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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329425/comparison-of-hepatic-2d-sandwich-cultures-and-3d-spheroids-for-long-term-toxicity-applications-a-multi-center-study
#1
Catherine C Bell, Anita C A Dankers, Volker M Lauschke, Rowena Sison-Young, Roz Jenkins, Cliff Rowe, Chris Goldring, Kevin Park, Sophie Regan, Tracy Walker, Chris Schofield, Audrey Baze, Alison J Foster, Dominic Williams, Amy W M van de Ven, Frank Jacobs, Jos van Houdt, Tuula Lähteenmäki, Jan Snoeys, Satu Juhila, Lysiane Richert, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg
Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are commonly used for in vitro studies of drug-induced liver injury. However, when cultured as 2D monolayers, PHH lose crucial hepatic functions within hours. This dedifferentiation can be ameliorated when PHH are cultured in sandwich configuration (2Dsw), particularly when cultures are regularly re-overlaid with extracellular matrix, or as 3D spheroids. In this study, the six participating laboratories evaluated the robustness of these two model systems made from cryopreserved PHH from the same donors considering both inter-donor and inter-lab variability and compared their suitability for use in repeated-dose toxicity studies using 5 different hepatotoxins with different toxicity mechanisms...
January 10, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323050/long-non-coding-rna-nonmmug014387-promotes-schwann-cell-proliferation-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#2
Bin Pan, Zhong-Ju Shi, Jia-Yin Yan, Jia-He Li, Shi-Qing Feng
Schwann cells play a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration through dedifferentiation and proliferation. In a previous study, we performed microarray analysis of the sciatic nerve after injury. Accordingly, we predicted that long non-coding RNA NONMMUG014387 may promote Schwann cell proliferation after peripheral nerve injury, as bioinformatic analysis revealed that the target gene of NONMMUG014387 was collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1). Cthrc1 may promote cell proliferation in a variety of cells by activating Wnt/PCP signaling...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320729/corneal-committed-cells-restore-the-stem-cell-pool-and-tissue-boundary-following-injury
#3
Waseem Nasser, Aya Amitai-Lange, Despina Soteriou, Rana Hanna, Beatrice Tiosano, Yaron Fuchs, Ruby Shalom-Feuerstein
During morphogenesis, preserving tissue boundaries is essential for cell fate regulation. While embryonic tissues possess high plasticity and repair ability, the questions of whether and how adult tissues cope with acute stem cell (SC) loss or boundary disruption have remained unanswered. Here, we report that K15-GFP transgene labels the murine corneal epithelial boundary and SC niche known as the limbus. K15-GFP+ basal cells expressed SC markers and were located at the corneal regeneration site, as evident by lineage tracing...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317369/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-matrix-enhances-chondrogenic-phenotype-of-and-cartilage-formation-by-encapsulated-chondrocytes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Yuanheng Yang, Hang Lin, He Shen, Bing Wang, Guanghua Lei, Rocky S Tuan
Mesenchymal stem cell derived extracellular matrix (MSC-ECM) is a natural biomaterial with robust bioactivity and good biocompatibility, and has been studied as a scaffold for tissue engineering. In this investigation, we tested the applicability of using decellularized human bone marrow derived MSC-ECM (hBMSC-ECM) as a culture substrate for chondrocyte expansion in vitro, as well as a scaffold for chondrocyte-based cartilage repair. hBMSC-ECM deposited by hBMSCs cultured on tissue culture plastic (TCP) was harvested, and then subjected to a decellularization process to remove hBMSCs...
January 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316274/comparison-of-xiphophorus-and-human-melanoma-transcriptomes-reveals-conserved-pathway-interactions
#5
Yuan Lu, Mikki Boswell, William Boswell, Susanne Kneitz, Michael Hausmann, Barbara Klotz, Janine Regneri, Markita Savage, Angel Amores, John Postlethwait, Wesley Warren, Manfred Schartl, Ronald Walter
Comparative analysis of human and animal model melanomas can uncover conserved pathways and genetic changes that are relevant for the biology of cancer cells. Spontaneous melanoma in Xiphophorus interspecies backcross hybrid progeny may be informative in identifying genes and functional pathways that are similarly related to melanoma development in all vertebrates, including humans. To assess functional pathways involved in the Xiphophorus melanoma, we performed gene expression profiling of the melanomas produced in interspecies BC1 and successive backcross generations (i...
January 8, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304256/dynamics-ultrastructure-and-gene-expression-of-human-in-vitro-organized-testis-cells-from-testicular-sperm-extraction-biopsies
#6
Kathrein von Kopylow, Wolfgang Schulze, Andrea Salzbrunn, Matthias Schaks, Elke Schäfer, Beate Roth, Stefan Schlatt, Andrej-Nikolai Spiess
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to induce in-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from testicular sperm extraction (TESE) biopsies, maintain their long-term cultivation in a 2D system and identify cellular compositions? SUMMARY ANSWER: In-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from TESE biopsies and their long-term cultivation on uncoated cell culture dishes is feasible and the cellular compositions can be uncovered through gene expression and microscopic analyses...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299322/mechanisms-of-urodele-limb-regeneration
#7
REVIEW
David L Stocum
This review explores the historical and current state of our knowledge about urodele limb regeneration. Topics discussed are (1) blastema formation by the proteolytic histolysis of limb tissues to release resident stem cells and mononucleate cells that undergo dedifferentiation, cell cycle entry and accumulation under the apical epidermal cap. (2) The origin, phenotypic memory, and positional memory of blastema cells. (3) The role played by macrophages in the early events of regeneration. (4) The role of neural and AEC factors and interaction between blastema cells in mitosis and distalization...
