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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451881/population-based-coverage-survey-results-following-the-mass-drug-administration-of-azithromycin-for-the-treatment-of-trachoma-in-amhara-ethiopia
#1
Tigist Astale, Eshetu Sata, Mulat Zerihun, Andrew W Nute, Aisha E P Stewart, Demelash Gessesse, Gedefaw Ayenew, Berhanu Melak, Melsew Chanyalew, Zerihun Tadesse, E Kelly Callahan, Scott D Nash
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. In communities where the district level prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular among children ages 1-9 years is ≥5%, WHO recommends annual mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics with the aim of at least 80% coverage. Population-based post-MDA coverage surveys are essential to understand the effectiveness of MDA programs, yet published reports from trachoma programs are rare. METHODS: In the Amhara region of Ethiopia, a population-based MDA coverage survey was conducted 3 weeks following the 2016 MDA to estimate the zonal prevalence of self-reported drug coverage in all 10 administrative zones...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429768/are-senna-based-laxatives-safe-when-used-as-long-term-treatment-for-constipation-in-children
#2
Alejandra Vilanova-Sanchez, Alessandra C Gasior, Nicole Toocheck, Laura Weaver, Richard J Wood, Carlos A Reck, Andrea Wagner, Erin Hoover, Renae Gagnon, Jordon Jaggers, Tassiana Maloof, Onnalisa Nash, Charae Williams, Marc A Levitt
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Senna is a stimulant laxative commonly used by pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologists, and pediatric surgeons. Many clinicians avoid Senna for reasons such as tolerance or side effects but this has little scientific justification. We recently found several patients we were caring for developed perineal blistering during the course of Senna treatment. Because of this we chose to review the literature to identify side effects in children taking this medication as well as to analyze our Center's experience with Senna's secondary effects...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380318/assessment-of-fatty-liver-in-models-of-disease-programming
#3
Kimberley D Bruce, Karen R Jonscher
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is present in a third of the general population and the majority of individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Importantly, NAFLD can progress to severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), associated with liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent research efforts have extensively focused on identifying factors contributing to the additional "hit" required to promote NALFD disease progression...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379536/bifidobacteria-and-lactobacilli-in-the-gut-microbiome-of-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-which-strains-act-as-health-players
#4
Valerio Nobili, Lorenza Putignani, Antonella Mosca, Federica Del Chierico, Pamela Vernocchi, Anna Alisi, Laura Stronati, Salvatore Cucchiara, Marco Toscano, Lorenzo Drago
Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), considered the leading cause of chronic liver disease in children, can often progress from non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is clear that obesity is one of the main risk factors involved in NAFLD pathogenesis, even if specific mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. We investigated the distribution of intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the stools of four groups of children: obese, obese with NAFL, obese with NASH, and healthy, age-matched controls (CTRLs)...
January 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349944/investigation-of-clinical-and-pathological-relationships-between-adult-and-pediatric-type-nash-in-korean-children
#5
Jungmin Yoon, Byung Han Park, Ja Hye Kim, Jin Hwa Moon, Young Ho Lee, Se Min Jang, Yong Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Histologically, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is categorized into adult-type (type 1) and pediatric-type (type 2). The origination of the histological difference between the two types and how they differ clinically remain uncertain. We aimed to understand the incidence and clinical characteristics of the two types of NASH in Korean children, and to investigate the association between their pathological type and clinical characteristics, using anthropometric and laboratory data...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335047/money-in-tension-with-ethics-a-commentary
#6
David A Nash
Monetary incentives are frequently in tension with evidence-based and cost-effective clinical care, thus posing an ethical concern in the practice of dentistry. The purpose of this commentary was to examine the issue of treating children in the context of caries risk assessment and with specific reference to the periodic oral examination, radiographic surveillance, topical fluorides, and the pumice rubber prophylaxis.
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283403/preliminary-findings-that-a-targeted-intervention-leads-to-altered-brain-function-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#7
Kelly Nash, Sara Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Joanne Rovet
Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) exhibit behavioral dysregulation, executive dysfunction, and atypical function in associated brain regions. Previous research shows early intervention mitigates these outcomes but corresponding brain changes were not studied. Given the Alert® Program for Self-Regulation improves behavioral regulation and executive function in children with FASD, we asked if this therapy also improves their neural functioning in associated regions. Twenty-one children with FASD aged 8-12 years were randomized to the Alert®-treatment (TXT; n = 10) or waitlist-control (WL; n = 11) conditions...
