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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156089/assessing-the-geographical-dichotomy-hypothesis-with-cacti-in-south-america
#1
A A Arzabe, L F Aguirre, M P Baldelomar, M A Molina-Montenegro
The Cactaceae is one of the most conspicuous and ecologically important plant families in the world; its species may have specialist or generalist pollination systems that show geographical patterns, which are synthesized in the Geographical Dichotomy Hypothesis. Here, we assess this hypothesis in five countries in both tropical and extratropical regions, evaluating the pollinator visitation rate and pollinator identity and abundance. We calculate the Shannon diversity index (H') and evenness (J) and evaluate the differences between latitude parameters by a t-student test...
November 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155927/specialized-fungal-parasites-reduce-fitness-of-their-lichen-hosts
#2
Sonia Merinero, Yngvar Gauslaa
Background and aims: Understanding to what extent parasites affect host fitness is a focus of research on ecological interactions. Fungal parasites usually affect the functions of vascular plants. However, parasitic interactions comprising effects of fungal parasites on the fitness of lichen hosts are less well known. This study assesses the effects of the abundance of two highly specialized gall-forming fungi on growth of their two respective lichen hosts and tests whether these fungal parasites reduce lichen fitness...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155283/comparative-analysis-of-media-effects-on-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-in-proarrhythmia-risk-assessment
#3
Derek Schocken, Jayna Stohlman, Jose Vicente, Dulciana Chan, Dakshesh Patel, Murali Krishna Matta, Vikram Patel, Mathew Brock, Daniel Millard, James Ross, David G Strauss, Ksenia Blinova
INTRODUCTION: Cardiotoxicity assessment using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) forms a key component of the Comprehensive in Vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA). A potentially impactful factor on iPSC-CM testing is the presence of serum in the experimental media. Generally, serum-free media is used to most accurately reproduce "free" drug concentration. However, caution is needed; drug solubility and cardiomyocyte electrophysiology could be affected by media formulation, potentially impacting interpretation of drug-induced effects...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154692/landing-kinematics-and-kinetics-at-the-knee-during-different-landing-tasks
#4
Nicholas R Heebner, Deirdre M Rafferty, Meleesa F Wohleber, Andrew J Simonson, Mita Lovalekar, Andrew Reinert, Timothy C Sell
CONTEXT:   Several tasks have been used to examine landing biomechanics for evaluation and rehabilitation, especially as related to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, comparing results among studies in which different tasks were used can be difficult, and it is unclear which task may be most appropriate. OBJECTIVE:   To compare lower extremity biomechanics across 5 commonly used landing tasks. DESIGN:   Descriptive laboratory study...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153522/short-communication-growth-of-dairy-isolates-of-geobacillus-thermoglucosidans-in-skim-milk-depends-on-lactose-degradation-products-supplied-by-anoxybacillus-flavithermus-as-secondary-species
#5
Y Zhao, M Kumar, M P M Caspers, M N Nierop Groot, J M B M van der Vossen, T Abee
Thermophilic bacilli such as Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus are important contaminants in dairy powder products. Remarkably, one of the common contaminants, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, showed poor growth in skim milk, whereas significant growth of G. thermoglucosidans was observed in the presence of an Anoxybacillus flavithermus dairy isolate. In the present study, we investigated the underlying reason for this growth dependence of G. thermoglucosidans. Whole-genome sequences of 4 A. flavithermus strains and 4 G...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153184/a-100-year-review-yogurt-and-other-cultured-dairy-products
#6
Kayanush J Aryana, Douglas W Olson
The history of the last 100 years of the science and technology of yogurt, sour cream, cultured butter, cultured buttermilk, kefir, and acidophilus milk has been one of continuous development and improvement. Yogurt leads the cultured dairy product category in terms of volume of production in the United States and recent research activity. Legal definitions of yogurt, sour cream and acidified sour cream, and cultured milk, including cultured buttermilk, are presented in the United States Code of Federal Regulations and summarized here...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153024/-diet-treatment-of-classical-galactosemia
#7
Erika Kiss, Lídia Balogh, Péter Reismann
Classical galactosemia is an inherited disorder of the carbohydrate metabolism, most often caused by the deficient activity of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase. Classical galactosemia presents in the neonatal period with life threatening illness after galactose is introduced in the diet. Symptoms and signs include poor feeding, vomiting, and diarrhea, weight loss, jaundice, hypotension, cataracts, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatocellular insufficiency, and encephalopathy. Since 1975 the testing for galactosemia is part of the neonatal screening program in Hungary...
