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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861917/saskatchewan-s-school-based-dental-program-staffed-by-dental-therapists-a-retrospective-case-study
#1
Kavita R Mathu-Muju, Jay W Friedman, David A Nash
OBJECTIVES: The poor oral health of Saskatchewan's children, in concert with a significant shortage of dentists, prompted the province in the early 1970s to seek an alternative method of addressing the oral health care needs of children. The result was the Saskatchewan Health Dental Plan (SHDP), which trained and employed dental therapists in school-based clinics to provide basic dental care to all children. The program was initiated over the opposition of Saskatchewan's dentists. The purpose of this research was to provide information and data previously not documented in the refereed dental literature regarding the only school-based program staffed by dental therapists to ever exist in North America...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829119/social-perception-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#2
Sara A Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Kelly Nash, Joanne Rovet
Although the profile of social cognitive difficulties is well recognized in children with certain neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this profile is not as well established in other clinical pediatric populations. The objective of the present study is to examine patterns of social perception in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared to typically-developing (TD) control children. A total of 56 children between 8 and 12 years of age-35 with FASD and 21 TD-completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Children's Version (RMET-C)...
November 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822768/pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-rise-of-a-lethal-disease-among-mexican-american-hispanic-children
#3
REVIEW
Monica M Betancourt-Garcia, Armando Arguelles, Jorge Montes, Ambrosio Hernandez, Manish Singh, R Armour Forse
Hispanic children of Mexican origin have a high incidence of NAFLD. Susceptibility has been linked to a combination of factors including an increasing epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents, an allele substitution in the PNPLA3 gene that reduces hepatic lipid catabolism, and an altered microbiome that may increase hepatic endotoxins. The combination of NAFLD and portal vein toxins secondary to an indigenous gut microbiome appear to lead to the early occurrence of NASH, which progresses to cirrhosis and early hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 7, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822476/pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-interactions-between-liver-parenchymal-and-nonparenchymal-cells
#4
REVIEW
Nancy Magee, An Zou, Yuxia Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning), inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780972/developmental-origins-of-nafld-a-womb-with-a-clue
#5
REVIEW
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher, Jacob E Friedman
Changes in the maternal environment leading to an altered intrauterine milieu can result in subtle insults to the fetus, promoting increased lifetime disease risk and/or disease acceleration in childhood and later in life. Particularly worrisome is that the prevalence of NAFLD is rapidly increasing among children and adults, and is being diagnosed at increasingly younger ages, pointing towards an early-life origin. A wealth of evidence, in humans and non-human primates, suggests that maternal nutrition affects the placenta and fetal tissues, leading to persistent changes in hepatic metabolism, mitochondrial function, the intestinal microbiota, liver macrophage activation and susceptibility to NASH postnatally...
October 26, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773591/diagnostic-and-prognostic-significance-of-systemic-alkyl-quinolones-for-p-aeruginosa-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-longitudinal-study
#6
Helen L Barr, Nigel Halliday, David A Barrett, Paul Williams, Douglas L Forrester, Daniel Peckham, Kate Williams, Alan R Smyth, David Honeybourne, Joanna L Whitehouse, Edward F Nash, Jane Dewar, Andrew Clayton, Alan J Knox, Miguel Cámara, Andrew W Fogarty
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection is associated with poor outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) and early diagnosis is challenging, particularly in those who are unable to expectorate sputum. Specific P. aeruginosa 2-alkyl-4-quinolones are detectable in the sputum, plasma and urine of adults with CF, suggesting that they have potential as biomarkers for P. aeruginosa infection. AIM: To investigate systemic 2-alkyl-4-quinolones as potential biomarkers for pulmonary P...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722087/left-hemisphere-structural-connectivity-abnormality-in-pediatric-hydrocephalus-patients-following-surgery
#7
Weihong Yuan, Artur Meller, Joshua S Shimony, Tiffany Nash, Blaise V Jones, Scott K Holland, Mekibib Altaye, Holly Barnard, Jannel Phillips, Stephanie Powell, Robert C McKinstry, David D Limbrick, Akila Rajagopal, Francesco T Mangano
