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Perinatal hepatitis c

Danica E Kuncio, E Claire Newbern, Liyuan Ma, Robbie Madera, Bruce Barlow, S Ginny Robison, Kendra M Viner, Caroline C Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the capture-recapture method used by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health to enhance surveillance of perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV), report on results and limitations of the process, and determine why some HBV-positive mother-infant pairs were not initially identified by Philadelphia's Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP). METHODS: We performed capture-recapture retrospectively for births in 2008 and 2009 in Philadelphia and prospectively for births from 2010 to 2014 by independently matching annual birth certificate data to PHBPP and HBV surveillance data...
May 2017: Public Health Reports
Kathrin Ebner, Claudia Dafinger, Nadina Ortiz-Bruechle, Friederike Koerber, Bernhard Schermer, Thomas Benzing, Jörg Dötsch, Klaus Zerres, Lutz Thorsten Weber, Bodo B Beck, Max Christoph Liebau
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) constitutes an important cause of pediatric end stage renal disease and is characterized by a broad phenotypic variability. The disease is caused by mutations in a single gene, Polycystic Kidney and Hepatic Disease 1 (PKHD1), which encodes a large transmembrane protein of poorly understood function called fibrocystin. Based on current knowledge of genotype-phenotype correlations in ARPKD, two truncating mutations are considered to result in a severe phenotype with peri- or neonatal mortality...
March 31, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
M F van Oostwaard, L van Eerden, M W de Laat, J J Duvekot, Jjhm Erwich, Kwm Bloemenkamp, A C Bolte, Jpf Bosma, S V Koenen, R F Kornelisse, B Rethans, P van Runnard Heimel, Hcj Scheepers, W Ganzevoort, Bwj Mol, C J de Groot, Ipm Gaugler-Senden
OBJECTIVE: To describe the maternal and neonatal outcomes and prolongation of pregnancies with severe early onset pre-eclampsia before 26 weeks of gestation. DESIGN: Nationwide case series. SETTING: All Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres. POPULATION: All women diagnosed with severe pre-eclampsia who delivered between 22 and 26 weeks of gestation in a tertiary perinatal care centre in the Netherlands, between 2008 and 2014...
January 27, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
William F Balistreri, Karen F Murray, Philip Rosenthal, Sanjay Bansal, Lin Chuan-Hao, Kathryn Kersey, Benedetta Massetto, Yanni Zhu, Bittoo Kanwar, Polina German, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Diana M Brainard, Jessica Wen, Regino P Gonzalez-Peralta, Maureen M Jonas, Kathleen Schwarz
No all-oral, direct-acting antiviral regimens have been approved for children with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We conducted a Phase 2, multi-center, open-label study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in adolescents with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. One hundred patients ages 12 to 17 years received a combination tablet of 90 mg ledipasvir and 400 mg sofosbuvir once daily for 12 weeks. On the 10(th) day following initiation of dosing, 10 patients underwent an intensive pharmacokinetic evaluation of the concentrations of sofosbuvir, ledipasvir, and the sofosbuvir metabolite GS-331007...
December 20, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Lindsay A Culp, Lisa Caucci, Nancy E Fenlon, Megan C Lindley, Noele P Nelson, Trudy V Murphy
INTRODUCTION: Identifying pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for post-exposure prophylaxis of their infants is critical to preventing mother-to-child transmission of HBV infection. HBV infection in infancy results in premature death from chronic liver disease or cancer in 25% of affected infants. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection is the standard of care, and in many states is supported by laws for screening and reporting these infections to public health...