November 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152326/development-of-a-communication-aid-for-explaining-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-genetic-test-results
#8
Yana Smagarinsky, Charlotte Burns, Catherine Spinks, Christopher Semsarian, Jodie Ingles
Background: Large gene panels are now commonplace for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), increasing the yield of uncertain genetic findings. Few resources exist which aim to facilitate communication of HCM genetic test results. We sought to develop, pilot, and refine a communication aid for probands receiving HCM genetic test results. Methods: Development was a multi-step process involving expertise of a multidisciplinary team, literature review, and empirical experience...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152182/selective-regimes-and-functional-anatomy-in-the-mustelid-forelimb-diversification-toward-specializations-for-climbing-digging-and-swimming
#9
Brandon M Kilbourne
Anatomical traits associated with locomotion often exhibit specializations for ecological niche, suggesting that locomotor specializations may constitute selective regimes acting on limb skeletal traits. To test this, I sampled 42 species of Mustelidae, encompassing climbing, digging, and swimming specialists, and determined whether trait variation reflects locomotor specialization by performing a principal components analysis on 14 forelimb traits. In addition to Brownian motion models, three Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of selective regimes were applied to PC scores describing trait variation among mustelids: one without a priori defined phenotypic optima, one with optima based upon locomotor habit, and one with a single phenotypic optimum...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150921/tgf-%C3%AE-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-when-a-friend-becomes-an-enemy
#10
Marco Arrese, Daniel Cabrera, Alejandra Hernandez, Luis Astete, Lisbell Estrada, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide accounting for more than 700 thousand deaths per year. Most of the HCC develops in a cirrhotic liver, a microenvironment where fibrotic tissue replaces parenchymal cells. Thus, there is a close connection between fibrosis and HCC development. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process is a crucial step to advance in novel therapeutic or pharmacological strategies to prevent or improve the course of this malignancy...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150661/morphological-differentiation-of-brachionus-calyciflorus-caused-by-predation-and-coal-ash-pollution
#11
Ying-Hao Xue, Xiao-Xue Yang, Gen Zhang, Yi-Long Xi
Different rotifer stains exhibited remarkably morphological differences which could not be eliminated under laboratory conditions. In the present study, we hypothesized that predation pressure and pollution might be two forces driving morphological differentiation of rotifer. To test this hypothesis, rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus) belonging to two sibling species were collected from three special lakes (with coal ash pollution, high predation pressure or neither) and cultured for more than three months to investigate their potential differentiation in morphology...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148640/short-term-outcome-of-operated-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-for-intracranial-hemorrhage-at-tikur-anbessa-specialized-teaching-hospital-tasth-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#12
Hagos Biluts, Azarias Kassahun, Mersha Abebe
Background: Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability in people younger than 40 years of age worldwide. Objective: The study primarily aims at assessing the short-term outcome of patients operated for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. Patients and Methods: This is a hospital based cross sectional study on patients with traumatic brain injury at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between February 2013 and February 2014...
January 2017: Ethiopian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147964/diabetes-care-in-qatar-a-survey-of-pharmacists-activities-attitudes-and-knowledge
#13
Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Safae E Abu Yousef, Meena Ali Basri
Background Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a major public health issue and is one of the top ten causes of death in Qatar. Objective To describe the activities, and attitudes of Qatar pharmacists toward diabetes, to measure their diabetes knowledge and to assess their perceived barriers for diabetes care. Setting Community and ambulatory pharmacies in Qatar. Method Study objectives were addressed in a cross sectional survey of community and ambulatory pharmacists in Qatar. A phone call explaining the study was made to all community and ambulatory pharmacists in Qatar...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147670/isokinetic-extension-strength-is-associated-with-single-leg-vertical-jump-height
#14
Felix Fischer, Cornelia Blank, Tobias Dünnwald, Peter Gföller, Elmar Herbst, Christian Hoser, Christian Fink
Background: Isokinetic strength testing is an important tool in the evaluation of the physical capacities of athletes as well as for decision making regarding return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in both athletes and the lay population. However, isokinetic testing is time consuming and requires special testing equipment. Hypothesis: A single-jump test, regardless of leg dominance, may provide information regarding knee extension strength through the use of correlation analysis of jump height and peak torque of isokinetic muscle strength...
