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fourth ventricle

Adithya Varma, David Giraldi, Samantha Mills, Andrew R Brodbelt, Michael D Jenkinson
BACKGROUND: Intracranial subependymomas account for 0.2-0.7% of central nervous system tumours and are classified as World Health Organization (WHO) grade 1 tumours. They are typically located within the ventricular system and are detected incidentally or with symptoms of hydrocephalus. Due to paucity of studies exploring this tumour type, the objective was to determine the medium- to long-term outcome of intracranial subependymoma treated by surgical resection. METHODS: Retrospective case note review of adults with intracranial WHO grade 1 subependymoma diagnosed between 1990 and 2015 at the Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust was undertaken...
June 18, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Tongming Zhu, Mingyu Chen, Ming Xu, Danqi Chen, Jian Xu, Liusong Yang, Ping Zhong
Schwannomas have been reported in several unusual intracranial locations. Herein, we report two extremely rare cases of schwannomas originating in the fourth ventricle, where it did not have any attachment to the surrounding structures. The clinical course, radiological and pathological features, treatment, and follow-up are described.
June 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Lynze R Franko, Balaji Pandian, Avneesh Gupta, Luis E Savastano, Kevin S Chen, James Riddell, Daniel A Orringer
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infectious helminthic disease often presenting in patients who have immigration or travel history from areas where NCC is endemic. Fourth ventricle cysts from NCC pose a unique treatment challenge, as there is little consensus on the best treatment. This case study describes the treatment of a patient with fourth ventricle neurocysticercosis (FVNCC), examines the therapeutic decision-making, and provides a video of a posterior fossa craniotomy (PFC) resection of a degenerative cyst...
June 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Elizabeth Presutto, Matthew Chappell, Joseph Fullmer, Sajeev Ezhapilli
Medulloblastoma is the most common posterior fossa tumor of childhood typically within the fourth ventricle. However, extra-axial medulloblastoma in posterior fossa is an uncommon diagnosis. We report a case in a 33-month-old male who presented with repeated complaints of abdominal pain, intermittent emesis, and diarrhea, and diagnosed with right cerebellar extra-axial medulloblastoma, which was surgically resected. Majority of the reported extra-axial medulloblastoma in posterior fossa in the United States are located in the cerebellopontine angle...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Arnulf H Koeppen
This chapter summarizes the neuropathologic features of nonneoplastic disorders of the adult cerebellum. Gait ataxia and extremity dysmetria are clinical manifestations of diseases that interrupt the complex cerebellar circuitry between the neurons of the cerebellar cortex, the cerebellar nuclei (especially the dentate nuclei), and the inferior olivary nuclei. The cerebellum is a prominent target of several sporadic and hereditary neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple system atrophy, spinocerebellar ataxia, and Friedreich ataxia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Harvey B Sarnat
The cerebellar system is a series of axonal projections and synaptic circuits as networks, similar to those of the limbic system and those subserving the propagation and spread of seizures. Three principal cerebellar networks are identified and cerebellar disease often affects components of the networks other than just the cerebellar cortex. Contemporary developmental neuropathology of the cerebellum is best considered in the context of alterations of developmental processes: embryonic segmentation and genetic gradients along the three axes of the neural tube, individual neuronal and glial cell differentiation, migration, synaptogenesis, and myelination...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Dong Hun Lee, Byung Kook Lee, Kyung Woon Jeung, Yong Hun Jung, Yong Soo Cho, In Soo Cho, Chun Song Yun, Jin Woong Kim, Jung Soo Park, Yong Il Min
AIM OF THE STUDY: Brain swelling after cardiac arrest may affect the ventricles. We aimed to investigate the prognostic performance of ventricular characteristics on brain computed tomography (CT) in cardiac arrest survivors who underwent targeted temperature management (TTM). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adult comatose cardiac arrest survivors who underwent brain CT scan within 24 hours after resuscitation and underwent TTM from 2014 to 2016...
June 11, 2018: Resuscitation
Marilda da Cruz Fernandes, Antônio Generoso Severino, Adriana Maria Zago, Lucas Tortorelli, Fabiano B Carvalho, Felipe Luis Schneider
The role of the choroid plexus (CP) in iron (Fe) homeostasis has been suggested as the main mechanism of Fe uptake and storage in the mammalian central nervous system. Thus, the CP of the lateral and fourth ventricles was studied in guinea pigs with light and electron microscopy using methods including Perls' Prussian blue and Gomori acid phosphatase staining, immunoreactivity for ferritin and transferrin, as well as energy dispersive spectrometry microanalysis. The present study reveals the presence of endogenous Fe in CP epithelial cells...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
P Mercier, F Bernard, M Delion
Anatomical description of the fourth ventricle is essential for an accurate understanding of its related tumoral pathologies and surgical approach respecting cerebellar and brainstem structures. Numerous cadaver pictures illustrate this chapter which contains V4 floor and roof description and its vascularization.
June 3, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
Iuliia Zhuravlova, Maryna Kornieieva, Erik Rodrigues
Objectives  The defining of the normal parameters of spacious relations and symmetry of the ventricular system of the brain depending on the gender and age is currently one of the topical research problems of clinical anatomy. The present research aims to identify the correlation between the morphometric parameters of the fourth ventricle of the brain and the shape of the skull in middle aged people. Design  This is a prospective cohort study. Setting  This study was set at the Trinity School of Medicine...