December 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
J Jiang, S L Dai, J F Xu, Y Zou, L G Zhu, H Peng, F C Zhu, X J Zhai
Objective: To evaluate the effects of blocking transmission of HBV from mother to infant in Jiangsu, and discuss influencing factors related to development of chronic HBV infection in children of HBsAg positive mother. Methods: HBsAg positive mothers delivered during 2010-2015 in three counties of Jiangsu (Zhangjiagang, Danyang and Taixing) and their neonates were included in the study. The neonates were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine (10 μg) and hepatitis B immunoglobin (100 units) within 24 hours after birth...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
December 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Candice Ruck, Brian A Reikie, Arnaud Marchant, Tobias R Kollmann, Fatima Kakkar
HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants experience increased overall mortality from infectious causes when compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected (HU) infants. This is the case in both the resource-rich and resource-limited settings. Here, we explore the concept that specific types of infectious diseases that are more common among HEU infants could provide clues as to the potential underlying immunological abnormalities. The most commonly reported infections in HEU vs. HU infants are caused by encapsulated bacteria, suggesting the existence of a less effective humoral (antibody, complement) immune response...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Lu Li, Dan Li, Feng Tian, Jin Cen, Xiaotao Chen, Yuan Ji, Lijian Hui
Borealin, a member of the chromosomal passenger complex, plays a key regulatory role at centromeres and the central spindle during mitosis. Loss of Borealin leads to defective cell proliferation and early embryonic lethality. The in vivo functions of Borealin in mammalian postnatal development, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis remain elusive. We specifically analyzed the role of Borealin in regulating postnatal liver development, damage-induced liver regeneration, and liver carcinogenesis using mice carrying conditional Borealin alleles...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Q J Sheng, Y Ding, B J Li, H Bai, C Zhang, C Han, Y X Fan, Y W Li, X G Dou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the success rate of telbivudine (LdT) for the prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the incidence of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation during LdT treatment and after LdT withdrawal in HBV-infected pregnant woman with high viremia in immune-tolerant phase and receiving LdT treatment at the end of pregnancy, and to evaluate the efficacy of LdT in the prevention of perinatal transmission and the safety for pregnant women. METHODS: Pregnant women infected with HBV in immune-tolerant phase who had normal ALT levels (≤40 U/L) and high viremia (HBV DNA ≥6 log10 IU/ml) with positive HBeAg were enrolled as subjects...
April 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Mohamed A El-Guindi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major medical challenge affecting around 200 million people worldwide. The main site of HCV replication is the hepatocytes of the liver. HCV is a positive enveloped RNA virus from the flaviviridae family. Six major HCV genotypes are implicated in the human infection. In developed countries the children are infected mainly through vertical transmission during deliveries, while in developing countries it is still due to horizontal transmission from adults. Minimal nonspecific and brief symptoms are initially found in approximately 15% of children...
June 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Lorraine S Oliveira, Luana L Souza, Aline F P Souza, Aline Cordeiro, George E G Kluck, Georgia C Atella, Isis H Trevenzoli, Carmen C Pazos-Moura
SCOPE: Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) promotes obesity and metabolic disturbances in offspring at weaning and adult life. We investigated metabolic consequences of maternal HFD in adolescent rat offspring and the potential benefic effects of fish oil (FO) (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid source). METHODS AND RESULTS: Female rats received isocaloric, standard diet (STD: 9% fat) or HFD (28.6%) before mating, and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring received standard diet and, from 25th to 45th day, received oral administration of soybean oil (SO) or FO...
June 25, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Caren Weinhouse, Maureen A Sartor, Christopher Faulk, Olivia S Anderson, Karilyn E Sant, Craig Harris, Dana C Dolinoy
Developmental exposure to the endocrine-active compound bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to epigenotoxic and potential carcinogenic effects in rodent liver, prostate, and mammary glands. A dose-dependent increase in hepatic tumors in 10-month mice perinatally exposed to one of three doses of BPA (50 ng, 50 µg, or 50 mg BPA/kg chow) was previously reported. These tumors represent early-onset disease and lack classical sexual dimorphism in incidence. Here, adult epigenome-wide liver DNA methylation profiles to identify gene promoters associated with perinatal BPA exposure and disease in 10-month mice with and without liver tumors were investigated...
