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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146581/long-noncoding-rnas-emerging-players-in-thyroid-cancer-pathogenesis
#1
Avaniyapuram Kannan Murugan, Munirajan Arasambattu Kannan, Ali S Alzahrani
Thyroid cancer continues to be the most common malignancy of endocrine glands. The incidence of thyroid cancer rises significantly over the past 4 decades and emerges as a major health issue. In recent years, a significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of molecular mechanisms of thyroid carcinogenesis, resulting in significant diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications; yet, it has not reached a satisfactory level. Identifying novel molecular therapeutic targets and molecules for diagnosis and prognosis are expected to advance the overall management of this common malignancy...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141353/-progress-in-research-of-thyroid-carcinoma-related-gene-mutation-and-epigenetics
#2
W H Zheng, W W Gong, F Lu, M Yu
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine malignant tumors, and its molecular pathogenesis is also a process of multiple genes involved in many steps of carcinogenesis. With the development of molecular biology technology, a variety of related gene mutations and epigenetic phenomena have been found in thyroid cancer tissues. It is helpful to understand the latest progress in the research of the gene mutation and epigenetics of thyroid cancer for its early diagnosis, prevention and the development of targeted drugs...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134959/targeting-ret-driven-cancers-lessons-from-evolving-preclinical-and-clinical-landscapes
#3
REVIEW
Alexander Drilon, Zishuo I Hu, Gillianne G Y Lai, Daniel S W Tan
The gene encoding the receptor-tyrosine kinase RET was first discovered more than three decades ago, and activating RET rearrangements and mutations have since been identified as actionable drivers of oncogenesis. Several multikinase inhibitors with activity against RET have been explored in the clinic, and confirmed responses to targeted therapy with these agents have been observed in patients with RET-rearranged lung cancers or RET-mutant thyroid cancers. Nevertheless, response rates to RET-directed therapy are modest compared with those achieved using targeted therapies matched to other oncogenic drivers of solid tumours, such as sensitizing EGFR or BRAF(V600E) mutations, or ALK or ROS1 rearrangements...
November 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126555/new-terminology-noninvasive-follicular-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-niftp-and-its-effect-on-the-rate-of-malignancy-at-a-single-institution
#4
Colleen M Kiernan, Vivian L Weiss, Mitra Mehrad, Kim Ely, Naira Baregamian, Carmen C Solórzano
BACKGROUND: The cytologic qualities of noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features mimic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) on fine-needle aspiration, leading to difficulty in distinguishing the 2 preoperatively. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of reclassification of noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features at our practice. METHODS: We searched 1,046 patient charts for those cases with preoperative cytology and subsequent follicular-variant papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosis on resection...
November 7, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125844/significant-associations-between-driver-gene-mutations-and-dna-methylation-alterations-across-many-cancer-types
#5
Yun-Ching Chen, Valer Gotea, Gennady Margolin, Laura Elnitski
Recent evidence shows that mutations in several driver genes can cause aberrant methylation patterns, a hallmark of cancer. In light of these findings, we hypothesized that the landscapes of tumor genomes and epigenomes are tightly interconnected. We measured this relationship using principal component analyses and methylation-mutation associations applied at the nucleotide level and with respect to genome-wide trends. We found that a few mutated driver genes were associated with genome-wide patterns of aberrant hypomethylation or CpG island hypermethylation in specific cancer types...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112684/cxcr4-cxcr7-cxcl12-axis-promotes-an-invasive-phenotype-in-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma
#6
Thomas A Werner, Christina M Forster, Levent Dizdar, Pablo E Verde, Katharina Raba, Matthias Schott, Wolfram T Knoefel, Andreas Krieg
BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare and challenging endocrine malignancy. Once spread, the therapeutic options are limited and the outcome poor. For these patients, the identification of new druggable biological markers is of great importance. Here, we investigated the prognostic and biological role of the C-X-C chemokine receptors type 4 and 7 (CXCR4/7) in MTC. METHODS: Eighty-six MTC and corresponding non-neoplastic thyroid specimens were immunohistochemically stained for CXCR4/7 using tissue microarray technology and expression levels correlated with clinicopathological variables...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108474/molecular-testing-for-oncogenic-gene-alterations-in-pediatric-thyroid-lesions
#7
Sogol Mostoufi-Moab, Emmanuel Labourier, Lisa Sullivan, Virginia A LiVolsi, Yimei Li, Rui Xiao, Sylvie Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Ken Kazahaya, N Scott Adzick, Zubair W Baloch, Andrew J Bauer
BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are less common in pediatric patients (≤18 years) than in adults. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology allows for individual risk stratification, but a significant number of nodules are indeterminate. Incorporating gene mutation panels and gene expression classifiers may aid in pre-operative diagnosis. The overall aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oncogene alterations in a representative pediatric population and across a broad-spectrum of thyroid tumor diagnoses...