Neuroimaging research in surgically treated pediatric hydrocephalus patients remains challenging due to the artifact caused by programmable shunt. Our previous study has demonstrated significant alterations in the whole brain white matter structural connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis in children with hydrocephalus prior to surgery or in surgically treated children without programmable shunts. This study seeks to investigate the impact of brain injury on the topological features in the left hemisphere, contratelateral to the shunt placement, which will avoid the influence of shunt artifacts and makes further group comparisons feasible for children with programmable shunt valves...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688650/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-recent-solutions-unresolved-issues-and-future-research-directions
#8
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Clemente, Claudia Mandato, Marco Poeta, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is becoming a major health concern. A "multiple-hit" pathogenetic model has been suggested to explain the progressive liver damage that occurs among children with NAFLD. In addition to the accumulation of fat in the liver, insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress due to genetic/epigenetic background, unfavorable lifestyles, gut microbiota and gut-liver axis dysfunction, and perturbations of trace element homeostasis have been shown to be critical for disease progression and the development of more severe inflammatory and fibrotic stages [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634295/the-challenges-of-participant-photography-a-critical-reflection-on-methodology-and-ethics-in-two-cultural-contexts
#9
Linda Murray, Meredith Nash
Photovoice and photo-elicitation are two common methods of participant photography used in health research. Although participatory photography has many benefits, this critical reflection provides fellow researchers with insights into the methodological and ethical challenges faced when using such methods. In this article, we critically reflect on two studies that used participatory photography in different cultural contexts. The first study used photo-elicitation to investigate mothers' experiences of infant settling in central Vietnam...
September 14, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581063/nonobese-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Donghee Kim, W Ray Kim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a group of conditions characterized by hepatic steatosis in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD is seen commonly in patients with metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, such as type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Evidently, however, not all obese subjects develop NAFLD and, more importantly, NAFLD can be found in nonobese individuals. Although NAFLD occurring in nonobese subjects has been reported in children and adults of all ethnicities, it appears to be recognized more frequently in Asians, even when strict ethnicity-specific body mass index criteria are used to define obesity...
August 28, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569726/in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-cysteamine-bitartrate-delayed-release-improves-liver-enzymes-but-does-not-reduce-disease-activity-scores
#11
Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Joel E Lavine, Laura A Wilson, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Stavra A Xanthakos, Rohit Kohli, Sarah E Barlow, Miriam B Vos, Saul J Karpen, Jean P Molleston, Peter F Whitington, Philip Rosenthal, Ajay K Jain, Karen F Murray, Elizabeth M Brunt, David E Kleiner, Mark L Van Natta, Jeanne M Clark, James Tonascia, Edward Doo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: No treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been approved by regulatory agencies. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether 52 weeks of cysteamine bitartrate delayed release (CBDR) reduces the severity of liver disease in children with NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a double-masked trial of 169 children with NAFLD activity scores of 4 or higher at 10 centers. From June 2012 to January 2014, the patients were assigned randomly to receive CBDR or placebo twice daily (300 mg for patients weighing ≤65 kg, 375 mg for patients weighing >65 to 80 kg, and 450 mg for patients weighing >80 kg) for 52 weeks...
December 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565159/beverage-consumption-and-paediatric-nafld
#12
Antonella Mosca, Claudia Della Corte, Maria Rita Sartorelli, Francesca Ferretti, Francesco Nicita, Andrea Vania, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
August 26, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496263/are-the-literacy-difficulties-that-characterize-developmental-dyslexia-associated-with-a-failure-to-integrate-letters-and-speech-sounds
#13
Hannah M Nash, Debbie Gooch, Charles Hulme, Yatin Mahajan, Genevieve McArthur, Kurt Steinmetzger, Margaret J Snowling
The 'automatic letter-sound integration hypothesis' (Blomert, ) proposes that dyslexia results from a failure to fully integrate letters and speech sounds into automated audio-visual objects. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of English-speaking children with dyslexic difficulties (N = 13) and samples of chronological-age-matched (CA; N = 17) and reading-age-matched controls (RA; N = 17) aged 7-13 years. Each child took part in two priming experiments in which speech sounds were preceded by congruent visual letters (congruent condition) or Greek letters (baseline)...
