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Perinatal hepatitis c

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225673/update-on-hepatitis-c-and-implications-for-pregnancy
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey J Post
Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus infection occurs in a significant minority of cases and the diagnosis, treatment and cure of hepatitis C virus infection with direct acting antivirals prior to pregnancy can eliminate this risk in almost all cases. Women with hepatitis C virus infection have increased risks of adverse events in pregnancy and poor perinatal outcomes for their children, although the contribution of hepatitis C virus per se is difficult to determine. Altering the mode of delivery does not reduce mother to child transmission of hepatitis C virus infection, although avoidance of fetal scalp electrodes and other potential high risk procedures is recommended during pregnancy and delivery...
December 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140938/immunity-following-childhood-vaccinations-in-perinatally-hiv-exposed-children-with-and-without-hiv-infection-in-latin-america
#2
Regina Cm Succi, Margot R Krauss, D Robert Harris, Daisy M Machado, Maria I de Moraes-Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Noris Pavia Ruz, Russell B Pierre, Lenka A Kolevic Roca, Esaú Joao, Irene Foradori, Marcelo C Scotta, Rohan Hazra, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Full vaccination by age four years was defined as: three hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine doses; four tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine doses; three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine by age 12 months or ≥1 dose given after age 12 months; one measles-containing vaccine dose; one rubella-containing vaccine dose...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137869/morbidity-and-mortality-in-homeless-individuals-prisoners-sex-workers-and-individuals-with-substance-use-disorders-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Robert W Aldridge, Alistair Story, Stephen W Hwang, Merete Nordentoft, Serena A Luchenski, Greg Hartwell, Emily J Tweed, Dan Lewer, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Inclusion health focuses on people in extremely poor health due to poverty, marginalisation, and multimorbidity. We aimed to review morbidity and mortality data on four overlapping populations who experience considerable social exclusion: homeless populations, individuals with substance use disorders, sex workers, and imprisoned individuals. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 1, 2015...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035130/patterns-of-serologic-markers-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-the-risk-of-transmission-among-pregnant-women-in-southwestern-nigeria
#4
I M Ifeorah, A S Bakarey, M O Adewumi, T O C Faleye, A Akere, C E Omoruyi, A O Ogunwale, C C Uttah, M A Oketade, J A Adeniji
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern in developing countries that has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Vertical transmission of HBV from mother to child has been identified as a major factor leading to chronicity with attendant liver conditions, especially in poor socioeconomic settings. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of serological HBV markers among pregnant women in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria and to determine the implications for perinatal HBV transmission. This study revealed the presence of varied HBV serological patterns of infection or immunity among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria, and thus the risk of mother to child transmission...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953189/transient-hypothyroidism-and-autoimmune-thyroiditis-in-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-and-ribavirin
#5
Daniele Serranti, Giuseppe Indolfi, Gabriella Nebbia, Mara Cananzi, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Silvia Ricci, Stefano Stagi, Chiara Azzari, Massimo Resti
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid dysfunction are common in adults receiving interferon-based treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Few data are available in children with CHC. This study is aimed to evaluate the appearance and timing of thyroid dysfunction and anti-thyroid autoimmunity in children with CHC treated with pegylated interferon-α-2b and ribavirin. METHODS: 61 otherwise healthy children with CHC, 3-17 years of age, infected perinatally and treatment naïve, receiving therapy with pegylated interferon-α-2b and ribavirin and 183 age- and sex-matched controls were included in a multicenter, prospective, case-control study...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930194/developmental-programming-of-obesity-and-liver-metabolism-by-maternal-perinatal-nutrition-involves-the-melanocortin-system
#6
Paul Cordero, Jiawei Li, Vi Nguyen, Joaquim Pombo, Nuria Maicas, Marco Novelli, Paul D Taylor, Anne-Maj Samuelsson, Manlio Vinciguerra, Jude A Oben
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. Female mice heterozygous for Mc4r fed an obesogenic or a control diet for 5 weeks were mated with heterozygous males, with the same diet continued throughout pregnancy and lactation, generating four offspring groups: control wild type (C_wt), control knockout (C_KO), obese wild type (Ob_wt), and obese knockout (Ob_KO)...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860476/quantifying-perinatal-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-viral-quasispecies-by-tag-linkage-deep-sequencing
#7
Yushen Du, Xiumei Chi, Chong Wang, Jing Jiang, Fei Kong, Hongqing Yan, Xiaomei Wang, Jie Li, Nicholas C Wu, Lei Dai, Tian-Hao Zhang, Sara Shu, Jian Zhou, Janice M Yoshizawa, Xinmin Li, Debika Bhattacharya, Ting-Ting Wu, Junqi Niu, Ren Sun
Despite full immunoprophylaxis, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of Hepatitis B Virus still occurs in approximately 2-5% of HBsAg positive mothers. Little is known about the bottleneck of HBV transmission and the evolution of viral quasispecies in the context of MTCT. Here we adopted a newly developed tag linkage deep sequencing method and analyzed the quasispecies of four MTCT pairs that broke through immunoprophylaxis. By assigning unique tags to individual viral sequences, we accurately reconstructed HBV haplotypes in a region of 836 bp, which contains the major immune epitopes and drug resistance mutations...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796673/human-immunodeficiency-virus-viral-load-rebound-near-delivery-in-previously-suppressed-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-pregnant-women
#8
Isabelle Boucoiran, Arianne Y K Albert, Karen Tulloch, Emily C Wagner, Neora Pick, Julie van Schalkwyk, P Richard Harrigan, Deborah Money
OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load suppression within 1 month before birth in pregnant women receiving antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of a Canadian provincial perinatal HIV database from 1997 to 2015. Inclusion criteria were live birth and CART received for at least 4 weeks. Viral load rebound, defined as viral load greater than 50 copies/mL (or greater than 400 copies/mL for 1997-1998) and measured within 1 month before delivery, was identified in women who had at least one previous undetectable viral load during pregnancy...
