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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161610/experimental-modification-of-dysfunctional-interpretations-in-individuals-with-contamination-concerns
#1
Sara L Conley, Kevin D Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dysfunctional interpretations of intrusive thoughts are implicated in the etiology and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Cognitive Bias Modification training for interpretations (CBM-I) has successfully modified dysfunctional interpretations in the context of several disorders, including OCD. However, research regarding CBM-I's impact on symptom reduction and behavior is mixed, which limits its clinical application. Further, support for the specific efficacy of CBM-I in individuals with contamination concerns is limited...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159055/neural-correlates-of-working-memory-deficits-and-associations-to-response-inhibition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#2
Stephan Heinzel, Christian Kaufmann, Rosa Grützmann, Robert Hummel, Julia Klawohn, Anja Riesel, Katharina Bey, Leonhard Lennertz, Michael Wagner, Norbert Kathmann
Previous research in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has indicated performance decrements in working memory (WM) and response inhibition. However, underlying neural mechanisms of WM deficits are not well understood to date, and empirical evidence for a proposed conceptual link to inhibition deficits is missing. We investigated WM performance in a numeric n-back task with four WM load conditions during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in 51 patients with OCD and 49 healthy control participants who were matched for age, sex, and education...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125957/a-network-perspective-on-comorbid-depression-in-adolescents-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Payton J Jones, Patrick Mair, Bradley C Riemann, Beth L Mugno, Richard J McNally
People with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD] frequently suffer from depression, a comorbidity associated with greater symptom severity and suicide risk. We examined the associations between OCD and depression symptoms in 87 adolescents with primary OCD. We computed an association network, a graphical LASSO, and a directed acyclic graph (DAG) to model symptom interactions. Models showed OCD and depression as separate syndromes linked by bridge symptoms. Bridges between the two disorders emerged between obsessional problems in the OCD syndrome, and guilt, concentration problems, and sadness in the depression syndrome...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120840/responsibility-beliefs-and-persecutory-delusions
#4
Katherine Pugh, Olga Luzon, Lyn Ellett
Recent research implicates cognitive processes traditionally linked to anxiety disorders in the maintenance of paranoia. Responsibility beliefs have traditionally been associated with OCD, and recent research suggests they may be transdiagnostic. The present study reports the first data on responsibility beliefs in individuals with persecutory delusions. 30 people with persecutory delusions completed measures of psychotic symptoms and responsibility beliefs. Participants were also asked to identify who they held responsible for their persecution...
November 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119912/the-glutamate-and-the-immune-systems-new-targets-for-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-ocd
#5
Donatella Marazziti, Umberto Albert, Federico Mucci, Armando Piccinni
BACKGROUND: In the last decades the pharmacological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been significantly promoted by the effectiveness of selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the subsequent development of the 5-HT hypothesis of OCD. However, since a large majority of patients (between 40% and 60 %) do not respond to SSRIs or strategies based on the modulation of the 5-HT system, it is now essential to search for other possible therapeutic targets...
November 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119300/longitudinal-outcomes-of-children-with-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorder-associated-with-streptococcal-infections-pandas
#6
Jill Leon, Rebecca Hommer, Paul Grant, Cristan Farmer, Precilla D'Souza, Riley Kessler, Kyle Williams, James F Leckman, Susan Swedo
Little is known about the natural history of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). This study prospectively followed 33 children with PANDAS for up to 4.8 years (mean 3.3 ± 0.7 years) after enrollment in a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (N = 35). Fourteen of eighteen children randomized to placebo received open label IVIG 6 weeks after the blinded infusion, so follow-up results reported below largely reflect outcomes in a population of children who received at least one dose of IVIG...
November 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117869/frequency-of-use-of-the-international-classification-of-diseases-icd-10-diagnostic-categories-for-mental-and-behavioural-disorders-across-world-regions
#7
Y Faiad, B Khoury, S Daouk, M Maj, J Keeley, O Gureje, G Reed
AIMS: The study aimed to examine variations in the use of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic categories for mental and behavioural disorders across countries, regions and income levels using data from the online World Psychiatric Association (WPA)-World Health Organization (WHO) Global Survey that examined the attitudes of psychiatrists towards the classification of mental disorders. METHODS: A survey was sent to 46 psychiatric societies which are members of WPA...
