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Ocd research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642831/treatment-of-hypochondriasis-in-two-schizophrenia-patients-using-clozapine
#1
Antonio Tundo, Luca Proietti, Rocco de Filippis
Hypochondriasis (HYPO), an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder, is frequent in patients with schizophrenia (SCH) (20%), especially among those treated with clozapine (36.7%). Treatment options for OCS/OCD in patients under clozapine (CLZ) include combining clozapine with amisulpride/aripiprazole or a mood stabilizer, augmenting clozapine with a serotoninergic reuptake inhibitor, adding cognitive behavioural therapy, and gradually reducing dosage. No treatments have been proposed for HYPO in patients using clozapine so we examine these options in 2 cases and report the results...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638200/brain-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-concentration-of-the-prefrontal-lobe-in-unmedicated-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-research-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#2
Zongfeng Zhang, Qing Fan, Yanle Bai, Zhen Wang, Haiyin Zhang, Zeping Xiao
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a large number of neuroimaging studies found that the Cortico-Striato- Thalamo-Cortical circuit (CSTC), including the prefrontal lobe, a significant part of CSTC, has disturbance metabolically in patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). AIM: Explore the correlation between the neuro-metabolic features and clinical characteristics of OCD patients using magnetic resonance spectroscopy technology. METHODS: 88 patients with OCD who were not received medication and outpatient treatment for 8 weeks and 76 health controls were enrolled, there was no significant difference in gender, age or education level between the two groups...
October 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632120/basolateral-amygdala-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-connectivity-predicts-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-outcome-in-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Miquel A Fullana, Xi Zhu, Pino Alonso, Narcís Cardoner, Eva Real, Clara López-Solà, Cinto Segalàs, Marta Subirà, Hanga Galfalvy, José M Menchón, H Blair Simpson, Rachel Marsh, Carles Soriano-Mas
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), including exposure and ritual prevention, is a first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but few reliable predictors of CBT outcome have been identified. Based on research in animal models, we hypothesized that individual differences in basolateral amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BLA-vmPFC) communication would predict CBT outcome in patients with OCD. METHODS: We investigated whether BLA-vmPFC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) predicts CBT outcome in patients with OCD...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628809/distrust-of-the-senses-and-its-association-with-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms
#4
Shiu F Wong, Alishia D Williams, Jessica R Grisham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Leading cognitive theories of OCD suggests that despite prevalent and persistent doubt, individuals with OCD do not have perceptual deficits. An alternate cognitive theory, the Seeking Proxies for Internal States hypothesis (SPIS), proposes that sensory distrust in OCD stems from actual deficits in accessing internal states. Consistent with the SPIS, previous research has found that high-OC individuals were less accurate than low-OC individuals in producing target levels of muscle tension in a biofeedback task and that OC symptoms were positively associated with reliance on an external proxy...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601668/developmental-and-clinical-predictors-of-comorbidity-for-youth-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Tara S Peris, Michelle Rozenman, R Lindsey Bergman, Susanna Chang, Joseph O'Neill, John Piacentini
OBJECTIVE: To date, few studies of childhood obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have been adequately powered to examine patterns and predictors of comorbidity, despite the frequency with which it occurs. We address this gap, drawing on a large sample of youth with OCD who were systematically assessed through research and clinical programs in a university-based specialty program for children and adolescents with OCD. We examine patterns of comorbidity across different epochs of development and predict specific classes of OCD (comorbidity internalizing/externalizing/both) from key demographic and clinical variables that may be useful in guiding individualized treatment...
October 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557252/a-case-study-integrating-cbt-with-narrative-therapy-externalizing-techniques-with-a-child-with-ocd-how-to-flush-away-the-silly-gremlin-a-single-case-experimental-design
#6
Rosemary Banting, Susannah Lloyd
PROBLEM: Evidence exists for the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) combined with externalizing techniques from narrative therapy for pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD); however, no research gives a detailed account of what the externalizing process looks like in session or how it is incorporated into conceptualization. Literature is appraised with respect to the referral, assessment, formulation, intervention and outcome. METHODS: The case describes a 10-year-old boy who was referred with severe OCD...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553250/yes-the-symptoms-of-ocd-and-depression-are-discrete-and-not-exclusively-negative-affectivity
#7
Kathleen A Moore, Jacqui Howell
Although Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Depression are classified as separate disorders, the high incidence of co-morbidity and the strong correlations between measures of each has led to debate about the nature of their relationship. Some authors have proposed that OCD is in fact a mood disorder while others have suggested that the two disorders are grounded in negative affectivity. A third proposition is that depression is an essential part of OCD but that OCD is a separate disorder from depression...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552055/promising-treatments-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-call-for-additional-research
#8
Lorrin M Koran, Elias Aboujaoude
Many patients with OCD respond partially or not at all to standard medications and cognitive behavioral therapy approaches, making alternate treatments necessary. We review the preliminary evidence that exists in support of the use of stimulants, high-dose caffeine, opiates, memantine, ondansetron, ketamine, and transcranial magnetic stimulation in some patients with OCD. Although limited by small or modest sample sizes, open-label study designs, and brief follow-up periods, studies suggest that each of these strategies can help some patients who have inadequately responded to first-line treatments...