August 6, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478956/prevalence-of-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Kimberly P Newton, Jiayi Hou, Nancy A Crimmins, Joel E Lavine, Sarah E Barlow, Stavra A Xanthakos, Jonathan Africa, Cynthia Behling, Michele Donithan, Jeanne M Clark, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
Importance: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major chronic liver disease in children in the United States and is associated with insulin resistance. In adults, NAFLD is also associated with type 2 diabetes. To our knowledge, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children with NAFLD is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in children with NAFLD and assess type 2 diabetes and prediabetes as risk factors for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470502/irinotecan-metabolite-sn38-results-in-germ-cell-loss-in-the-testis-but-not-in-the-ovary-of-prepubertal-mice
#15
Federica Lopes, Rowena Smith, Sophie Nash, Rod T Mitchell, Norah Spears
STUDY QUESTION: Does the Irinotecan metabolite 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecan (SN38) damage the gonads of male and female prepubertal mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: The Irinotecan metabolite SN38 reduces germ cell numbers within the seminiferous tubules of mouse testes at concentrations that are relevant to cancer patients, while in contrast it has little if any effect on the female germ cell population. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Little is known about the role of the chemotherapeutic agent Irinotecan on female fertility, with only one article to date reporting menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women treated with Irinotecan, while no data are available either on adult male fertility or on the impact of Irinotecan on the subsequent fertility of prepubertal cancer patients, female or male...
July 28, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422346/model-programs-to-address-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-disease-interventions-for-suboptimal-nutrition-and-sedentary-lifestyles
#16
Mark S Nash, Jochen Kressler
Problems posed by obesity-related endocrine diseases embody a national health crisis. Caloric excess and sedentary lifestyle from which they develop also pose significant challenges for rehabilitation providers. Almost two thirds of the U.S. population are currently overweight or obese, a number that has increased by >10% within the last decade and is expected to grow. An overweight body habitus is strongly associated with clinical hazards, including cardiometabolic syndrome, diabetes hypertension, and coronary artery disease...
September 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27316554/human-health-risk-assessment-of-chloroxylenol-in-liquid-hand-soap-and-dishwashing-soap-used-by-consumers-and-health-care-professionals
#17
Lisa J Yost, Joseph D Rodricks, Duncan Turnbull, Paul C DeLeo, J Frank Nash, Antonio Quiñones-Rivera, Pete A Carlson
A quantitative human risk assessment of chloroxylenol was conducted for liquid hand and dishwashing soap products used by consumers and health-care workers. The toxicological data for chloroxylenol indicate lack of genotoxicity, no evidence of carcinogenicity, and minimal systemic toxicity. No observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) were established from chronic toxicity studies, specifically a carcinogenicity study that found no cancer excess (18 mg/kg-day) and studies of developmental and reproductive toxicity (100 mg/kg-day)...
October 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27309736/serum-pentraxin-3-fragment-as-a-noninvasive-marker-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#18
Rasha Tarif Hamza, Amel A Elfaramawy, Nermine H Mahmoud
BACKGROUND/AIMS: It was suggested that serum pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels could differentiate obese children with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from those with simple steatosis. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of serum PTX3 fragment levels in the diagnosis of NASH and the assessment of its severity in obese children with suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Fifty obese children were compared to 25 matched controls. All were subjected to history taking, anthropometric measurements, and abdominal ultrasonography, as well as laboratory assessments of liver functions, fasting lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, fasting glucose/insulin ratio, and serum PTX3...
2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262842/hepatokines-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Dariusz M Lebensztejn, Marta Flisiak-Jackiewicz, Irena Białokoz-Kalinowska, Anna Bobrus-Chociej, Irina Kowalska
Nowadays non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most common chronic liver pathology both in adults and children. NAFLD manifestation ranges from a simple liver steatosis to steatohepatitis (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - NASH), which may progress to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Due to the coexistence of visceral obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, NAFLD is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. In recent years, in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and also NAFLD, more and more attention has been paid to the so-called organokines, proteins with both paracrine or/and endocrine activities...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256954/trauma-informed-care-for-youth-in-foster-care
#20
REVIEW
Carolyn M Fratto
For decades, evidence has shown an undeniable connection between childhood trauma and chronic adverse reactions across the lifespan (Bilchik & Nash, 2008; Perry, 2001; Perry, 2006). Childhood traumatic experiences are associated with serious and persistent, long-term physical, psychological, and substance abuse issues. In addition to adverse effects on physical health, research indicates that early childhood trauma has particularly adverse effects on adolescent self-esteem, coping skills, school performance, self-regulation, critical thinking, self-motivation, and the ability to build healthy relationships (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009)...
June 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
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