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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901369/involvement-of-endogenous-central-hydrogen-sulfide-h2s-in-hypoxia-induced-hypothermia-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
João Paulo J Sabino, Renato N Soriano, Alberto F Donatti, Rodrigo Restrepo Fernandez, Marcelo Kwiatkoski, Heloísa D C Francescato, Terezila M Coimbra, Luiz G S Branco
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) display autonomic imbalance and abnormal body temperature (Tb) adjustments. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) modulates hypoxia-induced hypothermia, but its role in SHR thermoregulation is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that SHR display peculiar thermoregulatory response to hypoxia and that endogenous H2S overproduced in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of SHR modulates this response. SHR and Wistar rats were microinjected into the fourth ventricle with aminooxyacetate (AOA, H2S-synthezing enzyme inhibitor) or sodium sulfide (Na2S, H2S donor) and exposed to normoxia (21% inspired O2) or hypoxia (10% inspired O2, 30 min)...
September 6, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888608/efficacy-and-safety-of-combined-intraventricular-fibrinolysis-with-lumbar-drainage-for-prevention-of-permanent-shunt-dependency-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-with-severe-ventricular-involvement-a-randomized-trial-and-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#2
Dimitre Staykov, Joji B Kuramatsu, Jürgen Bardutzky, Bastian Volbers, Stefan T Gerner, Stephan P Kloska, Arnd Doerfler, Stefan Schwab, Hagen B Huttner
Objective Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a negative prognostic factor in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with permanent shunt dependency in a substantial proportion of patients after ICH. IVH treatment by intraventricular fibrinolysis (IVF) was recently linked to reduced mortality rates in the CLEAR III study and IVF represents a safe and effective strategy to hasten clot resolution that may reduce shunt rates. Additionally, promising results from observational studies reported reductions in shunt dependency for a combined treatment approach of IVF plus lumbar drains (LD)...
November 26, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876637/fourth-ventricle-injection-of-ghrelin-decreases-angiotensin-ii-induced-fluid-intake-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#3
Kimberly S Plyler, Derek Daniels
Ghrelin acts in the CNS to decrease fluid intake under a variety of dipsogenic and natriorexigenic conditions. Previous studies on this topic, however, focused on the forebrain as a site of action for this effect of ghrelin. Because the hindbrain contains neural substrates that are capable of mediating the well-established orexigenic effects of ghrelin, the current study tested the hypothesis that ghrelin applied to the hindbrain also would affect fluid intake. To this end, water and saline intakes were stimulated by central injection of angiotensin II (AngII) in rats that also received injections of ghrelin (0...
November 19, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858679/entire-syringomyelia-associated-with-chiari-ii-malformation-and-severe-scoliosis-and-hydrocephalus
#4
Jie Liang, Weifei Wu, Neng Ru, Jianfeng Chen
BACKGROUND: The syrinx can occur in any region of the spinal cord and is common in cervical and/or thoracic region, and distributing along spinal cord is unusual, especially association with Chiari II malformation and scoliosis. OBJECTIVE: To report a first case of entire syringomyelia associated with Chiari II malformation and severe scoliosis and hydrocephalus. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient began to experience symptoms of bilateral hand weakness in adulthood...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828966/clinical-symptoms-imaging-features-and-cyst-distribution-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-compartments-in-patients-with-extraparenchymal-neurocysticercosis
#5
Rodrigo Bazan, Pedro Tadao Hamamoto Filho, Gustavo José Luvizutto, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho Nunes, Newton Satoru Odashima, Antônio Carlos Dos Santos, Jorge Elias Júnior, Marco Antônio Zanini, Agnès Fleury, Osvaldo Massaiti Takayanagui
Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis has an aggressive course because cysts in the cerebrospinal fluid compartments induce acute inflammatory reactions. The relationships between symptoms, imaging findings, lesion type and location remain poorly understood. In this retrospective clinical records-based study, we describe the clinical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging features, and cyst distribution in the CSF compartments of 36 patients with extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis. Patients were recruited between 1995 and 2010 and median follow up was 38 months...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810194/-ectopic-craniopharyngioma-and-gardner-s-syndrome-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Juan Antonio Álvarez Salgado, Francisco González-Llanos Fernández de Mesa, Jorge Javier Villaseñor Ledezma, Maria de Los Angeles Cañizares Méndez, Igor Paredes Sansinenea, Angel Rodríguez de Lope-Llorca, Manuela Mollejo Villanueva
INTRODUCTION: Craniopharyngioma accounts for around 3% of all primary tumours of the central nervous system. It is usually located in the suprasellar region, although it may also have an ectopic location. CASE REPORT: The case is presented on 29 year-old male who underwent surgery for a jaw osteoma when he was 19 years old and was subsequently diagnosed with Gardner's syndrome. He was admitted in our Hospital with right facial paresis and diplopia of one day onset...