April 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
Nicoleta Aurelia Popescu, Marcela Daniela Ionescu, Georgiana Balan, Simina Visan, Eliza Cinteza, Diana Stanescu, Ionut Gobej, Mihaela Balgradean
Central sleep apnea is characterized by frequent cessation of breathing during sleep, resulting in repetitive episodes of insufficient ventilation and abnormalities of acid-base balance. It may be primary or secondary, and it is uncommon in children, with limited data for this population. We present here the case of a five-year-old girl, known to have thoracolumbar myelomeningocele (for which she underwent a surgical procedure in infancy), secondary hydrocephalus (with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt) and flaccid paralysis, who was admitted in our hospital with prolonged fever syndrome, productive cough, severe dyspnea and perioral cyanosis...
March 2018: Mædica
Petr Liby, V L Torres, J Taborsky, M Kyncl, M Tichy
INTRODUCTION: We present an infant with an expansive posterior fossa arachnoid cyst and severe clinical deterioration due to decompensated obstructive hydrocephalus. Given the dilated Sylvius aqueduct, we favoured the endoscopic transfrontal transaqueductal route to approach the cyst. CASE REPORT: A 12-month-old boy was acutely admitted for severe symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Imaging revealed spacious cystic formation in the posterior fossa with expansive behaviour towards the brain stem, fourth ventricle and cerebellum associated with obstructive triventricular hydrocephalus...
May 30, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
W Reith, A Haussmann
The Dandy-Walker malformation is the most frequent cerebral malformation. It is defined by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the vermis cerebelli, a cystic enlargement of the fourth ventricle and in total an enlarged posterior fossa with cranially shifted position of the lateral sinus, tentorium and torcula herophili. This malformation was first described by Dandy and Blackfan in 1914 then supplemented again by Taggart and Walker in 1942. The current description as Dandy-Walker malformation was introduced in 1954 by Bender...
May 24, 2018: Der Radiologe
X S Davis, H J Grill
PURPOSE: Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a neuropeptide that suppresses food intake and increases body temperature when delivered to the forebrain ventricularly or parenchymally. However, PrRP's receptor GPR10 is widely distributed throughout the brain with particularly high levels found in the dorsomedial hindbrain. Thus, we hypothesized that hindbrain-directed PrRP administration would affect energy balance and motivated feeding behavior. METHODS: To address this hypothesis, a range of behavioral and physiologic variables were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats that received PrRP delivered to the fourth ventricle (4V) or the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) at the level of the area postrema (AP)...
May 23, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Lu-Ting Kuo, Hsueh-Yi Lu, Jui-Chang Tsai, Yong-Kwang Tu
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Extension of the hemorrhage into the ventricles is associated with the development of acute hydrocephalus and a poor outcome. Although it can be managed by external ventricular drainage (EVD), a subset of these patients require placement of permanent ventricular shunts. This study aimed to examine the factors on admission that can predict shunt dependency after EVD management. METHODS: Seventy-two patients who underwent EVD were included in this study...
May 22, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Kaveh Barami, Indro Chakrabarti, James Silverthorn, Jeremy Ciporen, Paul T Akins
OBJECTIVE: An enlarged fourth ventricle otherwise known as fourth ventriculomegaly (4th VM) has been previously reported in the pediatric population yet literature on adults is scant. We report our experience with 4th VM in adults over an 11 year period and review the literature. MATERIAL/METHODS: retrospective chart review of adult patients with the diagnosis of 4th VM admitted to the ICU in a tertiary care center RESULTS: 9 patients were identified with 4th VM...
May 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Marcus Unterrainer, Daniel F Fleischmann, Simon Lindner, Matthias Brendel, Rainer Rupprecht, Joerg C Tonn, Claus Belka, Peter Bartenstein, Maximilian Niyazi, Nathalie L Albert
PET targeting the translocator protein (TSPO) represents an interesting approach for glioma visualization, as TSPO is highly expressed in tumor cells. We present a 32-year-old man with recurrent glioblastoma after multimodal treatment. PET with the novel TSPO ligand F-GE-180 was performed after reirradiation. Here, the previously reirradiated tumor showed a remaining circular TSPO expression. Moreover, cerebrospinal fluid dissemination was detected by a high focal uptake at the right lateral and at the fourth ventricle, whereas only a faint contrast enhancement was present in MRI...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Alexandre Brasseur, Sabino Scolletta, Roberto Lorusso, Fabio Silvio Taccone
Veno-venous (VV) and veno-arterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is widely used in critically ill patients with refractory cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest or suffering from severe respiratory failure. Besides traditional ECMO cannulation, changes in patients' conditions or the occurrence of specific complications (i.e., cerebral hypoxia or left ventricular dilation) may require modifications in cannulation strategies or the combination of ECMO with additional invasive or minimally invasive procedures, to improve organ function and ECMO efficiency...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Gogi Kumar, Bryan Ludwig, Vipul V Patel
OBJECTIVE: Educate providers about the clinical presentation and consequences of delaying diagnosis of traumatic vertebral artery dissection with thromboembolic ischemic strokes in the pediatric population. Vertebral artery dissection is often difficult to diagnose and can be a potentially devastating cause of ischemic stroke. METHODS: Review of the chart, peer review/discussion, and imaging interpretation. RESULTS: A 16-year-old boy was admitted with confusion after a head and neck trauma was sustained while wrestling...
May 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Xiujuan Gai, Shaomei Li, Yumei Wei, Shuhua Yu
RATIONALE: Oligodendrogliomas are usually located in the frontal, parietal and the temporal lobe, with the ones in the fourth ventricle quite rare. Hence we want to introduce a case about the rare disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: An eight-year old boy complained of progressive headache, dizziness and vomit for about 2 months. Then the slight ataxia was found by the physical examinations, with no sensory disturbances and other motor disturbances. DIAGNOSES: Abnormal signals on the fourth ventricle were found by the preoperative brain computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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