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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331324/update-on-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis-role-of-pimavanserin
#1
REVIEW
Brianna L Combs, Arthur G Cox
Parkinson's disease (PD) has a prevalence of nearly 1 million people in the USA, with increasing incidence in the elderly population. Generally, the age of presentation is between 55 and 65 years, with the likelihood of diagnosis increasing as patients reach the age of 80 years or above. Some of the common treatments for PD increase dopamine levels in the brain. Dopaminergic therapy helps to improve motor and non-motor symptoms, but it is not without risks. Dopaminergic therapy can cause confusion, delirium, and psychotic-like behavior...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304340/neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-psychosis-and-psychosis-risk
#2
REVIEW
Henry Barron, Sina Hafizi, Ana C Andreazza, Romina Mizrahi
Although our understanding of psychotic disorders has advanced substantially in the past few decades, very little has changed in the standard of care for these illnesses since the development of atypical anti-psychotics in the 1990s. Here, we integrate new insights into the pathophysiology with the increasing interest in early detection and prevention. First, we explore the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in a subpopulation of cortical parvalbumin-containing interneurons (PVIs). Postmortem and preclinical data has implicated these neurons in the positive and negative symptoms, as well as the cognitive dysfunction present in schizophrenia...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259697/antipsychotic-use-and-physical-morbidity-in-parkinson-disease
#3
Daniel Weintraub, Claire Chiang, Hyungjin Myra Kim, Jayne Wilkinson, Connie Marras, Barbara Stanislawski, Eugenia Mamikonyan, Helen C Kales
OBJECTIVE: To determine if antipsychotic (AP) use in Parkinson disease (PD) patients is associated with increased physical morbidity. METHODS: Veterans Health Administration data (1999-2010) was used to examine physical morbidity risk associated with AP use in idiopathic PD patients with stable recent physical health. We compared 180-day morbidity rates in patients initiating an AP with matched non-AP users who survived for 180 days (matched on age, sex, race, index year, presence and duration of dementia, PD duration, delirium, hospitalization, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and new non-psychiatric medications; covarying for psychosis)...
February 2, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223808/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibody-could-be-a-cause-of-catatonic-symptoms-in-psychiatric-patients-case-reports-and-methods-for-detection
#4
Ko Tsutsui, Takashi Kanbayashi, Manabu Takaki, Yuki Omori, Yumiko Imai, Seiji Nishino, Keiko Tanaka, Tetsuo Shimizu
The symptoms of catatonia have been reported to be similar to the initial symptoms of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Subsequently, this autoimmune limbic encephalitis has been noticed by many psychiatrists. For a differential diagnosis of catatonic state, it is important to detect anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This encephalitis is expected to be in remission by early detection and treatment. We should be more cautious about catatonic symptoms of schizophrenia. When a patient is suspected of having encephalitis, we should screen for anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples using a cell-based assay...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221369/chemistry-based-molecular-signature-underlying-the-atypia-of-clozapine
#5
T Cardozo, E Shmelkov, K Felsovalyi, J Swetnam, T Butler, D Malaspina, S V Shmelkov
The central nervous system is functionally organized as a dynamic network of interacting neural circuits that underlies observable behaviors. At higher resolution, these behaviors, or phenotypes, are defined by the activity of a specific set of biomolecules within those circuits. Identification of molecules that govern psychiatric phenotypes is a major challenge. The only organic molecular entities objectively associated with psychiatric phenotypes in humans are drugs that induce psychiatric phenotypes and drugs used for treatment of specific psychiatric conditions...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152356/cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Leonard Kritharides, Vincent Chow, Tim Jr Lambert
Patients with schizophrenia die on average 25 years earlier than the general population, and this gap appears to be increasing. Most of the excess mortality is due to premature cardiovascular deaths rather than suicide. Many psychotropic agents are orexigenic and can increase weight and promote dyslipidaemia. Traditional cardiac risk factors are undertreated among patients with schizophrenia, and they are less likely to receive cardiac revascularisation than those without a mental illness. Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication effective for treatment of refractory schizophrenia, but is associated with the risk of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy...