November 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117014/what-s-new-in-pediatric-upper-extremity-sports-injuries
#8
Jennifer J Beck, Connor G Richmond, Marc A Tompkins, Ann Heyer, Kevin G Shea, Aristides I Cruz
BACKGROUND: Sports injuries are common in pediatric and adolescent patients and the evaluation and treatment of these injuries continues to evolve. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive appraisal of the most recent literature, highlighting updates on sports-related upper extremity injuries in pediatric patients. METHODS: An electronic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases was performed for keywords related to pediatric overhead athletes, osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum, medial epicondyle fractures, shoulder instability, and clavicle fractures...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098466/prevalence-and-predictors-of-hair-pulling-disorder-and-excoriation-disorder-in-tourette-syndrome
#9
Erica Greenberg, Esther S Tung, Caitlin Gauvin, Lisa Osiecki, Kelly G Yang, Erin Curley, Angela Essa, Cornelia Illmann, Paul Sandor, Yves Dion, Gholson J Lyon, Robert A King, Sabrina Darrow, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Cathy L Budman, Marco Grados, David L Pauls, Nancy J Keuthen, Carol A Mathews, Jeremiah M Scharf
Trichotillomania/hair pulling disorder (HPD) and excoriation/skin picking disorder (SPD) are childhood-onset, body-focused repetitive behaviors that are thought to share genetic susceptibility and underlying pathophysiology with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). We sought to determine the prevalence of DSM-5 HPD and SPD in TS patients, and to identify clinical factors most associated with their co-morbidity with TS. Participants included 811 TS patients recruited from TS specialty clinics for a multi-center genetic study...
November 2, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091827/examining-the-role-of-sex-differences-in-obsessive-compulsive-symptom-dimensions
#10
Amanda M Raines, Mary E Oglesby, Nicholas P Allan, Brittany M Mathes, Carson A Sutton, Norman B Schmidt
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a notably heterogeneous disorder. As such, there has been increased interest in subtyping OCD into homogeneous entities using biological characteristics such as sex. Whereas there is large consensus in the literature regarding sex differences in the phenotypic expression of OCD, there are numerous disadvantages to how OCD has been previously measured and assessed. The present investigation explored potential sex differences in OCD symptoms using the Dimensional Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DOCS), a redesigned measure that more reliably assesses the four most commonly replicated OCD symptom dimensions...
October 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082426/anxiety-disorders-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Valentina Postorino, Connor M Kerns, Giacomo Vivanti, Jessica Bradshaw, Martina Siracusano, Luigi Mazzone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to synthesize the most recent research on anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discuss the relationship between these conditions and challenges for assessment. Furthermore, implications for treatment and future directions are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Research suggests that anxiety disorders and OCD are highly prevalent in individuals with ASD. However, the significant overlap of ASD features with anxiety and OCD symptomology makes differential diagnosis of these disorders particularly challenging...
October 30, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077549/obsessive-compulsive-and-depressive-symptoms-the-role-of-depressive-cognitive-styles
#12
Ashley M Shaw, Julia Y Carbonella, Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Kiara R Timpano
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) commonly co-occurs with depression, resulting in heightened severity and poorer treatment response. Research on the associations between specific obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms has utilized measures that have not fully considered the relationship across OCS dimensions. Little is known about which factors explain the overlap between OCS and depressive symptoms. OCS and depressive symptoms may be related via depressive cognitive styles, such as rumination or dampening (i...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077144/-ethical-issues-relating-to-deep-brain-stimulation-for-psychiatric-disorders
#13
A F G Leentjens, D Horstkötter, G de Wert
Deep brain stimulation (dbs) can improve the quality of life of patients with therapy-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (ocd). For other psychiatric indications, dbs should still be regarded as an experimental treatment.<br/> AIM: To discuss potential ethical issues associated with the use of dbs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders.<br/> METHOD: Ethical discourse.<br/> RESULTS: The ethical issues associated with the use of dbs to treat psychiatric disorders are no different from those that may arise during psychotherapeutic or pharmacological treatments...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072188/body-dysmorphic-disorder-latest-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-findings
#14
K Tasios, I Michopoulos
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a perceived defect or flaw in physical appearance that is not observable or appears slight to others. It leads to severe distress and functional impairment. Cognitive-behavioural and neurobiological similarities to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have led to its newly conceived classification as an obsessive compulsive related disorder (OCRD). In the process of investigating the neurobiology of BDD, neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have been conducted...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053637/progress-in-genetic-studies-of-tourette-s-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Yanjie Qi, Yi Zheng, Zhanjiang Li, Lan Xiong
Tourette's Syndrome (TS) is a complex disorder characterized by repetitive, sudden, and involuntary movements or vocalizations, called tics. Tics usually appear in childhood, and their severity varies over time. In addition to frequent tics, people with TS are at risk for associated problems including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, depression, and problems with sleep. TS occurs in most populations and ethnic groups worldwide, and it is more common in males than in females...
