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Daniel Shane Wright, Nicolle Demandt, Jeroen T Alkema, Ole Seehausen, Ton G G Groothuis, Martine E Maan
Local adaptation can be a potent force in speciation, with environmental heterogeneity leading to niche specialization and population divergence. However, local adaption often requires non-random mating in order to generate reproductive isolation. Population divergence in sensory properties can be particularly consequential in speciation, affecting both ecological adaptation and sexual communication. Pundamilia pundamila and Pundamilia nyererei are two closely related African cichlid species that differ in male coloration, blue vs...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Peter E Clayson, Gregory A Miller
Generalizability theory (G theory) provides a flexible, multifaceted approach to estimating score reliability. G theory's approach to estimating score reliability has important advantages over classical test theory that are relevant for research using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). For example, G theory does not require parallel forms (i.e., equal means, variances, and covariances), can handle unbalanced designs, and provides a single reliability estimate for designs with multiple sources of error. This monograph provides a detailed description of the conceptual framework of G theory using examples relevant to ERP researchers, presents the algorithms needed to estimate ERP score reliability, and provides a detailed walkthrough of newly-developed software, the ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox, that calculates score reliability using G theory...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Gabriel Lima-Oliveira, Dorothy M Adcock, Gian Luca Salvagno, Emmanuel J Favaloro, Giuseppe Lippi
OBJECTIVE: Thus study was aimed to investigate whether the mixing technique could influence the results of routine and specialized clotting tests on post-thawed specimens. METHODS: The sample population consisted of 13 healthy volunteers. Venous blood was collected by evacuated system into three 3.5mL tubes containing 0.109mmol/L buffered sodium citrate. The three blood tubes of each subject were pooled immediately after collection inside a Falcon 15mL tube, then mixed by 6 gentle end-over-end inversions, and centrifuged at 1500g for 15min...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Yuri N Clement, Varune Mahase, Annelise Jagroop, Kelly Kissoon, Aarti Maharaj, Prashant Mathura, Chrys Mc Quan, Divya Ramadhin, Cherrista Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major disease worldwide, and many patients use complementary and alternative treatments. The purpose of this study was to identify the herbal remedies and functional foods used as complementary medicine by prostate, breast and colorectal cancer patients at speciality care facilities in Trinidad. We also sought to determine how patients rated the efficacy of these modalities compared with conventional treatment. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered pilot-tested de novo questionnaire during the period June to August 2012 at two speciality treatment centres on the island...
October 21, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Gregory Plotnikoff, Melissa Barber
INTRODUCTION: Single-disorder or single-organ-system clinical practice guidelines are often of limited usefulness in guiding effective management of patients with chronic multidimensional signs and symptoms. The presence of multiple long-standing medical problems in a given patient despite intensive medical effort suggests that addressing systemic core imbalances could complement more narrowly focused approaches. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old man experiencing longstanding depression, fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic pain in the context of additional refractory illnesses was assessed and treated, guided by a system-oriented approach to underlying core imbalances termed functional medicine...
October 14, 2016: Permanente Journal
Peter G Alexander, Karen L Clark, Rocky S Tuan
Limb congenital defects afflict approximately 0.6:1000 live births. In addition to genetic factors, prenatal exposure to drugs and environmental toxicants, represents a major contributing factor to limb defects. Examples of well-recognized limb teratogenic agents include thalidomide, warfarin, valproic acid, misoprostol, and phenytoin. While the mechanism by which these agents cause dymorphogenesis is increasingly clear, prediction of the limb teratogenicity of many thousands of as yet uncharacterized environmental factors (pollutants) remains inexact...
October 21, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Abdullah Turhan, Simone Onrust, Peter Ten Klooster, Marcel Pieterse
AIMS: To test effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) program on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends on subtypes of SE-schools and the level of implementation. DESIGN: In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-treatment follow-up 35 classes (N = 363) were allocated arbitrarily or depending on teacher motivation to either intervention condition (N = 205) or usual curriculum (N = 158)...
October 21, 2016: Addiction
Pavel Damborský, Katarzyna M Koczula, Andrea Gallotta, Jaroslav Katrlík
Lateral flow assays (LFAs) enable the simple and rapid detection and quantification of analytes and is popular for point-of-care (PoC), point-of-use and outdoor testing applications. LFAs typically depend on antibody or nucleic acid based recognition. We present the innovative concept of a LFA using lectins in the role of the biorecognition element. Lectins are a special kind of glycan-binding protein and the lectin-based LFA herein described was developed for the determination of the glycosylation of free prostate specific antigen (PSA)...