February 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144616/steroid-induced-psychosis-after-eus-guided-celiac-plexus-blockade
#7
David C Olson, Jason J Lewis
A 46-year-old female with no previous personal or family psychiatric history underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided celiac plexus blockade (CPB) to treat pain related to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-associated chronic pancreatitis. She had excellent response to her first three CPBs using bupivacaine and triamcinolone. The patient's subsequent CPBs were complicated by symptoms of racing thoughts, delusional thinking, and insomnia. She was diagnosed with acute psychosis secondary to triamcinolone...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143678/episodic-memory-functions-in-first-episode-psychosis-and-clinical-high-risk-individuals
#8
Sarah E Greenland-White, J Daniel Ragland, Tara A Niendam, Emilio Ferrer, Cameron S Carter
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with schizophrenia have disproportionate memory impairments when encoding relational versus item-specific information, and when using recollection versus familiarity during retrieval. It is unclear whether this pattern is unique to people with chronic schizophrenia, or if it occurs in individuals after a first episode of psychosis (FE), or when at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR). METHODS: We administered the Relational and Item-Specific Memory task (RiSE) to 22 CHR, 101 FE, and 58 typically developing (TD) participants...
January 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138118/reduction-of-severity-of-recurrent-psychotic-episode-by-sustained-treatment-with-aripiprazole-in-a-schizophrenic-patient-with-dopamine-supersensitivity-a-case-report
#9
Shigenori Tadokoro, Naho Nonomura, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Kenji Hashimoto, Masaomi Iyo
Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is a type of acute exacerbation of recurrent psychosis caused by long-term treatment with antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients. Although DSP is exceedingly troublesome for clinicians, effective treatment has not yet been established. Based on clinical research and our animal study, we hypothesize that aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic, may reduce the exacerbation of recurrent psychotic episodes. We report the case of a 46-year-old female who suffered from schizophrenia with DSP...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056870/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-nmdar-antibody-encephalitis-presents-in-atypical-types-and-coexists-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-or-neurosyphilis
#10
Kaiyu Qin, Wenqing Wu, Yuming Huang, Dongmei Xu, Lei Zhang, Bowen Zheng, Meijuan Jiang, Cheng Kou, Junhua Gao, Wurong Li, Jinglin Zhang, Sumei Wang, Yanfei Luan, Chaoling Yan, Dan Xu, Xinmei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by epileptic seizures, psychosis, dyskinesia, consciousness impairments, and autonomic instability. Symptoms are always various. Sometimes it presents in milder or incomplete forms. We report 4 cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with incomplete forms, 3 cases of which were accompanied by neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder or neurosyphilis respectively. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old man presented with dysarthria, movement disorder and occasional seizures...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979819/psychosis-in-autism-comparison-of-the-features-of-both-conditions-in-a-dually-affected-cohort
#11
Felicity V Larson, Adam P Wagner, Peter B Jones, Digby Tantam, Meng-Chuan Lai, Simon Baron-Cohen, Anthony J Holland
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the presentation and characteristics of psychotic illness experienced by people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). AIMS: To describe autistic and psychotic phenomenology in a group of individuals with comorbid ASD and psychosis (ASD-P) and compare this group with populations affected by either, alone. METHOD: We studied 116 individuals with ASD-P. We compared features of their ASD with people with ASD and no comorbid psychosis (ASD-NP), and clinical characteristics of psychosis in ASD-P with people with psychosis only...
December 15, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971407/the-prevalence-of-atypical-antipsychotic-medication-use-for-pediatric-psychosis-in-korea
#12
H Lee, H Kang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964941/testing-continuum-models-of-psychosis-no-reduction-in-source-monitoring-ability-in-healthy-individuals-prone-to-auditory-hallucinations
#13
Jane R Garrison, Peter Moseley, Ben Alderson-Day, David Smailes, Charles Fernyhough, Jon S Simons
People with schizophrenia who hallucinate show impairments in reality monitoring (the ability to distinguish internally generated information from information obtained from external sources) compared to non-hallucinating patients and healthy individuals. While this may be explained at least in part by an increased externalizing bias, it remains unclear whether this impairment is specific to reality monitoring, or whether it also reflects a general deficit in the monitoring of self-generated information (internal source monitoring)...