August 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299196/extract-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-induces-the-expression-of-pluripotency-genes-in-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells
#8
Paria Motamen Salehi, Tahereh Foroutan, Arash Javeri, Masoumeh Fakhr Taha
Objectives: In some previous studies, the extract of embryonic carcinoma cells (ECCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used to reprogram somatic cells to more dedifferentiated state. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mouse ESCs extract on the expression of some pluripotency markers in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Materials and Methods: Human ADSCs were isolated from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and characterized by flow cytometric analysis for the expression of some mesenchymal stem cell markers and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298862/deregulation-of-hippo-taz-pathway-during-renal-injury-confers-a-fibrotic-maladaptive-phenotype
#9
Sandybell Anorga, Jessica M Overstreet, Lucas L Falke, Jiaqi Tang, Roel G Goldschmeding, Paul J Higgins, Rohan Samarakoon
Although yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), nuclear transducers of the Hippo pathway, are mostly silent in adult organs, aberrant activation of YAP/TAZ promotes tumorigenesis and abnormal tissue repair. The extent of involvement of TAZ in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. In our study, increased TAZ nuclear accumulation and expression in the tubulointerstitium was readily evident in 3 models of renal injury including obstructive, aristolochic acid (AA), and diabetic nephropathy, correlating with fibrosis progression...
January 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298418/neuronal-pas-domain-protein-4-suppression-of-oxygen-sensing-optimizes-metabolism-during-excitation-of-neuroendocrine-cells
#10
Paul V Sabatini, Thilo Speckmann, Cuilan Nian, Maria M Glavas, Chi Kin Wong, Ji Soo Yoon, Tatsuya Kin, A M James Shapiro, William T Gibson, C Bruce Verchere, Francis C Lynn
Depolarization of neuroendocrine cells results in calcium influx, which induces vesicle exocytosis and alters gene expression. These processes, along with the restoration of resting membrane potential, are energy intensive. We hypothesized that cellular mechanisms exist to maximize energy production during excitation. Here, we demonstrate that NPAS4, an immediate early basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS transcription factor, acts to maximize energy production by suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α)...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296239/fhit-down-regulation-was-inversely-linked-to-aggressive-behaviors-and-adverse-prognosis-of-gastric-cancer-a-meta-and-bioinformatics-analysis
#11
Hua-Chuan Zheng, Li-Li Liu
FHIT (fragile histine triad) acts as diadenosine P1, P3-bis (5'-adenosyl)-triphosphate adenylohydrolase involved in purine metabolism, and induces apoptosis as a tumor suppressor. We performed a systematic meta- and bioinformatics analysis through multiple online databases up to March 14, 2017. The down-regulated FHIT expression was found in gastric cancer, compared with normal mucosa and dysplasia (p < 0.05). FHIT expression was negatively with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, TNM staging and dedifferentiation of gastric cancer (p < 0...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291011/transferrin-receptor-1-upregulation-in-primary-tumor-and-downregulation-in-benign-kidney-is-associated-with-progression-and-mortality-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients
#12
Christopher J Greene, Kristopher Attwood, Nitika J Sharma, Kenneth W Gross, Gary J Smith, Bo Xu, Eric C Kauffman
The central dysregulated pathway of clear cell (cc) renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the von Hippel Lindau/hypoxia inducible factor-α axis, is a key regulator of intracellular iron levels, however the role of iron uptake in human RCC tumorigenesis and progression remains unknown. We conducted a thorough, large-scale investigation of the expression and prognostic significance of the primary iron uptake protein, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1/CD71/TFRC), in RCC patients. TfR1 immunohistochemistry was performed in over 1500 cores from 574 renal cell tumor patient tissues (primary tumors, matched benign kidneys, metastases) and non-neoplastic tissues from 36 different body sites...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287310/high-grade-transformation-dedifferentiation-of-an-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-the-minor-salivary-gland-to-myoepithelial-carcinoma
#13
So Tando, Toshitaka Nagao, Kaori Kayano, Shinji Fushiki, Kyoko Itoh
High-grade transformation (HGT)/dedifferentiation is an unusual phenomenon in salivary gland carcinomas. Here we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) with HGT/dedifferentiation to myoepithelial carcinoma, occurring in the epipharynx of a 42-year-old woman. The surgically resected tumor was a pedunculated mass, 31 × 25 mm in size, which had two histologically distinct carcinomatous areas, including a high-grade sarcomatoid area composed of pleomorphic spindle cells and an area consisting of low-grade typical ACC...
