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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225568/liver-histology-and-diffusion-weighted-mri-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-magnet-study
#1
Paul Manning, Paul Murphy, Kang Wang, Jonathan Hooker, Tanya Wolfson, Michael S Middleton, Kimberly P Newton, Cynthia Behling, Hannah I Awai, Janis Durelle, Melissa N Paiz, Jorge E Angeles, Diana De La Pena, J Allen McCutchan, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Claude B Sirlin
PURPOSE: To determine potential associations between histologic features of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and estimated quantitative magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was performed as part of the Magnetic Resonance Assessment Guiding NAFLD Evaluation and Treatment (MAGNET) ancillary study to the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214020/serum-uric-acid-concentrations-and-fructose-consumption-are-independently-associated-with-nash-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Antonella Mosca, Valerio Nobili, Rita De Vito, Annalisa Crudele, Eleonora Scorletti, Alberto Villani, Anna Alisi, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent research has suggested that dietary fructose intake may increase serum uric acid (UA) concentrations. Both UA concentration and fructose consumption maybe also increase in NAFLD. It is not known whether dietary fructose consumption and UA concentration are independently associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with NASH in children and adolescents with proven NAFLD, and to test whether UA concentrations and fructose consumption are independently associated with NASH...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213910/the-virtual-dental-home-a-critique
#3
Jay W Friedman, David A Nash, Kavita R Mathu-Muju
The Virtual Dental Home is a concept of the Pacific Center for Special Care of the Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco. It is designed to improve access to dental care for underserved populations, specifically children and institutionalized adults. This article describes the development and implementation of the Virtual Dental Home, subsequently critiquing the concept. The criteria for a dental home are not met by the program. It is the equivalent of a traditional public oral health prevention and screening program, with the additional dimension of allowing dental hygienists and assistants to place interim glass ionomer restorations in dental cavities...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121467/modifying-provider-practice-to-improve-assessment-of-unhealthy-weight-and-lifestyle-in-young-children-translating-evidence-in-a-quality-improvement-initiative-for-at-risk-children
#4
Nadine L Camp, Rebecca C Robert, Jessica E Nash, Cara B Lichtenstein, Candice S Dawes, Katherine Patterson Kelly
BACKGROUND: We designed a quality improvement (QI) project to address the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB) in our patient population and the inconsistencies among primary care providers in recognizing and addressing OW/OB. METHODS: We used mixed methods data collection approach to evaluate a QI project, the Childhood Healthy Behaviors Intervention (CHBI), to improve provider obesity prevention practice in two low-income, predominantly African American pediatric primary care clinics...
January 25, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102610/outcomes-of-hiv-positive-patients-lost-to-follow-up-in-african-treatment-programmes
#5
REVIEW
Kathrin Zürcher, Anne Mooser, Nanina Anderegg, Olga Tymejczyk, Margaret J Couvillon, Denis Nash, Matthias Egger
OBJECTIVE: The retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to achieving global targets in response to the HIV epidemic. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) can be substantial, with unknown outcomes for patients lost to ART programmes. We examined changes in outcomes of patients LTFU over calendar time, assessed associations with other study and programme characteristics and investigated the relative success of different tracing methods. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and logistic random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that traced adults or children who started ART and were LTFU in sub-Saharan African treatment programmes...
January 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081230/characteristics-of-hiv-infected-children-at-enrollment-into-care-and-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-central-africa
#6
Adebola Adedimeji, Andrew Edmonds, Donald Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Jean d'Amour Sinayobye, Martin Nduwimana, Patricia Lelo, Denis Nash, Kathryn Anastos, Marcel Yotebieng
BACKGROUND: Despite the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly updating guidelines to recommend earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children, timely enrollment into care and initiation of ART in sub-Saharan Africa in children lags behind that of adults. The impact of implementing increasingly less restrictive ART guidelines on ART initiation in Central Africa has not been described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data are from the Central Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) pediatric cohort of 3,426 children (0-15 years) entering HIV care at 15 sites in Burundi, DRC, and Rwanda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073147/treating-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-in-children-not-a-cinch-task
#7
Naim Alkhouri, Ariel E Feldstein
BACKGROUND & AIMS: No treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been approved by regulatory agencies. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether 52 weeks of cysteamine bitartrate delayed release (CBDR) reduces the severity of liver disease in children with NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a double-masked trial of 169 children with NAFLD Activity Scores ≥ 4 at 10 centers. From June 2012 to January 2014, the patients were randomly assigned to receive CBDR or placebo twice daily (300 mg for ≤65 kg, 375 mg for >65-80 kg, 450 mg for >80 kg) for 52 weeks...