November 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145170/perioperative-thrombocytopenia-predicts-poor-outcome-in-patients-undergoing-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#15
Maciej Mitrosz, Remigiusz Kazimierczyk, Malgorzata Chlabicz, Bozena Sobkowicz, Ewa Waszkiewicz, Anna Lisowska, Slawomir Dobrzycki, Wlodzimierz J Musial, Tomasz Hirnle, Karol A Kaminski, Agnieszka M Tycinska
PURPOSE: To determine the time point at which thrombocytopenia after TAVI procedure is an indicator of the worst prognosis, with special consideration of perioperative platelet and coagulation activation as its potential causes. METHODS: Thirty two patients (mean age 78.5±7.9years, 62% females) qualified for TAVI procedure were prospectively evaluated. Platelet counts were assessed at baseline and for the next three postoperative (POD) days. Platelet activation was evaluated by P-selectin (PS, serum, ELISA) and platelet factor 4 (PF-4, CTAD plasma), and blood coagulation activation by prothrombin fragments 1+2 (F1+2, plasma, ELISA)...
November 13, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143149/effects-of-intraspecific-and-intra-individual-differences-in-plant-quality-on-preference-and-performance-of-monophagous-aphid-species
#16
Ruth Jakobs, Caroline Müller
Plant chemistry is one of the main drivers of herbivore distribution. Monophagous herbivore species are highly specialized, but even within their only host species the chemistry varies. The herbivore's choice is initially mainly guided by volatile plant compounds. Once on the plant, particularly for aphids the phloem quality affects their performance. However, little is known about the intraspecific and intra-individual variation in phloem sap and their influences on monophagous aphids. To determine potential mechanisms involved in aphid colonization, we tested the effects of intraspecific chemical variation in Tanacetum vulgare, which produces different chemotypes, on the preference of two monophagous aphid species...
November 15, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142543/career-choices-of-medical-doctors-at-graduate-level-a-multicenter-study
#17
Sadaf Zia, Maisam Abbas, Mehreen Sulaiman, Salman Matiullah Sheikh
Objective: To find out the specialty choices being taken by Final year Medical students and graduate Doctors. Method: This is a cross sectional survey study which was conducted over two months from 1(st) November to 31(st) December 2016. Final year students and house job doctors were asked for the filling of Performa, after filling the consent form. A self-developed, anonymous questionnaire was used to conduct the study using close ended type of questions. This was a multi-center study conducted at Dow International Medical College and Jinnah Medical and Dental College...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142227/population-genetic-structure-of-the-land-snail-camaena-cicatricosa-stylommatophora-camaenidae-in-china-inferred-from-mitochondrial-genes-and-its2-sequences
#18
Weichuan Zhou, Haifang Yang, Hongli Ding, Shanping Yang, Junhong Lin, Pei Wang
The phylogeographic structure of the land snail Camaena cicatricosa was analyzed in this study based on mitochondrial gene (COI and 16srRNA, mt DNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences in 347 individuals. This snail is the vector of the zoonotic food-borne parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis and one of the main harmful snails distributed exclusively in China. The results revealed significant fixation indices of genetic differentiation and high gene flow between most populations except several populations...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142107/is-inflammatory-micronucleation-the-key-to-a-successful-anti-mitotic-cancer-drug
#19
REVIEW
T J Mitchison, J Pineda, J Shi, S Florian
Paclitaxel is a successful anti-cancer drug that kills cancer cells in two-dimensional culture through perturbation of mitosis, but whether it causes tumour regression by anti-mitotic actions is controversial. Drug candidates that specifically target mitosis, including inhibitors of kinesin-5, AurkA, AurkB and Plk1, disappointed in the clinic. Current explanations for this discrepancy include pharmacokinetic differences and hypothetical interphase actions of paclitaxel. Here, we discuss post-mitotic micronucleation as a special activity of taxanes that might explain their higher activity in solid tumours...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141222/jnk-promotes-epithelial-cell-anoikis-by-transcriptional-and-post-translational-regulation-of-bh3-only-proteins
#20
Nomeda Girnius, Roger J Davis
Developmental morphogenesis, tissue injury, and oncogenic transformation can cause the detachment of epithelial cells. These cells are eliminated by a specialized form of apoptosis (anoikis). While the processes that contribute to this form of cell death have been studied, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the role of the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway using murine models with compound JNK deficiency in mammary and kidney epithelial cells. These studies demonstrated that JNK is required for efficient anoikis in vitro and in vivo...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
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