October 21, 2016: Analyst
Debjani S Goswami, Tanuja P Manohar
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are becoming the major cause of morbidity and mortality in most of the developing countries including India. Cardiometabolic risk factors play a vital role in causation of coronary artery disease. Present study was carried out to investigate the role of various risk factors in the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in population from Central India. SETTING AND DESIGN: This was a hospital-based age and sex matched case-control study, carried out at Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Nagpur...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jeffrey N Zeyl, Carol E Johnston
Early amphibious tetrapods may have detected aquatic sound pressure using sound-induced lung vibrations, but their lack of tympanic middle ears would have restricted aerial sensitivity. Sharing these characteristics, salamanders could be models for the carryover of auditory function across an aquatic-terrestrial boundary without tympanic middle ears. We measured amphibious auditory evoked potential audiograms in five phylogenetically and ecologically distinct salamanders (Amphiuma means, Notophthalmus viridescens, Ambystoma talpoideum, Eurycea spp...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Stephen R Connor, Julia Downing, Joan Marston
CONTEXT: The need for children's palliative care (CPC) globally is unknown. In order to understand the scope of the need and to advocate to meet it, more accurate estimates are needed. OBJECTIVES: To create an accurate global estimate of the worldwide need for CPC based on a representative sample of countries from all regions of the world and all World Bank income groups. METHODS: This work builds on previously published methods developed by the International Children's Palliative Care Network, UNICEF, and WHO and tested in three African countries...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Vera Dinkelacker, Sophie Dupont, Séverine Samson
The new classification of epilepsy stratifies the disease into an acute level, based on seizures, and an overarching chronic level of epileptic syndromes (Berg et al., 2010). In this new approach, seizures are considered either to originate and evolve in unilateral networks or to rapidly encompass both hemispheres. This concept extends the former vision of focal and generalized epilepsies to a genuine pathology of underlying networks. These key aspects of the new classification can be linked to the concept of cognitive curtailing in focal epilepsy...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Zhuo Wang, Alan A Stocker, Daniel D Lee
The efficient coding hypothesis assumes that biological sensory systems use neural codes that are optimized to best possibly represent the stimuli that occur in their environment. Most common models use information-theoretic measures, whereas alternative formulations propose incorporating downstream decoding performance. Here we provide a systematic evaluation of different optimality criteria using a parametric formulation of the efficient coding problem based on the Lp reconstruction error of the maximum likelihood decoder...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
Karin Riemann-Lorenz, Marlene Eilers, Gloria von Geldern, Karl-Heinz Schulz, Sascha Köpke, Christoph Heesen
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors have been discussed to influence risk or disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Specific diets are widely used among patients with MS. OBJECTIVE: To design and pilot-test an evidence based patient education program on dietary factors in MS. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search on the effectiveness of dietary interventions in MS. A web-based survey among 337 patients with MS and 136 healthy controls assessed knowledge, dietary habits and information needs...
2016: PloS One
Bhavana Sosale, Aravind R Sosale, Prassanna M Kumar, Shashank R Joshi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The number of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is increasing. Most patients with T2DM are uncontrolled and fail to achieve their target Hba1c. In recent years, newer agents such as SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have been approved for clinical use. Though data from clinical trials and sub set analysis of Indian patients in global studies are promising, real world evidence from standard clinical practice in India is lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolic parameters in patients with T2DM on SGLT2i in real world clinical practice...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Abhishek Srivastava, Katherine D McMahon, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Hans-Peter Grossart
The National Center for Biotechnology Information [] database enlists more than 15,500 bacterial species. But this also includes a plethora of uncultured bacterial representations. Owing to their metabolism, they directly influence biogeochemical cycles, which underscores the the important status of bacteria on our planet. To study the function of a gene from an uncultured bacterium, we have undertaken a de novo gene synthesis approach. Actinobacteria of the acI-B subcluster are important but yet uncultured members of the bacterioplankton in temperate lakes of the northern hemisphere such as oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (NE Germany)...
December 2015: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Maria Agapova, Brian B Bresnahan, Mitchell Higashi, Larry Kessler, Louis P Garrison, Beth Devine
The American College of Radiology develops evidence-based practice guidelines to aid appropriate utilization of radiological procedures. Panel members use expert opinion to weight trade-offs and consensus methods to rate appropriateness of imaging tests. These ratings include an equivocal range, assigned when there is disagreement about a technology's appropriateness and the evidence base is weak or for special circumstances. It is not clear how expert consensus merges with the evidence base to arrive at an equivocal rating...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
E Hommel, S Schmidt, D Vistisen, K Neergaard, M Gribhild, T Almdal, K Nørgaard
AIMS: To test whether concomitant use of an automated bolus calculator for people with Type 1 diabetes carrying out advanced carbohydrate counting would induce further improvements in metabolic control. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, single-centre, investigator-initiated clinical study. We enrolled advanced carbohydrate counting-naïve adults with Type 1 diabetes and HbA1c levels 64-100 mmol/mol (8.0-11.3%), who were receiving multiple daily insulin injection therapy...
October 20, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Michael M Petrov, Atanaska Petrova, Irina Stanimirova, Marina Mircheva-Topalova, Lalka Koycheva, Rayna Velcheva, Mariana Stoycheva-Vartigova, Ralitsa Raycheva, Galina Asseva, Petar Petrov, Velichka Kardjeva, Marianna Murdjeva
The aim of this work is to study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella and Shigella at the largest Bulgarian hospital-University Hospital "St. George," Plovdiv-for the period 2009-2013. Two hundred ninety strains were in vitro tested for resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was demonstrated by a variety of specialized tests. For comparison, a collection of 28 strains submitted by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) "Enteric Infections" at the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD), Sofia, was also tested for the production of ESBLs...
October 19, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
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