December 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240727/health-and-development-at-age-19-24-months-of-19-children-who-were-born-with-microcephaly-and-laboratory-evidence-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection-during-the-2015-zika-virus-outbreak-brazil-2017
#8
Ashley Satterfield-Nash, Kim Kotzky, Jacob Allen, Jeanne Bertolli, Cynthia A Moore, Isabela Ornelas Pereira, André Pessoa, Flavio Melo, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Coleen A Boyle, Georgina Peacock
In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MOH) declared the Zika virus outbreak a public health emergency after an increase in microcephaly cases was reported in the northeast region of the country (1). During 2015-2016, 15 states in Brazil with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus transmission reported an increase in birth prevalence of microcephaly (2.8 cases per 10,000 live births), significantly exceeding prevalence in four states without confirmed transmission (0.6 per 10,000) (2). Although children with microcephaly and laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection have been described in early infancy (3), their subsequent health and development have not been well characterized, constraining planning for the care and support of these children and their families...
December 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215054/in-vivo-redox-metabolic-imaging-of-mitochondria-assesses-disease-progression-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#9
Ryosuke Nakata, Fuminori Hyodo, Masaharu Murata, Hinako Eto, Tomoko Nakaji, Takahito Kawano, Sayoko Narahara, Keiji Yasukawa, Tomohiko Akahoshi, Morimasa Tomikawa, Makoto Hashizume
Given the rising incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in both adults and children, the development of a non-invasive diagnostic method for assessing disease progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become an important research goal. Currently available non-invasive imaging technologies are only able to assess fat accumulation in the liver. Therefore, these methods are not suitable for a precise diagnosis of NASH. The standard diagnostic technique for NASH, liver biopsy, has several drawbacks, including the higher risk of complications that accompanies invasive procedures...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165568/second-harmonic-generation-reveals-subtle-fibrosis-differences-in-adult-and-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Feng Liu, Jing-Min Zhao, Hui-Ying Rao, Wei-Miao Yu, Wei Zhang, Neil D Theise, Aileen Wee, Lai Wei
Objectives: Investigate subtle fibrosis similarities and differences in adult and pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using second harmonic generation (SHG). Methods: SHG/two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging quantified 100 collagen parameters and determined qFibrosis values by using the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) Clinical Research Network (CRN) scoring system in 62 adult and 36 pediatric NAFLD liver specimens. Results: Six distinct parameters identified differences among the NASH CRN stages with high accuracy (area under the curve, 0835-0...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130075/association-between-cytokines-and-liver-histology-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Emily R Perito, Veeral Ajmera, Nathan M Bass, Philip Rosenthal, Joel E Lavine, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Katherine P Yates, Anna Mae Diehl, Jean P Molleston, Karen F Murray, Ann Scheimann, Ryan Gill, David Glidden, Bradley Aouizerat
Background: Reliable non-invasive markers to characterize inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are lacking. We investigated the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and features of NAFLD histology to gain insight into cellular pathways driving NASH and to identify potential non-invasive discriminators of NAFLD severity and pattern. Methods: Cytokines were measured from plasma obtained at enrollment in pediatric participants in NASH Clinical Research Network studies with liver biopsy-proven NAFLD...
September 2017: Hepatology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108191/-an-interpretation-of-the-aasld-practice-guideline-on-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-2017
#12
Y M Nan, N Fu, W C Li, L L Kong, X W Yuan, S Y Zhang, L D Liu, Y Lu, L Y Cui
The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) updated and published the Practice Guidance for the Diagnosis and Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in July 2017, which provides recommendations for the accurate diagnosis, treatment, and effective prevention of NAFLD. Related metabolic diseases should be considered during the initial evaluation of patients suspected of NAFLD. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques including transient elastography, magnetic resonance elastography, and serum biochemical models should be used to evaluate the development and progression of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD...
September 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095942/serum-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-levels-are-not-associated-with-either-histological-severity-or-treatment-response-in-children-and-adults-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Katherine P Yates, Ross Deppe, Megan Comerford, Howard Masuoka, Oscar W Cummings, James Tonascia, Naga Chalasani, Raj Vuppalanchi
AIM: Serum high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory molecule that could potentially serve as a biomarker for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) due to its correlation with degree of liver fibrosis. The aim of the current study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between serum HMGB1 levels and liver histology in adults and children with NAFLD participating in two large randomized controlled trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045180/quantitative-liver-mri-biopsy-correlation-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-can-one-be-used-to-predict-the-other
#14
Jonathan R Dillman, Andrew T Trout, Emma N Costello, Suraj D Serai, Kristin S Bramlage, Rohit Kohli, Stavra A Xanthakos
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between quantitative liver MRI measurements and liver biopsy findings in pediatric and young adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a registry that prospectively enrolls pediatric and young adult patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD at our tertiary medical center with parent or guardian and subject informed consent, as appropriate...