December 29, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285365/dedifferentiated-endometrial-carcinoma-a-report-of-three-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Ryo Yokomizo, Kyosuke Yamada, Yasushi Iida, Takako Kiyokawa, Kazu Ueda, Motoaki Saito, Nozomu Yanaihara, Mayo Nakamura, Aikou Okamoto
Dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma, which is defined microscopically as the co-existence of undifferentiated carcinoma and grade 1 or 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, is an aggressive type of cancer regardless of the percentage of undifferentiated components. It is reported that undifferentiated carcinoma comprises 9% of endometrial carcinoma. The percentage of dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma has been hypothesized to be 40% of undifferentiated carcinoma. A precise pathological diagnosis is essential for defining the appropriate therapeutic approach and prognosis...
December 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279571/transplantation-of-mature-adipocyte-derived-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-into-three-wall-defects-in-the-rat-periodontium-induces-tissue-regeneration
#15
Daigo Suzuki, Daisuke Akita, Niina Tsurumachi, Koichiro Kano, Katsuyuki Yamanaka, Tadashi Kaneko, Eisuke Kawano, Shinya Iguchi, Taku Toriumi, Yoshinori Arai, Taro Matsumoto, Shuichi Sato, Masaki Honda
The transplantation of dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells in combination with poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds has previously been proven as an effective approach in promoting periodontal tissue regeneration in a rat fenestration defect model. The aim of this study was to assess the regenerative potential of DFAT cells in a rat model of three-wall periodontal bone defect. Three-wall bone defects were created bilaterally on the mesial side of rat maxillary first molars and were either left untreated or treated by implantation of PLGA scaffolds with DFAT cells or PLGA alone...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275072/immunohistochemical-detection-of-vimentin-in-pancreatic-islet-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cells-of-macrosomic-infants-of-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-mothers
#16
Yuliya S Krivova, Alexandra E Proshchina, Valeriy M Barabanov, Irina V Barinova, Sergey V Saveliev
BACKGROUND: Expression of the intermediate filament protein vimentin has been recently observed in the pancreatic islet β- and α-cells of humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was suggested that the presence of vimentin in endocrine cells may indicate islet tissue renewal, or potentially represent the dedifferentiation of endocrine cells, which could contribute to the onset of type 2 diabetes or islet cell dysfunction. AIM: To analyze the expression of vimentin in pancreatic β- and α-cells of macrosomic infants of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers...
December 21, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259719/roles-of-nitric-oxide-and-ethyl-pyruvate-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#17
REVIEW
Sandesh Panthi, Kripa Gautam
Short-lived reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species have acquired significant attention in the field of biomedical science. Nitric oxide (NO), which was thought to be an unstable gas and pollutant, is now regarded as a gas transmitter like H2S and CO. NO is synthesized inside the mammalian body by l-arginine via three different isoforms of NO synthase whereas pyruvate is a glycolysis product and substrate for TCA cycle. Due to poor solubility and stability, therapeutic potential of pyruvate is limited...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259577/corrigendum-dedifferentiation-does-not-account-for-hyperconnectivity-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Rachel Anne Bernier, Arnab Roy, Umesh Meyyappan Venkatesan, Emily C Grossner, Einat K Brenner, Frank Gerard Hillary
[This corrects the article on p. 297 in vol. 8, PMID: 28769858.].
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251111/fully-dedifferentiated-chondrocytes-expanded-in-specific-mesenchymal-stem-cell-growth-medium-with-fgf2-obtains-mesenchymal-stem-cell-phenotype-in-vitro-but-retains-chondrocyte-phenotype-in-vivo
#19
Jungsun Lee, Jin-Yeon Lee, Byung-Chul Chae, Jeongho Jang, EunAh Lee, Youngsook Son
Given recent progress in regenerative medicine, we need a means to expand chondrocytes in quantity without losing their regenerative capability. Although many reports have shown that growth factor supplementation can have beneficial effects, the use of growth factor-supplemented basal media has widespread effect on the characteristics of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were in vitro cultured in the 2 most widely used chondrocyte growth media, conventional chondrocyte culture medium and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) culture medium, both with and without fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) supplementation...
October 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250977/microencapsulated-macrophages-releases-conditioned-medium-able-to-prevent-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#20
Anna Sola, Laura Saenz Del Burgo, Jesús Ciriza, Rosa Maria Hernandez, Gorka Orive, Jorge Martin Cordero, Priscila Calle, Jose Luis Pedraz, Georgina Hotter
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a key process in the development of renal fibrosis. In fact, EMT-derived fibroblasts contribute to the progression of chronic renal disease. In addition, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages have exhibited a great influence on renal fibrosis. However, because of the high impact that the inputs of different environmental cytokines have on their phenotype, macrophages can easily lose this property. We aim to known if microencapsulated macrophages on M2-inducing alginate matrices could preserve macrophage phenotype and thus release factors able to act on epithelial cells to prevent the epithelial differentiation towards mesenchymal cells...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
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