January 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067690/iron-overload-in-the-liver-of-2-children-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-juvenile-hemochromatosis
#8
Aysel Ünlüsoy Aksu, Angela Caleffi, Antonello Pietrangelo, Sinan Sari, Ödül Eğritaş Gürkan, Zeliha Demirtaş, Güldal Yilmaz, Buket Dalgiç
BACKGROUND: Iron overload disorders are hereditary hemochromatosis and secondary etiologies other than hereditary hemochromatosis. We describe 2 boys presenting with iron overload. Juvenile hemochromatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) related iron overload are the genetic and secondary causes, respectively. OBSERVATIONS: Both patients benefited from phlebotomy even if they had different etiologies. CONCLUSIONS: In childhood, the diagnosis of iron overload syndromes is crucial because they do not confront us with obvious symptoms and findings...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065388/a-systematic-review-of-cognitive-function-and-psychosocial-well-being-in-school-age-children-with-narcolepsy
#9
REVIEW
Jane E Blackwell, Hetaf A Alammar, Anna R Weighall, Ian Kellar, Hannah M Nash
In August 2010, concerns were raised about an increase in the incidence rate of narcolepsy diagnosis in children and adolescents. Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological sleep disorder characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness and attacks of muscle weakness which are often precipitated by strong emotions, known as cataplexy. We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the consequences of narcolepsy on cognitive function and psychosocial well-being in school-age children. Eight studies published between 2005 and 2015 were eligible for inclusion in this review...
July 18, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982761/liver-stiffness-in-pediatric-patients-with-fatty-liver-disease-diagnostic-accuracy-and-reproducibility-of-shear-wave-elastography
#10
Matteo Garcovich, Silvio Veraldi, Enrico Di Stasio, Maria Assunta Zocco, Lidia Monti, Paolo Tomà, Maurizio Pompili, Antonio Gasbarrini, Valerio Nobili
Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in identifying different degrees of fibrosis in a cohort of consecutive children and adolescents with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Materials and Methods Consecutive pediatric patients scheduled to undergo liver biopsy were studied with an ultrasonography-based SWE system. Elastography was performed in 68 of 69 patients with biopsy-proved NASH (37 boys and 31 girls; mean age, 12.6 years ± 2.48; age range, 8-17 years). The correlations among laboratory findings, liver stiffness, and fibrosis score were analyzed, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess the presence of any fibrosis (score ≥F1) or significant fibrosis (score ≥F2)...
December 13, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922112/plasma-cathepsin-d-correlates-with-histological-classifications-of-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults-and-responds-to-intervention
#11
Sofie M A Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Sander S Rensen, Veerle Bieghs, Tim Hendrikx, Patrick J van Gorp, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Mike L J Jeurissen, Marion J J Gijbels, Wim A Buurman, Anita C E Vreugdenhil, Jan Willem M Greve, Jogchum Plat, Marten H Hofker, Satish Kalhan, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Patrick Lindsey, Ger H Koek, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by liver lipid accumulation and inflammation. The mechanisms that trigger hepatic inflammation are poorly understood and subsequently, no specific non-invasive markers exist. We previously demonstrated a reduction in the plasma lysosomal enzyme, cathepsin D (CatD), in children with NASH compared to children without NASH. Recent studies have raised the concept that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults is distinct from children due to a different histological pattern in the liver...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920819/co-administration-of-metformin-and-n-acetylcysteine-with-dietary-control-improves-the-biochemical-and-histological-manifestations-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#12
Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany, Sayed Hassan Seif El-Din, Abdel-Nasser Abdel-Aal Sabra, Olfat Ali Hammam, Fatma Abdel-Latif Ebeid
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem that affects 1/3 of the adult population and an increasing number of children in developed countries. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance are the mechanisms that seem to be mostly involved in its pathogenesis. This study was conceived in a NAFLD rat model to evaluate the efficacy of both metformin (MTF) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with dietary control on biochemical and histologic liver manifestations. Rats were classified into nine groups; normal (I), NAFLD-induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD; II) for 12 weeks, NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or -RD treated with MTF in a dose of 150 mg/kg (IV, V), NAC in a dose of 500 mg/kg (VI, VII) or MTF+NAC (VIII, IX) respectively for 8 weeks...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861917/saskatchewan-s-school-based-dental-program-staffed-by-dental-therapists-a-retrospective-case-study
#13
Kavita R Mathu-Muju, Jay W Friedman, David A Nash
OBJECTIVES: The poor oral health of Saskatchewan's children, in concert with a significant shortage of dentists, prompted the province in the early 1970s to seek an alternative method of addressing the oral health care needs of children. The result was the Saskatchewan Health Dental Plan (SHDP), which trained and employed dental therapists in school-based clinics to provide basic dental care to all children. The program was initiated over the opposition of Saskatchewan's dentists. The purpose of this research was to provide information and data previously not documented in the refereed dental literature regarding the only school-based program staffed by dental therapists to ever exist in North America...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829119/social-perception-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#14
Sara A Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Kelly Nash, Joanne Rovet
Although the profile of social cognitive difficulties is well recognized in children with certain neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this profile is not as well established in other clinical pediatric populations. The objective of the present study is to examine patterns of social perception in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared to typically-developing (TD) control children. A total of 56 children between 8 and 12 years of age-35 with FASD and 21 TD-completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Children's Version (RMET-C)...
