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Perinatal hepatitis c

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866601/assessment-of-state-perinatal-hepatitis-b-prevention-laws
#1
Lindsay A Culp, Lisa Caucci, Nancy E Fenlon, Megan C Lindley, Noele P Nelson, Trudy V Murphy
INTRODUCTION: Identifying pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for post-exposure prophylaxis of their infants is critical to preventing mother-to-child transmission of HBV infection. HBV infection in infancy results in premature death from chronic liver disease or cancer in 25% of affected infants. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection is the standard of care, and in many states is supported by laws for screening and reporting these infections to public health...
December 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765123/-follow-up-study-on-efficacy-of-blocking-mother-to-infant-transmission-of-hbv-and-its-influence-factors-in-jiangsu-province-2010-2015
#2
J Jiang, S L Dai, J F Xu, Y Zou, L G Zhu, H Peng, F C Zhu, X J Zhai
Objective: To evaluate the effects of blocking transmission of HBV from mother to infant in Jiangsu, and discuss influencing factors related to development of chronic HBV infection in children of HBsAg positive mother. Methods: HBsAg positive mothers delivered during 2010-2015 in three counties of Jiangsu (Zhangjiagang, Danyang and Taixing) and their neonates were included in the study. The neonates were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine (10 μg) and hepatitis B immunoglobin (100 units) within 24 hours after birth...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650823/origin-of-the-zika-virus-revealed-a-historical-journey-across-the-world
#3
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594857/linking-susceptibility-to-infectious-diseases-to-immune-system-abnormalities-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#4
REVIEW
Candice Ruck, Brian A Reikie, Arnaud Marchant, Tobias R Kollmann, Fatima Kakkar
HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants experience increased overall mortality from infectious causes when compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected (HU) infants. This is the case in both the resource-rich and resource-limited settings. Here, we explore the concept that specific types of infectious diseases that are more common among HEU infants could provide clues as to the potential underlying immunological abnormalities. The most commonly reported infections in HEU vs. HU infants are caused by encapsulated bacteria, suggesting the existence of a less effective humoral (antibody, complement) immune response...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542413/hepatic-loss-of-borealin-impairs-postnatal-liver-development-regeneration-and-hepatocarcinogenesis
#5
Lu Li, Dan Li, Feng Tian, Jin Cen, Xiaotao Chen, Yuan Ji, Lijian Hui
Borealin, a member of the chromosomal passenger complex, plays a key regulatory role at centromeres and the central spindle during mitosis. Loss of Borealin leads to defective cell proliferation and early embryonic lethality. The in vivo functions of Borealin in mammalian postnatal development, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis remain elusive. We specifically analyzed the role of Borealin in regulating postnatal liver development, damage-induced liver regeneration, and liver carcinogenesis using mice carrying conditional Borealin alleles...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470623/-telbivudine-for-prevention-of-perinatal-transmission-in-pregnant-women-infected-with-hepatitis-b-virus-in-immune-tolerant-phase-a-study-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-drug-withdrawal
#6
Q J Sheng, Y Ding, B J Li, H Bai, C Zhang, C Han, Y X Fan, Y W Li, X G Dou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the success rate of telbivudine (LdT) for the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the incidence of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation during LdT treatment and after LdT withdrawal in HBV-infected pregnant woman with high viremia in immune-tolerant phase and receiving LdT treatment at the end of pregnancy, and to evaluate the efficacy of LdT in the prevention of perinatal transmission and the safety for pregnant women. METHODS: Pregnant women infected with HBV in immune-tolerant phase who had normal ALT levels (≤40 U/L) and high viremia (HBV DNA ≥6 log10 IU/ml) with positive HBeAg were enrolled as subjects...
April 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437184/hepatitis-c-viral-infection-in-children-updated-review
#7
REVIEW
Mohamed A El-Guindi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major medical challenge affecting around 200 million people worldwide. The main site of HCV replication is the hepatocytes of the liver. HCV is a positive enveloped RNA virus from the flaviviridae family. Six major HCV genotypes are implicated in the human infection. In developed countries the children are infected mainly through vertical transmission during deliveries, while in developing countries it is still due to horizontal transmission from adults. Minimal nonspecific and brief symptoms are initially found in approximately 15% of children...
