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molecular thyroid cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636673/evaluation-of-molecular-diagnostic-approaches-for-the-detection-of-braf-p-v600e-mutations-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer-clinical-implications
#1
Artur Kowalik, Aldona Kowalska, Agnieszka Walczyk, Renata Chodurska, Janusz Kopczyński, Magdalena Chrapek, Elżbieta Wypiórkiewicz, Małgorzata Chłopek, Liliana Pięciak, Danuta Gąsior-Perczak, Iwona Pałyga, Krzysztof Gruszczyński, Ewelina Nowak, Stanisław Góźdź
Differentiated papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common cancer of the endocrine system. PTC has a very good prognosis and a high 5 year survival rate; however, some patients are unresponsive to treatment, and their diagnosis eventually results in death. Recent efforts have focused on searching for prognostic and predictive factors that may enable treatment personalization and monitoring across the course of the disease. The presence of the BRAF mutation is considered to contribute to the risk of poor clinical course, according to American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommendations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635633/new-insights-in-thyroid-cancer-and-p53-family-proteins
#2
REVIEW
Livia Manzella, Stefania Stella, Maria Stella Pennisi, Elena Tirrò, Michele Massimino, Chiara Romano, Adriana Puma, Martina Tavarelli, Paolo Vigneri
Thyroid cancers are common endocrine malignancies that comprise tumors with different clinical and histological features. Indeed, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are slow-growing, well-differentiated tumors, whereas anaplastic thyroid cancers are undifferentiated neoplasias that behave much more aggressively. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are efficiently cured by surgery and radioiodine, unlike undifferentiated tumors that fail to uptake radioactive iodine and are usually resistant to chemotherapy...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632145/what-really-is-an-indeterminate-fna-thyroid-nodule
#3
Angela Pezzolla, Serafina Lattarulo, Andrea Madaro, Giovanni Docimo, Emanuela Lacalendola, Francesco Prete, Rinaldo Marzaioli
BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are usually benign; however, 5 to 15% prove to be malignant. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has become the gold standard in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, especially in single nodule more than a centimeter and / or in smaller nodule with ultrasound characters of malignancy. METHODS: We evaluated retrospectively 179 patients with "undetermined" thyroid fine needle aspiration, undergoing surgery. We compared cytology and histology and we evaluated sex, age, the presence of thyroiditis and dimension of the indeterminate nodule as predictors of malignancy...
June 12, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631713/-braf-positive-paucicellular-variant-of-anaplastic-carcinoma-in-the-presence-of-tall-cell-variant-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#4
O V Dolzhansky, E M Paltseva, D N Khmelkova, F A Konovalov, I V Kanivets, A V Lavrov, D V Pyankov, S A Korostelev, O A Levendyuk, V M Pominalnaya, D N Fedorov
To paper describes a case of paucicellular anaplastic cancer in the presence of tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma. Microscopic examination showed that the differentiated component of the tumor was composed of papillary structures with tall cells, the height of which exceeded 3-4 times the width. Its anaplastic component consisted of fibrous tissue with occasional spindle-shaped cells and focal lymphocytic infiltration to the extent of 70%. The spindle-shaped cells expressed cytokeratins, β-catenin, p53, and vimentin...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625636/prognostic-impact-of-ttf-1-expression-in-patients-with-stage-iv-lung-adenocarcinomas
#5
Juliana B Schilsky, Ai Ni, Linda Ahn, Sutirtha Datta, William D Travis, Mark G Kris, Jamie E Chaft, Natasha Rekhtman, Matthew D Hellmann
OBJECTIVES: Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is routinely tested in the diagnostic evaluation of suspected lung cancers, is commonly expressed by lung adenocarcinomas, and may modulate lung cancer biology. We examined the role of TTF-1 as a predictive and prognostic marker in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed clinical, pathologic, and molecular features, treatments received, and overall survival obtained from the medical records of 479 consecutive patients at a single site with stage IV lung adenocarcinomas and evaluable TTF-1 expression...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621914/distinguishing-parathyroid-and-thyroid-lesions-on-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration-a-correlation-of-clinical-data-ancillary-studies-and-molecular-analysis
#6
Margaret Cho, Thaira Oweity, Tamar C Brandler, Karen Fried, Pascale Levine
BACKGROUND: Differentiating parathyroid and thyroid lesions can be challenging because of considerable morphologic overlap and anatomic proximity. Therefore, the authors sought to identify characteristic morphologic patterns and useful adjunct tests to distinguish these 2 entities. METHODS: A search was conducted in the study institution database for clinically indeterminate thyroid nodules from 2000 through 2016 with an emphasis on confirmed parathyroid nodules...
June 16, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621837/pediatric-follicular-thyroid-carcinoma-indolent-cancer-with-low-prevalence-of-ras-mutations-and-absence-of-pax8-pparg-fusion-in-a-japanese-population
#7
Huy Gia Vuong, Tetsuo Kondo, Naoki Oishi, Tadao Nakazawa, Kunio Mochizuki, Akira Miyauchi, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Ryohei Katoh
BACKGROUND: Pediatric follicular thyroid carcinomas are uncommon and their clinicopathological features and molecular profiles are still unknown. In this present study, we aimed to investigate the clinicopathological aspects of a large series of follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) in pediatric patients and to analyse the point mutations in codons 12, 13 and 61 of NRAS, HRAS and KRAS genes and the rearrangements of PAX8-PPARG. METHODS: A total of 41 pediatric FTCs less than 21 years of age were enrolled in the present study...
