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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545155/rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-enteric-fever
#1
REVIEW
Lalith Wijedoru, Sue Mallett, Christopher M Parry
BACKGROUND: Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever...
May 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544976/long-range-transport-of-xe-133-emissions-under-convective-and-non-convective-conditions
#2
J Kuśmierczyk-Michulec, M Krysta, M Kalinowski, E Hoffmann, J Baré
To investigate the transport of xenon emissions, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) operates an Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) system based on the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. The air mass trajectory ideally provides a "link" between a radionuclide release and a detection confirmed by radionuclide measurements. This paper investigates the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions, with special emphasis on evaluating the changes in the simulated activity concentration values due to the inclusion of the convective transport in the ATM simulations...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544896/exploring-mechanisms-of-change-in-cognitive-therapy-and-interpersonal-psychotherapy-for-adult-depression
#3
Lotte H J M Lemmens, Francisca Galindo-Garre, Arnoud Arntz, Frenk Peeters, Steven D Hollon, Robert J DeRubeis, Marcus J H Huibers
The present study explored the temporal relationships between change in five candidate causal mechanisms and change in depressive symptoms in a randomized comparison of individual Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for adult depression. Furthermore, hypotheses concerning the mediation of change in these treatments were tested. Patients were 151 depressed adult outpatients treated with either CT (n = 76) or IPT (n = 75). Depression severity was assessed with the BDI-II. Candidate mediators included both therapy-specific as well as common factors...
May 8, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544333/image-based-modeling-and-scoring-of-howell-jolly-bodies-in-human-erythrocytes
#4
Oguzhan Angay, Mike Friedrich, Jürgen Pinnecker, Henning Hintzsche, Helga Stopper, Klaus Hempel, Katrin G Heinze
The spleen selectively removes cells with intracellular inclusions, for example, detached nuclear fragments in circulating erythrocytes, called Howell-Jolly Bodies (HJBs). With absent or deficient splenic function HJBs appear in the peripheral blood and can be used as a simple and non-invasive risk-indicator for fulminant potentially life-threatening infection after spleenectomy. However, it is still under debate whether counting of the rare HJBs is a reliable measure of splenic function. Investigating HJBs in premature erythrocytes from patients during radioiodine therapy gives about 10 thousand times higher HJB counts than in blood smears...
May 24, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543091/intraoperative-localized-constrained-registration-in-navigated-bronchoscopy
#5
Erlend Fagertun Hofstad, Hanne Sorger, Janne Beate Lervik Bakeng, Lucian Gruionu, Håkon Olav Leira, Tore Amundsen, Thomas Langø
PURPOSE: One of the major challenges in electromagnetic navigated bronchoscopy is the navigation accuracy. An initial rigid image-to-patient registration may not be optimal for the entire lung volume, as the lung tissue anatomy is likely to have shifted since the time of computer tomography (CT) acquisition. The accuracy of the initial rigid registration will also be affected throughout the procedure by breathing, coughing, patient movement and tissue displacements due to pressure from bronchoscopy tools...
May 25, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542712/histologic-scoring-indices-for-evaluation-of-disease-activity-in-ulcerative-colitis
#6
REVIEW
Mahmoud H Mosli, Claire E Parker, Sigrid A Nelson, Kenneth A Baker, John K MacDonald, G Y Zou, Brian G Feagan, Reena Khanna, Barrett G Levesque, Vipul Jairath
BACKGROUND: Disease activity can be determined using clinical, endoscopic or histologic criteria in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Persistent disease activity is associated with poor outcomes. Histologic disease activity has been shown to be associated with relapse, colectomy and colorectal cancer. The ability to objectively evaluate microscopic disease activity using histology is important for both clinical practice and clinical trials. However, the operating properties of the currently available histologic indices remain unclear...