June 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342757/perinatal-maternal-high-fat-diet-promotes-alterations-in-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-and-resistance-to-the-hypolipidemic-effect-of-fish-oil-in-adolescent-rat-offspring
#8
Lorraine S Oliveira, Luana L Souza, Aline F P Souza, Aline Cordeiro, George E G Kluck, Georgia C Atella, Isis H Trevenzoli, Carmen C Pazos-Moura
SCOPE: Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) promotes obesity and metabolic disturbances in offspring at weaning and adult life. We investigated metabolic consequences of maternal HFD in adolescent rat offspring and the potential benefic effects of fish oil (FO) (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid source). METHODS AND RESULTS: Female rats received isocaloric, standard diet (STD: 9% fat) or HFD (28.6%) before mating, and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring received standard diet and, from 25th to 45th day, received oral administration of soybean oil (SO) or FO...
June 25, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334623/epigenome-wide-dna-methylation-analysis-implicates-neuronal-and-inflammatory-signaling-pathways-in-adult-murine-hepatic-tumorigenesis-following-perinatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a
#9
Caren Weinhouse, Maureen A Sartor, Christopher Faulk, Olivia S Anderson, Karilyn E Sant, Craig Harris, Dana C Dolinoy
Developmental exposure to the endocrine-active compound bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to epigenotoxic and potential carcinogenic effects in rodent liver, prostate, and mammary glands. A dose-dependent increase in hepatic tumors in 10-month mice perinatally exposed to one of three doses of BPA (50 ng, 50 µg, or 50 mg BPA/kg chow) was previously reported. These tumors represent early-onset disease and lack classical sexual dimorphism in incidence. Here, adult epigenome-wide liver DNA methylation profiles to identify gene promoters associated with perinatal BPA exposure and disease in 10-month mice with and without liver tumors were investigated...
July 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300749/hepatitis-b-virus-genotypes-epidemiological-and-clinical-relevance-in-asia
#10
Qiuju Tian, Jidong Jia
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is characterized by a high genetic heterogeneity since it replicates via a reverse transcriptase that lacks proofreading ability. Up to now, ten genotypes (A-J) have been described, with genotype A and D being ubiquitous but most prevalent in Europe and Africa, genotype B and C being confined to Asia and Oceania. Infections with other genotypes such as E, F, G and H are also occasionally observed in Asia. Genotype I is rare and can be found in Laos, Vietnam, India and China, whereas genotype J has been described in Japan and Ryukyu...
June 14, 2016: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265298/impact-of-organic-mercury-exposure-and-home-delivery-on-neurodevelopment-of-amazonian-children
#11
Rejane C Marques, José V E Bernardi, Mônica P L Cunha, José G Dórea
In the transitioning Amazon, we addressed birth environment (home vs hospital) and associated perinatal organic-Hg exposures: methylmercury (MeHg) from maternal fish consumption and ethylmercury (EtHg) from pediatric Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) taken systematically during hospital delivery. We studied 365 children in relation to linear growth at 60 months and neurodevelopment (milestone achievements, Bayley Scale of Infant Development/BSID at 24 months, and Stanford-Binet intelligence tests at 60 months)...
August 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040399/hepatitis-b-vaccine-stored-outside-the-cold-chain-setting-a-pilot-study-in-rural-lao-pdr
#12
Amy R Kolwaite, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Alejandro Ramirez-Gonzalez, Kathleen Wannemuehler, Viengnakhone Vongxay, Vansy Vilayvone, Karen Hennessey, Minal K Patel
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) was introduced in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao-PDR) to prevent perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission. HepB-BD, which is labeled for storage between 2 and 8°C, is not available at all health facilities, because of some lack of functional cold chain; however, previous studies show that HepB-BD is stable if stored outside the cold chain (OCC). A pilot study was conducted in Lao-PDR to evaluate impact of OCC policy on HepB-BD coverage...
June 14, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27007072/reduced-perinatal-leptin-availability-may-contribute-to-adverse-metabolic-programming-in-a-rat-model-of-uteroplacental-insufficiency
#13
Eva Nüsken, Maria Wohlfarth, Gregor Lippach, Manfred Rauh, Holm Schneider, Jörg Dötsch, Kai-Dietrich Nüsken
Leptin availability in perinatal life critically affects metabolic programming. We tested the hypothesis that uteroplacental insufficiency and intrauterine stress affect perinatal leptin availability in rat offspring. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG; n = 14), sham operation (SOP; n = 12), or no operation (controls, n = 14). Fetal livers (n = 180), placentas (n = 180), and maternal blood were obtained 4 hours (gestational day [E] 19), 24 hours (E20), and 72 hours (E22) after surgery...
May 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985444/single-clinical-practice-s-report-of-testing-initiation-antibody-clearance-and-transmission-of-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-in-infants-of-chronically-hcv-infected-mothers
#14
Aswine Bal, Anna Petrova
Background.  Perinatally acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the main source of pediatric HCV infection. However, the best time for initiation of screening and follow up of these infants is still unknown. Analysis of the clinical data of infants born to HCV-infected mothers, transmission rates, and pathway of HCV testing could be important for optimization of their management. Methods.  Children of mothers with chronic HCV infection, who were observed between 1998 and 2013 at the pediatric infectious disease clinic for the first 18 months of their life, were eligible for enrollment...
