences atherosclerosis by generating wall shear stress, which alters endothelial cell (EC) physiology. Low shear stress induces dedifferentiation of EC through a process termed endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). The mechanisms underlying shear stress-regulation of EndMT are uncertain. Here we investigated the role of the transcription factor Snail in low shear stress-induced EndMT. Studies of cultured EC exposed to flow revealed that low shear stress induced Snail expression. Using gene silencing it was demonstrated that Snail positively regulated the expression of EndMT markers (Slug, N-cadherin, α-SMA) in EC exposed to low shear stress...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606068/prognostic-factors-and-outcome-of-liposarcoma-patients-a-retrospective-evaluation-over-15%C3%A2-years
#12
Carolin Knebel, Ulrich Lenze, Florian Pohlig, Florian Lenze, Norbert Harrasser, Christian Suren, Jonathan Breitenbach, Hans Rechl, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe, Heinrich M L Mühlhofer
BACKGROUND: Soft tissue sarcomas are rare entities with over 50 histological subtypes. Liposarcoma (LS) is the most common neoplasm in this group; it is a complex neoplasm that is divided into different histological subtypes. Different therapy options, such as surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy, are available. Depending on the subtype, location, status of the resection margins and metastatic status, different therapy options are used. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prognostic factors influencing the survival of patients affected by LS with consideration for the grading, histological subtype, state of the resection margin, size, location, metastases and local recurrence in a retrospective, single-centre analysis over 15 years...
June 12, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601725/morphogenesis-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-the-soil-ciliate-rigidohymena-quadrinucleata-dragesco-and-njine-1971-berger-2011-ciliophora-hypotricha-oxytrichidae
#13
Jingyi Wang, Lifang Li, Alan Warren, Chen Shao
Morphogenesis in the soil hypotrich ciliate, Rigidohymena quadrinucleata (Dragesco and Njine, 1971) Berger, 2011; was investigated using protargol staining. The main events during binary fission are as follows: (1) the proter retains the parental adoral zone of membranelles entirely, whereas the old undulating membranes dedifferentiate into an anlage that gives rise to the leftmost frontal cirrus and the new undulating membranes of the proter; (2) six streaks of frontoventral-transverse cirral anlagen are segmented in the pattern 1:3:3:3:4:4 from left to right, which form three frontal, four frontoventral, one buccal, five ventral and five transverse cirri, respectively; (3) the postoral ventral cirrus V/3 is not involved in primordia formation demonstrating that this species belongs to the stylonychines; (4) marginal anlagen are formed intrakinetally and the right marginal anlagen develop much earlier than the left ones; (5) the generation of the dorsal kineties is of typical Oxytricha-pattern and three caudal cirri are formed, one at the posterior end of each of dorsal kineties 1, 2 and 4...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601416/statistics-of-soft-tissue-sarcoma-in-japan-report-from-the-bone-and-soft-tissue-tumor-registry-in-japan
#14
Koichi Ogura, Takahiro Higashi, Akira Kawai
BACKGROUND: No previous reports to date have characterized the national profiles of soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs). In the present study, we reviewed current practice for STSs in Japan using data from a nationwide organ-specific cancer registry for bone and soft-tissue tumors in Japan, the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor (BSTT) Registry. METHODS: In the registry, we identified 8228 patients with STSs during the period 2006-2012, and extracted data on patient demographics, treatment, and outcome at the last follow-up for each patient...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599080/bmp-signaling-governs-biliary-driven-liver-regeneration-in-zebrafish-via-tbx2b-and-id2a
#15
Tae-Young Choi, Mehwish Khaliq, Shinya Tsurusaki, Nikolay Ninov, Didier Y R Stainier, Minoru Tanaka, Donghun Shin
Upon mild liver injury, new hepatocytes originate from pre-existing hepatocytes. However, if hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, a manifestation of severe liver injury, biliary epithelial cells (BECs) contribute to new hepatocytes through BEC dedifferentiation into liver progenitor cells (LPCs), also termed oval cells or hepatoblast-like cells (HB-LCs), and subsequent differentiation into hepatocytes. Despite the identification of several factors regulating BEC dedifferentiation and activation, little is known about factors involved in the regulation of LPC differentiation into hepatocytes during liver regeneration...