September 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796629/hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-nrf2-expression-following-perinatal-and-peripubertal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-liver-disease
#9
Prajakta C Shimpi, Vijay R More, Maneesha Paranjpe, Ajay C Donepudi, Jaclyn M Goodrich, Dana C Dolinoy, Beverly Rubin, Angela L Slitt
BACKGROUND: Exposure to chemicals during critical windows of development may re-program liver for increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Bisphenol A (BPA), a plastics component, has been described to impart adverse effects during gestational and lactational exposure. Our work has pointed to nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) being a modulator of hepatic lipid accumulation in models of NAFLD. OBJECTIVES: To determine if chemical exposure can prime liver for steatosis via modulation of NRF2 and epigenetic mechanisms...
August 4, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795466/reduced-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positivity-among-pregnant-women-born-after-the-national-implementation-of-immunoprophylaxis-for-babies-born-to-hepatitis-b-virus-carrier-mothers-in-japan
#10
Aya Sugiyama, Masayuki Ohisa, Shintaro Nagashima, Chikako Yamamoto, Channarena Chuon, Toshiko Fujii, Tomoyuki Akita, Keiko Katayama, Yoshiki Kudo, Junko Tanaka
AIM: We aimed to estimate hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity among birth year-stratified pregnant women in Hiroshima, Japan, and compare prevalence rates between women born before and after implementation of a national immunoprophylactic vaccination program for babies born to hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier mothers in Japan. METHODS: Pregnant women who gave birth at all delivery hospitals/clinics in Hiroshima prefecture between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2011 were eligible...
November 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738454/-development-of-markov-models-for-economics-evaluation-of-strategies-on-hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-population-based-antiviral-treatment-in-china
#11
P C Yang, S X Zhang, P P Sun, Y L Cai, Y Lin, Y H Zou
Objective: To construct the Markov models to reflect the reality of prevention and treatment interventions against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, simulate the natural history of HBV infection in different age groups and provide evidence for the economics evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination and population-based antiviral treatment in China. Methods: According to the theory and techniques of Markov chain, the Markov models of Chinese HBV epidemic were developed based on the national data and related literature both at home and abroad, including the settings of Markov model states, allowable transitions and initial and transition probabilities...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690615/impact-of-early-life-exposures-to-infections-antibiotics-and-vaccines-on-perinatal-and-long-term-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Steven L Raymond, Jaimar C Rincon, James L Wynn, Lyle L Moldawer, Shawn D Larson
Essentially, all neonates are exposed to infections, antibiotics, or vaccines early in their lives. This is especially true for those neonates born underweight or premature. In contrast to septic adults and children who are at an increased risk for subsequent infections, exposure to infection during the neonatal period is not associated with an increased risk of subsequent infection and may be paradoxically associated with reductions in late-onset sepsis (LOS) in the most premature infants. Perinatal inflammation is also associated with a decreased incidence of asthma and atopy later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661549/hepatitis-c-in-pregnancy-review-of-current-knowledge-and-updated-recommendations-for-management
#13
Charlotte M Page, Brenna L Hughes, Eleanor H J Rhee, Jeffrey A Kuller
Importance: An estimated 1% to 2.5% of pregnant women in the United States are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which carries approximately a 6% risk of mother-to-infant transmission. Objectives: The aims of this article are to review the current evidence on HCV in pregnancy and to provide updated recommendations for management. Evidence Acquisition: Original research articles, review articles, and guidelines on HCV in general and specifically in pregnancy were reviewed, as were drug safety profiles from the Food and Drug Administration...