November 6, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108253/identification-of-lrp-1-as-an-endocytosis-and-recycling-receptor-for-%C3%AE-1-integrin-in-thyroid-cancer-cells
#8
Louis Theret, Albin Jeanne, Benoit Langlois, Cathy Hachet, Marion David, Michel Khrestchatisky, Jérôme Devy, Emonard Hervé, Sébastien Almagro, Stéphane Dedieu
LRP-1 is a large endocytic receptor mediating the clearance of various molecules from the extracellular matrix. LRP-1 was reported to control focal adhesion turnover to optimize the adhesion-deadhesion balance to support invasion. To better understand how LRP-1 coordinates cell-extracellular matrix interface, we explored its ability to regulate cell surface integrins in thyroid carcinomas. Using an antibody approach, we demonstrated that β1-integrin levels were increased at the plasma membrane under LRP1 silencing or upon RAP treatment, used as LRP-1 antagonist...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090354/molecular-alterations-in-a-new-cell-line-ku-lu-mppt3-established-from-a-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-with-a-micropapillary-pattern
#9
Yukiko Matsuo, Kazu Shiomi, Dai Sonoda, Masashi Mikubo, Masahito Naito, Yoshio Matsui, Tsutomu Yoshida, Yukitoshi Satoh
PURPOSE: Lung adenocarcinomas with a micropapillary pattern (MPP) are characterized by more frequent and pronounced vascular invasion, higher incidence and more advanced lymph node involvement and poorer prognosis than papillary adenocarcinomas without an MPP. Here we established a new lung cancer cell line featuring micropapillary structure. METHODS: A 73-year-old never-smoker Japanese female, presenting with an abnormal chest shadow, was diagnosed with a clinical T2aN0M0 Stage IB lung adenocarcinoma and underwent left upper lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057760/anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma-treated-with-lenvatinib
#10
Jun-Ichi Ohkubo, Azusa Takahashi, Shoji Ikezaki, Fumiko Takenaga, Yufu Ohkubo, Hideaki Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: We report a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) with local recurrence and distant metastasis that responded very well to treatment with lenvatinib, a new molecular-targeted anticancer drug. CASE REPORT: A 91-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 5-month history of a painless mass in her left anterior neck. She had a past history of total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Here she underwent neck dissection, and the histopathological diagnosis was lymph node metastasis of papillary carcinoma with anaplastic transformation...
October 20, 2017: Kurume Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057215/targeted-therapy-for-medullary-thyroid-cancer-a-review
#11
REVIEW
S R Priya, Chandra Shekhar Dravid, Raghunadharao Digumarti, Mitali Dandekar
Medullary thyroid cancers (MTCs) constitute between 2 and 5% of all thyroid cancers. The 10-year overall survival (OS) rate of patients with localized disease is around 95% while that of patients with regional stage disease is about 75%. Only 20% of patients with distant metastases at diagnosis survive 10 years which is significantly lower than for differentiated thyroid cancers. Cases with regional metastases at presentation have high recurrence rates. Adjuvant external radiation confers local control but not improved OS...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056346/universal-patterns-of-selection-in-cancer-and-somatic-tissues
#12
Iñigo Martincorena, Keiran M Raine, Moritz Gerstung, Kevin J Dawson, Kerstin Haase, Peter Van Loo, Helen Davies, Michael R Stratton, Peter J Campbell
Cancer develops as a result of somatic mutation and clonal selection, but quantitative measures of selection in cancer evolution are lacking. We adapted methods from molecular evolution and applied them to 7,664 tumors across 29 cancer types. Unlike species evolution, positive selection outweighs negative selection during cancer development. On average, <1 coding base substitution/tumor is lost through negative selection, with purifying selection almost absent outside homozygous loss of essential genes. This allows exome-wide enumeration of all driver coding mutations, including outside known cancer genes...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048269/an-improved-collagen-zymography-approach-for-evaluating-the-collagenases-mmp-1-mmp-8-and-mmp-13
#13
Seniz Inanc, Didem Keles, Gulgun Oktay
Collagen zymography is an SDS-PAGE-based method for detecting both the proenzyme and active forms of collagenases. Although collagen zymography is used for assessment of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-13, it can be difficult to detect these collagenases due to technical issues. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the collagenase activity of MMP-8 can be detected by this method. Here, we present an improved collagen zymography method that allows quantification of the activities of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13...