July 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Qiuju Tian, Jidong Jia
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is characterized by a high genetic heterogeneity since it replicates via a reverse transcriptase that lacks proofreading ability. Up to now, ten genotypes (A-J) have been described, with genotype A and D being ubiquitous but most prevalent in Europe and Africa, genotype B and C being confined to Asia and Oceania. Infections with other genotypes such as E, F, G and H are also occasionally observed in Asia. Genotype I is rare and can be found in Laos, Vietnam, India and China, whereas genotype J has been described in Japan and Ryukyu...
November 2016: Hepatology International
Rejane C Marques, José V E Bernardi, Mônica P L Cunha, José G Dórea
In the transitioning Amazon, we addressed birth environment (home vs hospital) and associated perinatal organic-Hg exposures: methylmercury (MeHg) from maternal fish consumption and ethylmercury (EtHg) from pediatric Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) taken systematically during hospital delivery. We studied 365 children in relation to linear growth at 60 months and neurodevelopment (milestone achievements, Bayley Scale of Infant Development/BSID at 24 months, and Stanford-Binet intelligence tests at 60 months)...
August 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Amy R Kolwaite, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Alejandro Ramirez-Gonzalez, Kathleen Wannemuehler, Viengnakhone Vongxay, Vansy Vilayvone, Karen Hennessey, Minal K Patel
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) was introduced in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao-PDR) to prevent perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission. HepB-BD, which is labeled for storage between 2 and 8°C, is not available at all health facilities, because of some lack of functional cold chain; however, previous studies show that HepB-BD is stable if stored outside the cold chain (OCC). A pilot study was conducted in Lao-PDR to evaluate impact of OCC policy on HepB-BD coverage...
June 14, 2016: Vaccine
Eva Nüsken, Maria Wohlfarth, Gregor Lippach, Manfred Rauh, Holm Schneider, Jörg Dötsch, Kai-Dietrich Nüsken
Leptin availability in perinatal life critically affects metabolic programming. We tested the hypothesis that uteroplacental insufficiency and intrauterine stress affect perinatal leptin availability in rat offspring. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG; n = 14), sham operation (SOP; n = 12), or no operation (controls, n = 14). Fetal livers (n = 180), placentas (n = 180), and maternal blood were obtained 4 hours (gestational day [E] 19), 24 hours (E20), and 72 hours (E22) after surgery...
May 2016: Endocrinology
Aswine Bal, Anna Petrova
Background.  Perinatally acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the main source of pediatric HCV infection. However, the best time for initiation of screening and follow up of these infants is still unknown. Analysis of the clinical data of infants born to HCV-infected mothers, transmission rates, and pathway of HCV testing could be important for optimization of their management. Methods.  Children of mothers with chronic HCV infection, who were observed between 1998 and 2013 at the pediatric infectious disease clinic for the first 18 months of their life, were eligible for enrollment...
January 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Bill G Kapogiannis, Erin Leister, George K Siberry, Russell B Van Dyke, Bret Rudy, Patricia Flynn, Paige L Williams
OBJECTIVE: To longitudinally characterize noninvasive markers of liver disease in HIV-infected youth. DESIGN: HIV infection, without viral hepatitis coinfection, may contribute to liver disease. Noninvasive markers of liver disease [FIB-4 (Fibrosis-4) and APRI (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index)] have been evaluated in adults with concomitant HIV and hepatitis C, but are less studied in children. METHODS: In prospective cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected youth, we used linear regression models to compare log-transformed FIB-4 and APRI measures by HIV status based on a single visit at ages 15-20 years...
March 27, 2016: AIDS
R Rajbhandari, K Barton, A C Juncadella, A K Rubin, T Ajayi, Y Wu, A N Ananthakrishnan, R T Chung
Assiduous measures are taken to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to infants; it is unclear whether the mothers receive appropriate care for their chronic HBV. We sought to assess the quality of HBV care in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers following pregnancy. HBsAg-positive women (n = 243) who had sought prenatal care at Massachusetts General Hospital were retrospectively identified and charts reviewed. The primary outcome was adherence to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines...
July 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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