November 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822768/pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-rise-of-a-lethal-disease-among-mexican-american-hispanic-children
#15
REVIEW
Monica M Betancourt-Garcia, Armando Arguelles, Jorge Montes, Ambrosio Hernandez, Manish Singh, R Armour Forse
Hispanic children of Mexican origin have a high incidence of NAFLD. Susceptibility has been linked to a combination of factors including an increasing epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents, an allele substitution in the PNPLA3 gene that reduces hepatic lipid catabolism, and an altered microbiome that may increase hepatic endotoxins. The combination of NAFLD and portal vein toxins secondary to an indigenous gut microbiome appear to lead to the early occurrence of NASH, which progresses to cirrhosis and early hepatocellular carcinoma...
January 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822476/pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-interactions-between-liver-parenchymal-and-nonparenchymal-cells
#16
REVIEW
Nancy Magee, An Zou, Yuxia Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning), inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780972/developmental-origins-of-nafld-a-womb-with-a-clue
#17
REVIEW
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher, Jacob E Friedman
Changes in the maternal environment leading to an altered intrauterine milieu can result in subtle insults to the fetus, promoting increased lifetime disease risk and/or disease acceleration in childhood and later in life. Particularly worrisome is that the prevalence of NAFLD is rapidly increasing among children and adults, and is being diagnosed at increasingly younger ages, pointing towards an early-life origin. A wealth of evidence, in humans and non-human primates, suggests that maternal nutrition affects the placenta and fetal tissues, leading to persistent changes in hepatic metabolism, mitochondrial function, the intestinal microbiota, liver macrophage activation and susceptibility to NASH postnatally...
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773591/diagnostic-and-prognostic-significance-of-systemic-alkyl-quinolones-for-p-aeruginosa-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-longitudinal-study
#18
Helen L Barr, Nigel Halliday, David A Barrett, Paul Williams, Douglas L Forrester, Daniel Peckham, Kate Williams, Alan R Smyth, David Honeybourne, Joanna L Whitehouse, Edward F Nash, Jane Dewar, Andrew Clayton, Alan J Knox, Miguel Cámara, Andrew W Fogarty
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection is associated with poor outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) and early diagnosis is challenging, particularly in those who are unable to expectorate sputum. Specific P. aeruginosa 2-alkyl-4-quinolones are detectable in the sputum, plasma and urine of adults with CF, suggesting that they have potential as biomarkers for P. aeruginosa infection. AIM: To investigate systemic 2-alkyl-4-quinolones as potential biomarkers for pulmonary P...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722087/left-hemisphere-structural-connectivity-abnormality-in-pediatric-hydrocephalus-patients-following-surgery
#19
Weihong Yuan, Artur Meller, Joshua S Shimony, Tiffany Nash, Blaise V Jones, Scott K Holland, Mekibib Altaye, Holly Barnard, Jannel Phillips, Stephanie Powell, Robert C McKinstry, David D Limbrick, Akila Rajagopal, Francesco T Mangano
Neuroimaging research in surgically treated pediatric hydrocephalus patients remains challenging due to the artifact caused by programmable shunt. Our previous study has demonstrated significant alterations in the whole brain white matter structural connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis in children with hydrocephalus prior to surgery or in surgically treated children without programmable shunts. This study seeks to investigate the impact of brain injury on the topological features in the left hemisphere, contratelateral to the shunt placement, which will avoid the influence of shunt artifacts and makes further group comparisons feasible for children with programmable shunt valves...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688650/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-recent-solutions-unresolved-issues-and-future-research-directions
#20
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Clemente, Claudia Mandato, Marco Poeta, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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