May 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542544/development-and-characterization-of-an-experimental-model-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rabbit
#7
Oscar Julián Arias-Mutis, Vannina G Marrachelli, Amparo Ruiz-Saurí, Antonio Alberola, Jose Manuel Morales, Luis Such-Miquel, Daniel Monleon, Francisco J Chorro, Luis Such, Manuel Zarzoso
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become one of the main concerns for public health because of its link to cardiovascular disease. Murine models have been used to study the effect of MetS on the cardiovascular system, but they have limitations for studying cardiac electrophysiology. In contrast, the rabbit cardiac electrophysiology is similar to human, but a detailed characterization of the different components of MetS in this animal is still needed. Our objective was to develop and characterize a diet-induced experimental model of MetS that allows the study of cardiovascular remodeling and arrhythmogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542468/alveoli-teeth-and-tooth-loss-understanding-the-homology-of-internal-mandibular-structures-in-mysticete-cetaceans
#8
Carlos Mauricio Peredo, Nicholas D Pyenson, Mark D Uhen, Christopher D Marshall
The evolution of filter feeding in baleen whales (Mysticeti) facilitated a wide range of ecological diversity and extreme gigantism. The innovation of filter feeding evolved in a shift from a mineralized upper and lower dentition in stem mysticetes to keratinous baleen plates that hang only from the roof of the mouth in extant species, which are all edentulous as adults. While all extant mysticetes are born with a mandible lacking a specialized feeding structure (i.e., baleen), the bony surface retains small foramina with elongated sulci that often merge together in what has been termed the alveolar gutter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542196/using-relative-handgrip-strength-to-identify-children-at-risk-of-sarcopenic-obesity
#9
Michal Steffl, Jan Chrudimsky, James J Tufano
Identifying children at risk of developing childhood sarcopenic obesity often requires specialized equipment and costly testing procedures, so cheaper and quicker methods would be advantageous, especially in field-based settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the muscle-to-fat ratio (MFR) and relative handgrip strength, and to determine the ability of handgrip strength relative to body mass index (grip-to-BMI) to identify children who are at risk of developing sarcopenic obesity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541132/how-can-we-realize-the-clinical-benefits-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#10
Ramzi A Ajjan
Controlling glycemia in diabetes remains key to prevent complications in this condition. However, glucose levels can undergo large fluctuations secondary to daily activities, consequently creating management difficulties. The current review summarizes the basics of glucose management in diabetes by addressing the main glycemic parameters. The advantages and limitation of HbA1c, the gold standard measure of glucose control, are discussed together with the clinical importance of hypoglycemia and glycemic variability...
May 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539194/effects-of-the-informed-health-choices-primary-school-intervention-on-the-ability-of-children-in-uganda-to-assess-the-reliability-of-claims-about-treatment-effects-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Allen Nsangi, Daniel Semakula, Andrew D Oxman, Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Matt Oxman, Sarah Rosenbaum, Angela Morelli, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Margaret Kaseje, Iain Chalmers, Atle Fretheim, Yunpeng Ding, Nelson K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: Claims about what improves or harms our health are ubiquitous. People need to be able to assess the reliability of these claims. We aimed to evaluate an intervention designed to teach primary school children to assess claims about the effects of treatments (ie, any action intended to maintain or improve health). METHODS: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we included primary schools in the central region of Uganda that taught year-5 children (aged 10-12 years)...
May 19, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538324/physical-fitness-reference-standards-in-french-youth-the-bouge-program
#12
Jérémy Vanhelst, Julien Labreuche, Laurent Béghin, Elodie Drumez, Paul S Fardy, Didier Chapelot, Jacques Mikulovic, Zékya Ulmer
Vanhelst, J, Julien, JL, Beghin, L, Drumez, E, Fardy, PS, Chapelot, D, Mikulovic, J, and Ulmer, Z. Physical fitness reference standards in French youth: The BOUGE program. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1709-1718, 2017-The aim of this study was to establish sex- and age-specific physical fitness percentiles in French youth. A sample of 11,186 children and adolescents (5,546 boys and 5,640 girls), aged between 10 and 15 years, was assessed in the French national BOUGE study. Participants were tested for their cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, speed, flexibility, and agility using the following tests: 20-m shuttle run tests, curl-ups test, 50-m sprint test, back-saver sit and reach test, and 10 × 5-m shuttle run test...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538105/linezolid-induced-lactic-acidosis-the-thin-line-between-bacterial-and-mitochondrial-ribosomes
#13
Alessandro Santini, Dario Ronchi, Manuela Garbellini, Daniela Piga, Alessandro Protti
Introduction - Linezolid inhibits bacterial growth by targeting bacterial ribosomes and by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis. Lactic acidosis is a rare, but potentially lethal, side effect of linezolid. Areas covered - The pathogenesis of linezolid-induced lactic acidosis is reviewed with special emphasis on aspects relevant to the recognition, prevention and treatment of the syndrome. Expert opinion - Linezolid-induced lactic acidosis reflects the untoward interaction between the drug and mitochondrial ribosomes...