October 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046136/phenotype-development-in-adolescents-with-tourette-syndrome-a-large-clinical-longitudinal-study
#16
Camilla Groth, Nanette Mol Debes, Liselotte Skov
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by frequent comorbidities and a wide spectrum of phenotype presentations. This study aimed to describe the development of phenotypes in TS and tic-related impairment in a large longitudinal study of 226 children and adolescents followed up after 6 years. The participants were clinically examined to assess tic severity and impairment, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The development in phenotypes changed toward less comorbidity with 40% TS-only (no OCD or ADHD) (TS without OCD or ADHD) at baseline and 55% at follow-up...
November 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033617/family-accommodation-in-adult-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-clinical-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Umberto Albert, Alessandra Baffa, Giuseppe Maina
The term accommodation has been used to refer to family responses specifically related to obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms: it encompasses behaviors such as directly participating in compulsions, assisting a relative with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) when he/she is performing a ritual, or helping him/her to avoid triggers that may precipitate obsessions and compulsions. At the opposite side, family responses to OCD may also include interfering with the rituals or actively opposing them; stopping accommodating OC symptoms or actively interfering with their performance is usually associated with greater distress and sometimes even with aggressive behaviors from the patients...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988123/the-impact-of-lifetime-ptsd-on-the-seven-year-course-and-clinical-characteristics-of-ocd
#18
Rachel Ojserkis, Christina L Boisseau, Madhavi K Reddy, Maria C Mancebo, Jane L Eisen, Steven A Rasmussen
Research has suggested that the co-occurrence of PTSD in individuals with OCD is associated with more severe symptoms and less responsivity to empirically supported treatment as compared to individuals with OCD and no history of PTSD. However, much of this work has been limited by non-empirical case report design, cross-sectional and retrospective analyses, or small sample sizes. The current study extended this research by comparing the clinical characteristics of individuals with OCD with and without a lifetime PTSD diagnosis in a large, naturalistic, longitudinal sample over the course of seven years...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928693/the-dimensional-obsessive-compulsive-scale-development-and-validation-of-a-short-form-docs-sf
#19
Thomas Eilertsen, Bjarne Hansen, Gerd Kvale, Jonathan S Abramowitz, Silje E H Holm, Stian Solem
Accurately and reliably measuring the presence and severity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms is essential for both routine clinical work and research. The current study investigated psychometric properties of the dimensional obsessive-compulsive scale-short form (DOCS-SF). DOCS-SF was developed and validated in Norwegian. DOCS-SF contains a checklist with four symptom categories and five severity items scored on a zero to eight scale yielding a total score of 0-40. Data were collected from adults with a current diagnosis of OCD (n = 204) and a community comparison group (n = 211)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928194/diagnostic-validity-of-early-onset-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-the-danish-psychiatric-central-register-findings-from-a-cohort-sample
#20
Judith Nissen, Shelagh Powell, Susanne V Koch, James J Crowley, Manuel Matthiesen, Dorothy E Grice, Per H Thomsen, E Parner
OBJECTIVES: Employing national registers for research purposes depends on a high diagnostic validity. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic validity of recorded diagnoses of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). DESIGN: Review of patient journals selected randomly through the DPCR. METHOD: One hundred cases of OCD were randomly selected from DPCR. Using a predefined coding scheme based on the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS), experienced research nurse or child and adolescent psychiatrists assessed each journal to determine the presence/absence of OCD diagnostic criteria...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
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