October 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042793/theranostics-in-nuclear-medicine-practice
#14
REVIEW
Anna Yordanova, Elisabeth Eppard, Stefan Kürpig, Ralph A Bundschuh, Stefan Schönberger, Maria Gonzalez-Carmona, Georg Feldmann, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Markus Essler
The importance of personalized medicine has been growing, mainly due to a more urgent need to avoid unnecessary and expensive treatments. In nuclear medicine, the theranostic approach is an established tool for specific molecular targeting, both for diagnostics and therapy. The visualization of potential targets can help predict if a patient will benefit from a particular treatment. Thanks to the quick development of radiopharmaceuticals and diagnostic techniques, the use of theranostic agents has been continually increasing...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037127/role-of-molecular-markers-to-predict-distant-metastasis-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-promising-value-of-tert-promoter-mutations-and-insignificant-role-of-braf-mutations-a-meta-analysis
#15
Huy Gia Vuong, Ahmed Ma Altibi, Uyen Np Duong, Hanh Tt Ngo, Thong Quang Pham, Hung Minh Tran, Naoki Oishi, Kunio Mochizuki, Tadao Nakazawa, Lewis Hassell, Ryohei Katoh, Tetsuo Kondo
The presence of distant metastasis is associated with an adverse outcome in papillary thyroid cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the role of molecular markers as predictors for distant metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer. Four electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Virtual Health Library were searched, and odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval concerning the association of BRAF, RAS, and TERT promoter mutations and RET/PTC rearrangements with distant metastasis were calculated using random-effects model...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033189/mir-375-a-prospective-regulator-in-medullary-thyroid-cancer-based-on-microarray-data-and-bioinformatics-analyses
#16
Lin Shi, Shi-Mei Zhao, Yu Luo, An-Wen Zhang, Li-Hua Wei, Zheng-Yi Xie, Yuan-Yuan Li, Wei Ma
BACKGROUND: This research aims to investigate the prospective molecular mechanism of miR-375 in Medullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression level of miR-375 in MTC was explored with microarray data from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). To gather the putative target genes of miR-375, we selected eligible datasets in GEO, in which antagomir-375 and premir-375 were transfected to provide the miR-375-related genes. Subsequently, we attained the intersection of the results of GEO microarray data and 12 online target genes prediction database as the prospective target genes...
September 27, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028645/an-update-on-the-status-of-molecular-testing-for-the-indeterminate-thyroid-nodule-and-risk-stratification-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#17
Kristina J Nicholson, Linwah Yip
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Correct identification of malignancy in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules is a diagnostic challenge, leading to potentially unnecessary surgery in patients for whom final histology is benign. Similarly, many patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) undergo aggressive surgical management of tumors, which may ultimately have low-risk histologic features. Use of molecular testing strategies can aid in both the diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules and preoperative risk stratification of DTC...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025376/roles-of-microrna-let-7b-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-by-regulating-hmga2
#18
Hongguang Li, Lihong Zhao, Zhenhua Zhang, Heng Zhang, Chao Ding, Zijie Su
The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased significantly in the last decade, and the most frequent type of this cancer is papillary thyroid carcinoma. MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be abnormally expressed in tumors and associated with the development of the tumors. Our aim was to analyze the role and molecular mechanisms of tumor suppressor let-7b in the papillary thyroid carcinoma. Expression of let-7b and high-mobility group A2 in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues and cell lines was assessed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019044/hobnail-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Francesca Ambrosi, Alberto Righi, Costantino Ricci, Lori A Erickson, Ricardo V Lloyd, Sofia Asioli
Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy and it is usually associated with a good prognosis. However, recurrence, metastases, and cancer death may occur in 10 to 15% of patients with more aggressive types of papillary thyroid carcinoma, such as tall cell, columnar cell, solid variant, or the more recently described hobnail variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with a prominent hobnail pattern is a moderately differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma variant with aggressive clinical behavior and significant mortality...
December 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986854/altered-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-thyroid-cancer-subtypes
#20
REVIEW
Maryam Zarkesh, Azita Zadeh-Vakili, Fereidoun Azizi, Forough Foroughi, Maziar Mohammad Akhavan, Mehdi Hedayati
Thyroid carcinoma (TC) is the most frequent malignant neoplasm of the endocrine system. Molecular methods for diagnosis of invasive thyroid disease can be effectively adopted. Epigenetic factors play an important role in the diversity patterns of gene expression and the phenotypic and biological characteristics of TC subtypes. We aimed to review epigenetic changes in the main subtypes of TC, along with a presentation of the methods that have examined these changes, and active clinical trials for the treatment of advanced TCs targeting epigenetic changes...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
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