June 16, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618399/rna-sequencing-investigation-identifies-an-effective-risk-score-generated-by-three-novel-lncrnas-for-the-survival-of-papillary-thyroid-cancer-patients
#8
Yi-Huan Luo, Liang Liang, Rong-Quan He, Dong-Yue Wen, Guo-Fei Deng, Hong Yang, Yun He, Wei Ma, Xiao-Yong Cai, Jun-Qiang Chen, Gang Chen
Scholars are striving to apply molecular biology involving long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in the prognostication of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, the clinical role of lncRNAs in the prognostic setting of PTC is still unclear. Herein, a comprehensive inquiry was performed to screen lncRNA expression profiling with 507 PTC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas RNA-sequencing datasets. A total of 734 lncRNAs were detected to be aberrantly expressed, among which three novel lncRNAs including AC079630.2, CRNDE and CTD-2171N6...
May 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617334/the-molecular-effect-of-diagnostic-absorbed-doses-from-131-i-on-papillary-thyroid-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#9
Mariusz Stasiołek, Zbigniew Adamczewski, Przemysław W Śliwka, Bartosz Puła, Bolesław Karwowski, Anna Merecz-Sadowska, Marek Dedecjus, Andrzej Lewiński
Diagnostic whole-body scan is a standard procedure in patients with thyroid cancer prior to the application of a therapeutic dose of (131)I. Unfortunately, administration of the radioisotope in a diagnostic dose may decrease further radioiodine uptake-the phenomenon called "thyroid stunning". We estimated radiation absorbed dose-dependent changes in genetic material, in particular in the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene promoter, and the NIS protein level in a K1 cell line derived from the metastasis of a human papillary thyroid carcinoma exposed to (131)I in culture...
June 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612612/-molecular-aspects-of-thyroid-tumors-with-emphasis-on-microrna-and-their-clinical-implications
#10
M Ludvíková, I Kholová, D Kalfeřt
BACKGROUND: Central to neoplastic transformation and tumor progression is alteration of the signaling pathways that control cell proliferation and apoptosis. The key mechanisms for this neoplastic process are genetic changes (mutations of cancer-related genes) and recently identified epigenetic changes that involve DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling (which has a profound effect on the control of gene expression), and noncoding, regulatory RNA (notably, microRNA - miRNA). MiRNAs control expression of their target gene post-transcriptionally...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612287/methylation-markers-differentiate-thyroid-cancer-from-benign-nodules
#11
J K Stephen, K M Chen, J Merritt, D Chitale, G Divine, M J Worsham
PURPOSE: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) is increasing. Cytology by itself cannot distinguish TC from some benign nodules especially in certain subtypes of TC. Our immediate goal is to identify DNA methylation markers for early detection of TC and to molecularly differentiate TC subtypes from benign nodules. METHODS: Promoter methylation status of 21 candidate genes was examined on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) utilizing quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (QMSP) in a retrospective cohort of 329 patients (56% white, 29% African American, 61% female) comprising 71 normal thyroid, 83 benign nodules [follicular adenomas (FA)], 90 follicular TC (FTC) and 85 papillary TC (PTC)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609009/triage-of-the-indeterminate-thyroid-aspirate-what-are-the-options-for-the-practicing-cytopathologist
#12
Ayse M Onenerk, Marc P Pusztaszeri, Sule Canberk, William C Faquin
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays a key role in the early evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules; however, from 15% to 30% of FNA specimens are cytologically indeterminate. Molecular testing has proven useful when applied to indeterminate thyroid FNAs, and its use has been endorsed in the American Thyroid Association guidelines. In addition to the noncommercial ("in-house") application of v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), rat sarcoma (RAS), rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma (RET/PTC), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ/paired box gene 8 (PPARγ/PAX8) testing, there are currently 3 commercially available molecular panels that vary in their relative reported performances, strengths, and limitations...
June 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589087/nodular-thyroid-disease-and-thyroid-cancer-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Carles Zafon, Juan J Díez, Juan C Galofré, David S Cooper
The management of thyroid nodules, one of the main clinical challenges in endocrine clinical practice, is usually straightforward. Although the most important concern is ruling out malignancy, there are grey areas where uncertainty is frequently present: the nodules labelled as indeterminate by cytology and the extent of therapy when thyroid cancer is diagnosed pathologically. There is evidence that the current available precision medicine tools (from all the "-omics" to molecular analysis, fine-tuning imaging or artificial intelligence) may help to fill present gaps in the future...