October 31, 2016: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802966/fourth-ventricle-leptin-infusions-dose-dependently-activate-hypothalamic-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3
#7
Ruth B S Harris, Bhavna N Desai
Previous studies have shown that very low-dose infusions of leptin into the third or the fourth ventricle alone have little effect on energy balance, but simultaneous low-dose infusions cause rapid weight loss and increased phosphorylation of STAT3 (p-STAT3) in hypothalamic sites that express leptin receptors. Other studies show that injecting high doses of leptin into the fourth ventricle inhibits food intake and weight gain. Therefore, we tested whether fourth-ventricle leptin infusions that cause weight loss are associated with increased leptin signaling in the hypothalamus...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802825/mog-igg-in-nmo-and-related-disorders-a-multicenter-study-of-50-patients-part-3-brainstem-involvement-frequency-presentation-and-outcome
#8
Sven Jarius, Ingo Kleiter, Klemens Ruprecht, Nasrin Asgari, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Nadja Borisow, Martin W Hümmert, Corinna Trebst, Florence Pache, Alexander Winkelmann, Lena-Alexandra Beume, Marius Ringelstein, Oliver Stich, Orhan Aktas, Mirjam Korporal-Kuhnke, Alexander Schwarz, Carsten Lukas, Jürgen Haas, Kai Fechner, Mathias Buttmann, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Hanna Zimmermann, Alexander U Brandt, Diego Franciotta, Kathrin Schanda, Friedemann Paul, Markus Reindl, Brigitte Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) are present in a subset of aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG-negative patients with optic neuritis (ON) and/or myelitis. Little is known so far about brainstem involvement in MOG-IgG-positive patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency, clinical and paraclinical features, course, outcome, and prognostic implications of brainstem involvement in MOG-IgG-positive ON and/or myelitis. METHODS: Retrospective case study...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796562/myxobolus-axelrodi-n-sp-myxosporea-myxobolidae-a-parasite-infecting-the-brain-and-retinas-of-the-cardinal-tetra-paracheirodon-axelrodi-teleostei-characidae
#9
Alvin C Camus, Jennifer A Dill, Thomas G Rosser, Linda M Pote, Matt J Griffin
An investigation of mortalities in a group of cardinal tetras Paracheirodon axelrodi Meyers, 1936, a popular ornamental fish, revealed myxozoan parasites in ventricles of the brains in 3/10 fish and the ocular retina of a fourth. Parasite impacts were unclear, as additional histopathological findings were present, including bacterial dermatitis and meningitis. Ethanol-preserved specimens pooled from multiple fish were used for morphological characterization of myxospores. Elongate, teardrop myxospores were 20...
October 28, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792889/salsolinol-a-potential-inhibitor-of-the-gonadotropic-axis-in-sheep-during-lactation
#10
E Marciniak, M Hasiec, F Fülöp, T Misztal
This study tested the hypothesis that salsolinol, a derivative of dopamine, affects GnRH and LH secretion in lactating sheep. In the in vivo experiment, the structural analogue of salsolinol, 1-methyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline (1-MeDIQ), was infused into the infundibular nucleus-median eminence of sheep at the fifth wk of lactation to antagonize salsolinol's action. Simultaneously, cerebrospinal fluid from the third brain ventricle, to determine GnRH concentration, and plasma samples, to measure LH concentration, were collected...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791522/tonsillobiventral-fissure-approach-to-the-lateral-recess-of-the-fourth-ventricle
#11
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T Lawton, Halima Tabani, Arnau Benet
OBJECTIVE Surgical access to the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle (LR) is suboptimal with existing transvermian and telovelar approaches because of limited lateral exposure, significant retraction of the cerebellar tonsil, and steep trajectories near brainstem perforator arteries. The goal in this study was to assess surgical exposure of the tonsillobiventral fissure approach to the LR, and to describe the relevant anatomy. METHODS Two formaldehyde-fixed cerebella were used to study the anatomical relationships of the LR...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789280/regional-influence-of-cocaine-on-evoked-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-a-role-for-the-caudal-brainstem
#12
Ashlynn I Gerth, Amber L Alhadeff, Harvey J Grill, Mitchell F Roitman
Cocaine increases dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens through competitive binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT). However, it also increases the frequency of dopamine release events, a finding that cannot be explained by action at the DAT alone. Rather, this effect may be mediated by cocaine-induced modulation of brain regions that project to dopamine neurons. To explore regional contributions of cocaine to dopamine signaling, we administered cocaine to the lateral or fourth ventricles and compared the effects on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens evoked by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area to that of systemically-delivered cocaine...