November 22, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931902/effectiveness-of-blonanserin-for-patients-with-drug-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-and-dopamine-supersensitivity-a-retrospective-analysis
#14
Masumi Tachibana, Tomihisa Niitsu, Motoki Watanabe, Tasuku Hashimoto, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Masatomo Ishikawa, Masaomi Iyo
OBJECTIVE: Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is one of the key factors contributing to the development of antipsychotic treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). We investigated the efficacy of blonanserin, an atypical antipsychotic, for patients with TRS and DSP. METHODS: In this 12-month retrospective follow-up study, we investigated the cases of eight consecutive patients with unstable TRS and DSP treated with blonanserin as an add-on therapy. We examined changes in scores for the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) during the 12 months after the administration of blonanserin...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899309/repeated-misdiagnosis-of-a-relapsed-atypical-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-without-an-associated-ovarian-teratoma
#15
Weihe Zhang, Li Yan, Jinsong Jiao
We present an atypical case of relapsed anti-NMDAR encephalitis in a young female patient without an associated ovarian teratoma. She presented with recurrent seizure attacks with muscle weakness, psychosis, dyskinesia, autonomic failure and insomnia. She was first misdiagnosed as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) then Hashimoto's encephalopathy due to diffuse cerebral lesions, elevated serum lactic acid concentration, increased amount of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies in serum and diffuse lesions of the thyroid gland...
January 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834153/childhood-trauma-is-associated-with-increased-brain-responses-to-emotionally-negative-as-compared-with-positive-faces-in-patients-with-psychotic-disorders
#16
M Aas, K Kauppi, C L Brandt, M Tesli, T Kaufmann, N E Steen, I Agartz, L T Westlye, O A Andreassen, I Melle
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma increases risk of a range of mental disorders including psychosis. Whereas the mechanisms are unclear, previous evidence has implicated atypical processing of emotions among the core cognitive models, in particular suggesting altered attentional allocation towards negative stimuli and increased negativity bias. Here, we tested the association between childhood trauma and brain activation during emotional face processing in patients diagnosed with psychosis continuum disorders...
November 11, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830568/psychosis-in-parkinson-disease-a-review-of-etiology-phenomenology-and-management
#17
REVIEW
Niyatee Samudra, Neepa Patel, Kyle B Womack, Pravin Khemani, Shilpa Chitnis
Parkinson disease psychosis (PDP) is a common phenomenon in Parkinson disease (PD) patients treated with dopaminergic drugs, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It also correlates with depression and dementia, and can contribute to considerable caregiver stress and burnout. While symptoms can be relieved by decreasing doses or number of anti-PD medications, this may lead to an unacceptable worsening of motor function. When general medical or psychiatric conditions have been ruled out, and decreasing dopaminergic agents is not effective in treating psychosis, therapies include atypical antipsychotics, primarily clozapine and quetiapine...
December 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827293/vitamin-d-deficiency-behavioral-atypicality-anxiety-and-depression-in-children-with-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#18
L Kelley, A F P Sanders, E A Beaton
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a complex developmental disorder with serious medical, cognitive and emotional symptoms across the lifespan. This genetic deletion also imparts a lifetime risk for developing schizophrenia that is 25-30 times that of the general population. The origin of this risk is multifactorial and may include dysregulation of the stress response and immunological systems in relation to brain development. Vitamin D is involved in brain development and neuroprotection, gene transcription, immunological regulation and influences neuronal signal transduction...
December 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800022/evidence-for-the-use-of-pimavanserin-in-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#19
REVIEW
Harini Sarva, Claire Henchcliffe
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with both motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS), leading to significant morbidity and caregiver burden. Psychosis is common but is under recognized by physicians. When present, it increases the patient's risk of hospitalization and nursing home placement and caregiver burden. Although the atypical antipsychotic agent, clozapine, has been considered the gold standard treatment, severe agranulocytosis in 0.38% of patients and more commonly milder leukopenia, resulting in frequent blood testing, limit its use...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719624/treatment-possibilities-for-psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-an-emphasis-on-the-newly-approved-drug-pimavanserin
#20
Zsófia Majláth, Izabella Obál, László Vécsei
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with prominent motor and non-motor symptoms. Psychosis develops in over 40% of PD patients and it is one of the most distressing symptoms for patients and caregivers alike. Until recently, atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and quetiapine were used to treat psychotic symptoms, but treatment was associated with substantial concerns for side-effects of clozapine and unfounded efficacy for quetiapine. Extensive research has shown that the antipsychotic effect of these drugs could be attributed to serotonin 2a receptor (5 HT2a) triggered mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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