April 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586525/novel-therapeutic-clues-in-thyroid-carcinomas-the-role-of-targeting-cancer-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Alessandro Antonelli, Concettina La Motta
Thyroid carcinomas (TCs), the most common endocrine tumors, represent the eighth most common cancer diagnosed worldwide in both women and men. To treat these malignancies, several drugs are now available and a number of novel ones have been enrolling in clinical trials, addressing both oncogenic pathways in cancer cells and angiogenic pathways in tumor endothelial cells. However, their use is not devoid of serious toxicities and their efficacy is limited, being dependent on carcinoma typology and the occurrence of acquired resistance...
June 6, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582771/error-prone-dna-polymerase-and-oxidative-stress-increase-the-incidences-of-a-to-g-mutations-in-tumors
#15
Jiannan Lin, Tieliu Shi
Mutational processes for A→G mutations in tumors are not well understood. To uncover the mutational mechanisms, we analyzed molecular profiles of more than 9,000 tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The present study found that error-prone DNA polymerases were involved in stomach tumors with high fraction of A→G mutations. High levels of apoptosis in kidney cancers and high levels of energy metabolism in thyroid cancers increased A→G mutation rate, which was associated with high oxidative stress...
November 11, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579118/targeting-post-translational-histone-modifications-for-the-treatment-of-non-medullary-thyroid-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Marilena Celano, Catia Mio, Marialuisa Sponziello, Antonella Verrienti, Stefania Bulotta, Cosimo Durante, Giuseppe Damante, Diego Russo
Genomic and epigenetic alterations are now being exploited as molecular targets in cancer treatment. Abnormalities involving the post-translational modification of histones have been demonstrated in thyroid cancer, and they are regarded as promising molecular targets for novel drug treatment of tumors that are resistant to conventional therapies. After a brief overview of the histone modifications most commonly associated with human malignancies, we will review recently published preclinical and clinical findings regarding the use of histone-activity modulators in thyroid cancers...
June 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578852/radioactive-iodine-therapy-molecular-imaging-and-serum-biomarkers-for-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-2017-guidelines-of-the-french-societies-of-nuclear-medicine-endocrinology-pathology-biology-endocrine-surgery-and-head-and-neck-surgery
#17
Slimane Zerdoud, Anne-Laure Giraudet, Sophie Leboulleux, Laurence Leenhardt, Stéphane Bardet, Jérôme Clerc, Marie-Elisabeth Toubert, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Pierre-Jean Lamy, Claire Bournaud, Isabelle Keller, Frédéric Sebag, Renaud Garrel, Eric Mirallié, Lionel Groussin, Elif Hindié, David Taïeb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578647/iodine-prophylaxis-in-the-case-of-nuclear-accident
#18
Szybiński Zbigniew
On 26 April 1986 the greatest accident of nuclear plant in Czernobyl took place and isotopes with high percentage of released were erupted : 33-Xe, 131-I ,132-Te, 134-Cs and 137 -Cs. The radioactivity of the isotopes was very high -for instance: Xe-33 6500 PBq , 131-I 1760 PBq .The rest of 15 isotopes represented similar radioactivity with shorter percentage of release.The most exposed group of people were 237 liquidaters, and 116000 people living around had to be evacuated when the limit dose for person 5 mSv could be crossed...
May 29, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578306/multiple-recurrent-ischaemic-strokes-in-a-patient-with-cancer-is-there-a-role-for-the-initiation-of-anticoagulation-therapy-for-secondary-stroke-prevention
#19
Giselle Alexandra Suero-Abreu, Jia Zhen Cheng, Ryna Karina Then
A 52-year-old woman with a medical history of cervical and thyroid cancer, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, uncontrolled diabetes and heavy smoking was diagnosed with a new metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. While undergoing palliative chemotherapy, she developed dysarthria and left-sided weakness. Imaging studies showed multiple bilateral ischaemic strokes. On hospital days 2 and 5, she developed worsening neurological symptoms and imaging studies revealed new areas of ischaemia on respective days. Subsequent workup did not revealed a clear aetiology for the multiple ischaemic events and hypercoagulability studies were only significant for a mildly elevated serum D-dimer level...
June 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574441/gene-expression-mrna-markers-for-differentiating-between-malignant-and-benign-follicular-thyroid-tumours
#20
Bartosz Wojtas, Aleksandra Pfeifer, Malgorzata Oczko-Wojciechowska, Jolanta Krajewska, Agnieszka Czarniecka, Aleksandra Kukulska, Markus Eszlinger, Thomas Musholt, Tomasz Stokowy, Michal Swierniak, Ewa Stobiecka, Ewa Chmielik, Dagmara Rusinek, Tomasz Tyszkiewicz, Monika Halczok, Steffen Hauptmann, Dariusz Lange, Michal Jarzab, Ralf Paschke, Barbara Jarzab
Distinguishing between follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) constitutes a long-standing diagnostic problem resulting in equivocal histopathological diagnoses. There is therefore a need for additional molecular markers. To identify molecular differences between FTC and FTA, we analyzed the gene expression microarray data of 52 follicular neoplasms. We also performed a meta-analysis involving 14 studies employing high throughput methods (365 follicular neoplasms analyzed). Based on these two analyses, we selected 18 genes differentially expressed between FTA and FTC...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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