October 24, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788616/distinctive-characteristics-of-early-onset-and-late-onset-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#13
Lin-Jie Zhang, Li-Na Yang, Ting Li, Jing Wang, Yuan Qi, Da-Qi Zhang, Chun-Sheng Yang, Li Yang
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) as defined by onset age. This study aimed to analyze the different demographic, clinical, laboratory, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in early-onset (≤ 50 years) NMOSD (EONMOSD) and late-onset (> 50 years) NMOSD (LONMOSD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 142 patients with NMOSD from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China, and categorized them into two groups according to the age of onset: EONMOSD and LONMOSD...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785804/hydrocephalus-secondary-to-obstruction-of-the-lateral-apertures-in-two-dogs
#14
M Kent, E N Glass, A C Haley, L S Shaikh, M Sequel, U Blas-Machado, T M Bishop, S P Holmes, S R Platt
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, hydrocephalus is divided into communicating or non-communicating (obstructive) based on the identification of a blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus ex vacuo refers to ventricular enlargement as a consequence of neuroparenchymal loss. Hydrocephalus related to obstruction of the lateral apertures of the fourth ventricles has rarely been described. CASE REPORT: The clinicopathologic findings in two dogs with hydrocephalus secondary to obstruction of the lateral apertures of the fourth ventricle are reported...
November 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778210/surgical-resection-of-fourth-ventricular-ependymomas-case-series-and-technical-nuances
#15
Ethan A Winkler, Harjus Birk, Michael Safaee, John K Yue, John F Burke, Jennifer A Viner, Melike Pekmezci, Arie Perry, Manish K Aghi, Mitchel S Berger, Michael W McDermott
Ependymomas are rare neuroepithelial tumors which may arise anywhere along the ventricular system. Tumors arising in the fourth ventricle present unique challenges. Complete tumor resection favors prolonged survival, but may result in inadvertent injury of surrounding neural structures-such as cranial nerve (CN) nuclei. Here, our institutional experience with surgical resection of fourth ventricular ependymomas is described. A single institution, retrospective analysis of consecutive case series of adult surgically resected fourth ventricular ependymomas with the bilateral telovelar approach...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766742/intracranial-translucency-assessment-at-first-trimester-nuchal-translucency-ultrasound
#16
Annah Lane, Ling Lee, Donna Traves, Andreas Lee
INTRODUCTION: The antenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB), a neural tube defect, is predominantly made at the second trimester morphology scan by ultrasound detection of structural abnormalities resulting from the associated Chiari II malformation. Evidence has emerged suggesting that these structural abnormalities can be detected earlier, by examination of the posterior fossa as part of the first trimester nuchal translucency scan. In particular, absence of the intra-cranial translucency (IT) of the fourth ventricle has shown promise as a diagnostic marker of OSB, although the sensitivity and specificity of this finding varies widely in the literature...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761896/transitory-cystic-cavities-in-the-developing-mammalian-brain-normal-or-anomalous
#17
Charanjit Kaur, Eng-Ang Ling
Transitory cavities associated with the ventricular system represent probably one of the most unique features in the developing mammalian brain. In rodents, the cavities exist transiently in the developing brain and do not appear to be associated with any pathological events. Among the various cavities, the pyramidal-shaped cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) located beneath the corpus callosum and between the lateral ventricles is most well defined. In addition to the CSP are the bilateral subependymal cysts that are consistently associated with the third and fourth ventricles as well as the aqueduct...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744466/posterior-fossa-ruptured-dermoid-cyst-presenting-with-hydrocephalus
#18
Abrar A Wani, Uday S Raswan, Nayil K Malik, Altaf U Ramzan
Dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions of embryological origin that represent 0.1-0.7% of all intracranial tumors. They are mainly located in the supra tentorial space, especially in the parasellar region. Their location in the posterior fossa remains uncommon. Rupture of intracranial dermoid cysts is a rare phenomenon. We present a case of dermoid cyst, which had ruptured into ventricular system. Computed Tomography and MRI revealed fat in the fourth ventricle, prepontine cistern, and cerebellomedullary cistern...
October 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712791/posterior-fossa-tumors-in%C3%A2-adult-patients
#19
Robert Y Shih, James G Smirniotopoulos
In adults, the most common expansile "mass" lesion in the posterior fossa is a subacute stroke, whereas the most common neoplastic lesion in the posterior fossa is cerebellar metastasis (intra-axial) or vestibular schwannoma (extra-axial). Those diseases fall outside the scope of this article, which focuses on primary intra-axial tumors of the posterior fossa in adults. This category of tumors is uncommon and more frequently encountered in children. This article reviews tumors of the cerebellum, brainstem, and fourth ventricle that are seen in adult patients, following categories from the 2007 World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors...
November 2016: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686546/-the-surgical-strategy-of-microsurgical-treatment-for-fulminant-hemorrhagic-dilation-of-the-fourth-ventricle
#20
B Shen, L H Su, S Y Zhang
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness and advantage of improved microsurgery for fulminant hemorrhagic dilation of the fourth ventricle. Methods: The clinical data of 21 patients with fulminant hemorrhagic dilation of the fourth ventricle were analyzed retrospectively.All patients underwent hemorrhage evacuation and improved atlantooccipital decompression via middle suboccipital trans-cerebellar vermis approach, with preceding external ventricular drain. Results: One patient died of brainstem failure postoperative, and 20 patients were followed up from 6 to 17 months...
September 20, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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