June 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406735/capture-recapture-using-existing-data-sources-to-improve-perinatal-hepatitis-b-surveillance-philadelphia-2008-2014
#14
Danica E Kuncio, E Claire Newbern, Liyuan Ma, Robbie Madera, Bruce Barlow, S Ginny Robison, Kendra M Viner, Caroline C Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the capture-recapture method used by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health to enhance surveillance of perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV), report on results and limitations of the process, and determine why some HBV-positive mother-infant pairs were not initially identified by Philadelphia's Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP). METHODS: We performed capture-recapture retrospectively for births in 2008 and 2009 in Philadelphia and prospectively for births from 2010 to 2014 by independently matching annual birth certificate data to PHBPP and HBV surveillance data...
May 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364132/challenges-in-establishing-genotype-phenotype-correlations-in-arpkd-case-report-on-a-toddler-with-two-severe-pkhd1-mutations
#15
Kathrin Ebner, Claudia Dafinger, Nadina Ortiz-Bruechle, Friederike Koerber, Bernhard Schermer, Thomas Benzing, Jörg Dötsch, Klaus Zerres, Lutz Thorsten Weber, Bodo B Beck, Max Christoph Liebau
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) constitutes an important cause of pediatric end stage renal disease and is characterized by a broad phenotypic variability. The disease is caused by mutations in a single gene, Polycystic Kidney and Hepatic Disease 1 (PKHD1), which encodes a large transmembrane protein of poorly understood function called fibrocystin. Based on current knowledge of genotype-phenotype correlations in ARPKD, two truncating mutations are considered to result in a severe phenotype with peri- or neonatal mortality...
July 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128518/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-women-with-severe-early-onset-pre-eclampsia-before-26-weeks-of-gestation-a-case-series
#16
M F van Oostwaard, L van Eerden, M W de Laat, J J Duvekot, Jjhm Erwich, Kwm Bloemenkamp, A C Bolte, Jpf Bosma, S V Koenen, R F Kornelisse, B Rethans, P van Runnard Heimel, Hcj Scheepers, W Ganzevoort, Bwj Mol, C J de Groot, Ipm Gaugler-Senden
OBJECTIVE: To describe the maternal and neonatal outcomes and prolongation of pregnancies with severe early onset pre-eclampsia before 26 weeks of gestation. DESIGN: Nationwide case series. SETTING: All Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres. POPULATION: All women diagnosed with severe pre-eclampsia who delivered between 22 and 26 weeks of gestation in a tertiary perinatal care centre in the Netherlands, between 2008 and 2014...
January 27, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997679/the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-adolescents-12-17-years-old-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-infection
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
William F Balistreri, Karen F Murray, Philip Rosenthal, Sanjay Bansal, Chuan-Hao Lin, Kathryn Kersey, Benedetta Massetto, Yanni Zhu, Bittoo Kanwar, Polina German, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Diana M Brainard, Jessica Wen, Regino P Gonzalez-Peralta, Maureen M Jonas, Kathleen Schwarz
No all-oral, direct-acting antiviral regimens have been approved for children with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, open-label study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in adolescents with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. One hundred patients aged 12-17 years received a combination tablet of 90 mg ledipasvir and 400 mg sofosbuvir once daily for 12 weeks. On the tenth day following initiation of dosing, 10 patients underwent an intensive pharmacokinetic evaluation of the concentrations of sofosbuvir, ledipasvir, and the sofosbuvir metabolite GS-331007...
August 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866601/assessment-of-state-perinatal-hepatitis-b-prevention-laws
#18
Lindsay A Culp, Lisa Caucci, Nancy E Fenlon, Megan C Lindley, Noele P Nelson, Trudy V Murphy
INTRODUCTION: Identifying pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for post-exposure prophylaxis of their infants is critical to preventing mother-to-child transmission of HBV infection. HBV infection in infancy results in premature death from chronic liver disease or cancer in 25% of affected infants. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection is the standard of care, and in many states is supported by laws for screening and reporting these infections to public health...
December 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765123/-follow-up-study-on-efficacy-of-blocking-mother-to-infant-transmission-of-hbv-and-its-influence-factors-in-jiangsu-province-2010-2015
#19
J Jiang, S L Dai, J F Xu, Y Zou, L G Zhu, H Peng, F C Zhu, X J Zhai
Objective: To evaluate the effects of blocking transmission of HBV from mother to infant in Jiangsu, and discuss influencing factors related to development of chronic HBV infection in children of HBsAg positive mother. Methods: HBsAg positive mothers delivered during 2010-2015 in three counties of Jiangsu (Zhangjiagang, Danyang and Taixing) and their neonates were included in the study. The neonates were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine (10 μg) and hepatitis B immunoglobin (100 units) within 24 hours after birth...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650823/origin-of-the-zika-virus-revealed-a-historical-journey-across-the-world
#20
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
December 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
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