October 18, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028128/diagnostic-accuracy-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-hepatic-proton-density-fat-fraction-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Michael S Middleton, Mark L Van Natta, Elhamy R Heba, Adina Alazraki, Andrew T Trout, Prakash Masand, Elizabeth M Brunt, David E Kleiner, Edward Doo, James Tonascia, Joel E Lavine, Wei Shen, Gavin Hamilton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Claude B Sirlin
We assessed the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in children to stratify hepatic steatosis grade before and after treatment in the Cysteamine Bitartrate Delayed-Release for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children (CyNCh) trial, using centrally-scored histology as reference. Participants had multi-echo 1.5T or 3T MRI on scanners from three manufacturers. Of 169 enrolled children, 110 (65%) and 83 (49%) had MRI and liver biopsy at baseline and at end-of-treatment (EOT; 52-weeks), respectively...
October 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986475/pediatric-cytochrome-p450-activity-alterations-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#16
Hui Li, Canet J Mark, John D Clarke, Dean Billheimer, Stavra A Xanthakos, Joel E Lavine, Robert P Erickson, Nathan J Cherrington
Variable drug responses(VDRs) are dependent upon individual variation in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes including cytochrome P450s(CYPs). As the most common chronic liver disease in children and adults, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) has been identified as a source of significant inter-individual variation in hepatic drug metabolism. Compared to adults, children present age-related differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of fatty liver disease severity on the activity of a variety of CYPs in children and adolescents...
October 6, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948754/histopathology-grading-and-staging-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
David Kleiner
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the liver disease associated with obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome . Although steatosis is a key histological feature, liver biopsies of patients with NAFLD can show a wide range of other findings, including portal and lobular inflammation, ballooning and apoptotic hepatocellular injury, Mallory-Denk bodies, megamitochondria and fibrosis. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive subtype of NAFLD first defined by analogy to alcoholic hepatitis...
September 25, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930295/global-burden-of-nafld-and-nash-trends-predictions-risk-factors-and-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Zobair Younossi, Quentin M Anstee, Milena Marietti, Timothy Hardy, Linda Henry, Mohammed Eslam, Jacob George, Elisabetta Bugianesi
NAFLD is one of the most important causes of liver disease worldwide and will probably emerge as the leading cause of end-stage liver disease in the coming decades, with the disease affecting both adults and children. The epidemiology and demographic characteristics of NAFLD vary worldwide, usually parallel to the prevalence of obesity, but a substantial proportion of patients are lean. The large number of patients with NAFLD with potential for progressive liver disease creates challenges for screening, as the diagnosis of NASH necessitates invasive liver biopsy...
September 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898427/the-dental-therapist-movement-in-the-united-states-a-critique-of-current-trends
#19
David A Nash, Kavita R Mathu-Muju, Jay W Friedman
Dental therapists are members of the oral health workforce in over 50 countries in the world typically caring for children in publically funded school-based programs. A movement has developed in the United States to introduce dental therapists to the oral health workforce in an attempt to improve access to care and to reduce disparities in oral health. This article critiques trends in the United States movement in the context of the history and success of dental therapists practicing internationally. While supporting the dental therapist movement, we challenge: a) the use of dental therapists treating adults, versus focusing on children; b) the use of dental therapists in the private versus the public/not-for-profit sector; and c) requirements that a dental therapist must also be credentialed as a dental hygienist...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892575/effects-of-treating-helminths-during-pregnancy-and-early-childhood-on-risk-of-allergy-related-outcomes-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Benigna Namara, Stephen Nash, Swaib A Lule, Hellen Akurut, Harriet Mpairwe, Florence Akello, Josephine Tumusiime, Moses Kizza, Joyce Kabagenyi, Gyaviira Nkurunungi, Lawrence Muhangi, Emily L Webb, Moses Muwanga, Alison M Elliott
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections, common in low-income countries, may protect against allergy-related disease. Early exposure may be a key. In the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, treating helminths during pregnancy resulted in increased eczema rates in early childhood. We followed the cohort to determine whether this translated to increased asthma rates at school age. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, conducted in Entebbe, Uganda, had three interventions...
September 11, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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