June 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596382/a-new-long-noncoding-rna-lncrna-is-induced-in-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-downregulates-several-anticancer-and-cell-differentiation-genes-in-mouse
#16
Gilles Ponzio, Roger Rezzonico, Isabelle Bourget, Richard Allan, Nicolas Nottet, Alexandra Popa, Virginie Magnone, Géraldine Rios, Bernard Mari, Pascal Barbry
Keratinocyte-derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common metastatic skin cancer. Although some of the early events involved in this pathology have been identified, the subsequent steps leading to tumor development are poorly defined. We demonstrate here that the development of mouse tumors induced by the concomitant application of a carcinogen and a tumor promoter (7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene [DMBA] and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate [TPA], respectively) is associated with the upregulation of a previously uncharacterized long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), termed AK144841...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594268/simultaneous-but-spatially-different-regulation-of-non-photosynthetic-callus-formation-and-photosynthetic-root-development-after-shoot-removal
#17
Koichi Kobayashi, Akira Iwase
Plants coordinate plastid differentiation and cellular differentiation during tissue development. Recently, we reported a mechanism of chloroplast development and photosynthetic improvement in Arabidopsis roots after shoot removal. Shoot removal induces the expression of WOUND INDUCED DEDIFFERENTIATION (WIND) transcription factors at the wound site, which activates type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR (ARR)-mediated cytokinin signaling in roots. The type-B ARR signaling upregulates chloroplast-related transcription factors along with photosynthesis-associated genes, thereby inducing chloroplast development in detached roots...
June 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594086/proteomic-characterization-of-primary-mouse-hepatocytes-in-collagen-monolayer-and-sandwich-culture
#18
Malina Orsini, Saskia Sperber, Fozia Noor, Esther Hoffmann, Susanne N Weber, Rabea A Hall, Frank Lammert, Elmar Heinzle
Dedifferentiation of primary hepatocytes in vitro makes their application in long-term studies difficult. Embedding hepatocytes in a sandwich of extracellular matrix is reported to delay the dedifferentiation process to some extent. In this study we compared the intracellular proteome of primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH) in conventional monolayer cultures (ML) to collagen sandwich culture (SW) after 1 day and 5 days of cultivation. Quantitative proteome analysis of PMH showed no differences between collagen SW and ML cultures after 1 day...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591851/reduced-fidelity-of-neural-representation-underlies-episodic-memory-decline-in-normal-aging
#19
Li Zheng, Zhiyao Gao, Xiaoqian Xiao, Zhifang Ye, Chuansheng Chen, Gui Xue
Emerging studies have emphasized the importance of the fidelity of cortical representation in forming enduring episodic memory. No study, however, has examined whether there are age-related reductions in representation fidelity that can explain memory declines in normal aging. Using functional MRI and multivariate pattern analysis, we found that older adults showed reduced representation fidelity in the visual cortex, which accounted for their decreased memory performance even after controlling for the contribution of reduced activation level...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589053/high-grade-transformation-dedifferentiation-of-acinic-cell-carcinoma-of-the-parotid-gland-report-of-an-unusual-variant
#20
Sarah S Al-Otaibi, Faiza Alotaibi, Yaseer Al Zaher, Nabil Al Zaher, M A Dababo
Acinic cell carcinoma with high-grade transformation of the salivary gland is an unusual variant with less than fifty cases being reported in the literature. It is characterized by a low- and high-grade component juxtaposed with one another and tends to take on a more aggressive clinical course than its low-grade counterpart, suggesting a poor clinical outcome. We, hereby, report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in a 48-year-old woman with a 6-month history of a right parotid facial swelling rapidly increasing in size...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
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