January 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26959353/prevalence-of-and-progression-to-abnormal-noninvasive-markers-of-liver-disease-aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio-index-and-fibrosis-4-among-us-hiv-infected-youth
#15
Bill G Kapogiannis, Erin Leister, George K Siberry, Russell B Van Dyke, Bret Rudy, Patricia Flynn, Paige L Williams
OBJECTIVE: To longitudinally characterize noninvasive markers of liver disease in HIV-infected youth. DESIGN: HIV infection, without viral hepatitis coinfection, may contribute to liver disease. Noninvasive markers of liver disease [FIB-4 (Fibrosis-4) and APRI (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index)] have been evaluated in adults with concomitant HIV and hepatitis C, but are less studied in children. METHODS: In prospective cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected youth, we used linear regression models to compare log-transformed FIB-4 and APRI measures by HIV status based on a single visit at ages 15-20 years...
March 27, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940754/discontinuity-of-care-for-mothers-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-diagnosed-during-pregnancy
#16
R Rajbhandari, K Barton, A C Juncadella, A K Rubin, T Ajayi, Y Wu, A N Ananthakrishnan, R T Chung
Assiduous measures are taken to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to infants; it is unclear whether the mothers receive appropriate care for their chronic HBV. We sought to assess the quality of HBV care in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers following pregnancy. HBsAg-positive women (n = 243) who had sought prenatal care at Massachusetts General Hospital were retrospectively identified and charts reviewed. The primary outcome was adherence to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines...
July 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26887144/clinical-case-of-conducting-pregnancy-and-childbirth-at-the-woman-with-chronic-viral-hepatitis-b-in-the-replicative-form
#17
S Sleptsova, N Duglas, L Shek
INTRODUCTION: Because of a wide circulation of the hepatitis B (HB) among persons of young age, so-called vertical transmission of a virus from mother to the child is of particular importance. Relevance of this problem of HB increases in connection with a set of ways of infection, failures are more often observed at infection by natural ways: sexual and from mother to a fetus that demands development of effective measures of prevention of transfer from mother to a fetus. AIM: To develop algorithm of maintaining pregnant women with the chronic hepatitis B (HBV) for prevention of perinatal transfer of a HBV infection in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (RS (Y))...
2015: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26887135/the-prevalence-of-chronic-viral-hepatitis-in-children-and-adolescents-in-yakutia
#18
T G Dmitrieva, Ya A Munkhalova, E F Argunova, S N Alexeyeva, V B Egorova, N N Alexeeva
UNLABELLED: Chronic hepatitis in children represents a serious health and social problem. Under the conditions of the high prevalence of viral hepatitis in Yakutia epidemiological process has a number of peculiarities. In children chronic hepatitis often occurs with minor clinical manifestations, which complicate diagnosis. The study of the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data is an important task.The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of chronic hepatitis in children and adolescents living in hyper-endemic region...
2015: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26797211/failure-to-test-and-identify-perinatally-infected-children-born-to-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-women
#19
Danica E Kuncio, E Claire Newbern, Caroline C Johnson, Kendra M Viner
BACKGROUND: Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common route of pediatric HCV infection. Approximately 5% of children born to HCV-infected mothers develop chronic infection. Recommendations employ risk-based HCV testing of pregnant women, and screening children at a young age. This study assesses testing rates of children born to mothers tested HCV-positive in a major US city with a high burden of HCV infection. METHODS: HCV surveillance data reported to the Philadelphia Department of Public Health are housed in the Hepatitis Registry...
April 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26716100/birth-outcome-in-hiv-vertically-exposed-children-in-two-romanian-centers
#20
Ana Maria Tudor, Mariana Mărdărescu, Cristina Petre, Ruxandra Neagu Drăghicenoiu, Rodica Ungurianu, Cătălin Tilişcan, Dan Oţelea, Simona Claudia Cambrea, Doina Eugenia Tănase, Ana Maria Schweitzer, Simona Ruţă
BACKGROUND: The Romanian HIV epidemic is characterized by a high prevalence among children born in the late '80s, perinatally infected. The impact of long-term treatment on their offspring is unknown. We evaluated the influence of prenatal care on the rate of premature birth among the HIV-exposed children of heavily treated HIV-infected mothers in two Romanian centers. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data on all patients born by HIV-infected mothers between 2006 and 2012 followed up in two main regional centers...
December 2015: Germs
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