May 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538047/auditory-processing-disorder-what-does-it-mean-and-what-can-be-done
#14
Krista Bartlett, Elissa Kelley, Julie Purdy, Martin T Stein
Julian, an 11-year-old boy in the sixth grade with a compliant disposition and a positive attitude, has had a significant decline in his academic performance over the last 2 years. He spends much of his time in the nurse's office with headaches and fatigue. He reports that he cannot concentrate or follow along in class. Vision and hearing screenings were normal.Julian's teachers report that although he has no behavior problem, he is inattentive and does not put forth the effort she feels he is capable of giving...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536815/-is-kinesiophobia-associated-with-changes-in-left-right-judgment-and-emotion-recognition-during-a-persisting-pain-condition-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
H von Piekartz, J Lüers, H Daumeyer, G Mohr
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of kinesiophobia on emotion recognition and left/right judgement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 67 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain were tested. In all, 24 patients achieved a score >37 on the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and were included in the study. The ability to recognize basic emotions coded through facial expression was assessed using the Facially Expressed Emotion Labeling (FEEL) test...
May 23, 2017: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536271/contrasting-modulatory-effects-from-the-dorsal-and-ventral-premotor-cortex-on-primary-motor-cortex-outputs
#16
Sandrine L Côté, Adjia Hamadjida, Stephan Quessy, Numa Dancause
The dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv) each take part in unique aspects for the planning and execution of hand movements. These premotor areas are components of complex anatomical networks that include the primary motor cortex (M1) of both hemispheres. One way PMd and PMv could play distinct roles for hand movements is by differently modulating the outputs of M1. Yet, patterns of effects from PMd and PMv on the outputs of M1 have not been systematically compared. Our goals were to study how PMd within the same (i...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535815/internet-based-attentional-bias-modification-training-as-add-on-to-regular-treatment-in-alcohol-and-cannabis-dependent-outpatients-a-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-control-trial
#17
Janika Heitmann, Madelon E van Hemel-Ruiter, Karin M Vermeulen, Brian D Ostafin, Colin MacLeod, Reinout W Wiers, Laura DeFuentes-Merillas, Martine Fledderus, Wiebren Markus, Peter J de Jong
BACKGROUND: The automatic tendency to attend to and focus on substance-related cues in the environment (attentional bias), has been found to contribute to the persistence of addiction. Attentional bias modification (ABM) interventions might, therefore, contribute to treatment outcome and the reduction of relapse rates. Based on some promising research findings, we designed a study to test the clinical relevance of ABM as an add-on component of regular intervention for alcohol and cannabis patients...
May 23, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534281/elder-mistreatment-perpetrators-with-substance-abuse-and-or-mental-health-conditions-results-from-the-national-elder-mistreatment-study
#18
Travis Labrum, Phyllis L Solomon
A large portion of persons who commit elder mistreatment have long been known to have indicators of substance abuse and/or mental health conditions (SAMHC). However, few studies have specifically examined elder mistreatment by persons with SAMHC, preventing the development of specialized intervention strategies. Using results from the National Elder Mistreatment Study, the current article examines victim, perpetrator, and interaction characteristics between cases of emotional and physical elder mistreatment in which the perpetrator is reported to have vs...
May 23, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533577/the-interaction-between-trolox-and-4-4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2-2-disulfonic-acid-on-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-in-the-isolated-rabbit-lung
#19
Somayh Mansoori, Seyed Mostafa Shid Moosavi, Farzaneh Ketabchi
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is still debatable. It has been proposed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) might be involved in HPV. However, there is no special transporter for superoxide anion in the cell membrane and it may release from the cells via anion exchanger. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of ROS and anion exchanger in acute HPV. METHODS: The present study was performed in the isolated rabbit lung...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533508/kinetic-interpretation-of-log-logistic-dose-time-response-curves
#20
Walter W Focke, Isbe van der Westhuizen, Ndeke Musee, Mattheüs Theodor Loots
A Hill-type time-response curve was derived using a single-step chemical kinetics approximation. The rate expression for the transformation is a differential equation that provides an interpolation formula between the logistic growth curve and second order kinetics. The solution is equivalent to the log-logistic cumulative distribution function with the time constant expressed in terms of a kinetic rate constant. This expression was extended to a full dose-time-response equation by postulating a concentration dependence for the rate constant...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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