May 26, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545008/psychiatric-disorders-in-a-cohort-of-individuals-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#9
L Shriki-Tal, H Avrahamy, Y Pollak, V Gross-Tsur, L Genstil, H J Hirsch, F Benarroch
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric manifestations in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) are common and often are the most debilitating problem in these individuals. We present an epidemiological nation-wide survey of psychiatric diagnoses in the PWS population, based on full-range psychiatric interviews. METHODS: We studied the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses (as opposed to a symptom-based approach) in the Israel national cohort of adolescents and adults with PWS. There was a total of 53 (32 males) ages 12 years and older...
April 5, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515196/cost-effectiveness-of-therapist-guided-internet-delivered-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-for-paediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Fabian Lenhard, Richard Ssegonja, Erik Andersson, Inna Feldman, Christian Rück, David Mataix-Cols, Eva Serlachius
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) intervention for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared with untreated patients on a waitlist. DESIGN: Single-blinded randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A research clinic within the regular child and adolescent mental health service in Stockholm, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-seven adolescents (12-17 years) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition diagnosis of OCD...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512441/mapping-the-paths-from-styles-of-anger-experience-and-expression-to-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-the-moderating-roles-of-family-cohesion-and-adaptability
#11
Liang Liu, Cuilian Liu, Xudong Zhao
Previous research has shown strong connections of anger experience and expression with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Additionally, studies have demonstrated links between family environment variables and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Our study aims to integrate the perspectives from these two literatures by exploring the moderating roles of family cohesion and family adaptability in the relationship between anger proneness and suppression and OCD symptoms. A total of 2008 college students were recruited from a comprehensive university in Shanghai, China between February and May 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509714/preventing-occupational-skin-disease-a-review-of-training-programs
#12
Bethany Zack, Victoria H Arrandale, D Linn Holness
Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease that impacts a variety of worker groups. Skin protection and disease prevention training programs have shown promise for improving prevention practices and reducing the incidence of OCD. This review details the features of training programs for primary prevention of OCD and identifies gaps in the literature. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth review: many studies included wet workers employed in health care, hairdressing, cleaning, and food preparation; 1 program featured manufacturing workers...
May 2017: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505489/anxiety-sensitivity-as-a-predictor-of-outcome-in-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Shannon M Blakey, Jonathan S Abramowitz, Lillian Reuman, Rachel C Leonard, Bradley C Riemann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To address the fact that not all individuals who receive cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibit complete symptom reduction, research has examined factors that predict outcome; however, no studies have examined anxiety sensitivity (AS) as a predictor of outcome of CBT for OCD. AS refers to the fear of anxious arousal that results from mistaken beliefs about the dangerousness of anxiety-related body sensations. It is important to understand whether AS influences OCD treatment outcome, considering that (a) some obsessions directly relate to AS, and (b) OCD patients with high AS may be reluctant to engage in anxiety-provoking components of CBT for OCD...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504027/epidemiology-and-comorbidity-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-late-adolescence-a-cross-sectional-study-in-senior-high-schools-in-greece
#14
Spyridon Politis, Konstantina Magklara, Petros Petrikis, Grigorios Michalis, Gregoris Simos, Petros Skapinakis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology, comorbidity and use of health services of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms in late adolescence. METHODS: A total of 2427 adolescents attending senior high schools in Greece were selected for a detailed psychiatric interview using the revised clinical interview schedule (CIS-R). Use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis, and several socio-demographic and socio-economic variables were also assessed...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485008/l-carnosine-as-an-adjuvant-to-fluvoxamine-in-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-randomized-double-blind-study
#15
Somaye Arabzadeh, Maryam Shahhossenie, Bita Mesgarpour, Farzin Rezaei, Mohammad Reza Shalbafan, Zahra Ghiasi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of glutamate is implicated in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Consistently, glutamate-modulating agents, such as riluzole and memantine have been used in OCD treatment. Previous research has identified some neuroprotective role for L-carnosine potentially via its modulatory effect on glutamate. Here, we assessed the efficacy of L-carnosine as adjuvant to fluvoxamine in OCD treatment. METHODS: Forty-four patients diagnosed with moderate to severe OCD were recruited in a randomized double-blind trial...
May 8, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478887/investigating-the-neurobiology-of-schizophrenia-and-other-major-psychiatric-disorders-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#16
REVIEW
Rachel E Kaskie, Fabio Ferrarelli
Characterizing the neurobiology of schizophrenia and other major psychiatric disorders is one of the main challenges of the current research in psychiatry. The availability of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) allows to directly probe virtually any cortical areas, thus providing a unique way to assess the neurophysiological properties of cortical neurons. This article presents a review of studies employing TMS in combination with Motor Evoked Potentials (TMS/MEPs) and high density Electroencephalogram (TMS/hd-EEG) in schizophrenia and other major psychiatric disorders...
May 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471212/hierarchical-structure-of-emotional-disorders-from-individual-symptoms-to-the-spectrum
#17
Monika A Waszczuk, Roman Kotov, Camilo Ruggero, Wakiza Gamez, David Watson
Classification of emotional disorders faces challenges of within-disorder heterogeneity and between-disorder comorbidity. The current study addressed these issues by analyzing all emotional disorder symptoms to identify homogeneous dimensions that characterize this domain. These dimensions were, in turn, used to define coherent syndromes and higher order factors. All of the emotional disorder symptoms specified in diagnostic manuals were assessed by interview in 2 treatment-seeking samples (N = 426 and 305), alongside clinical diagnoses and functioning measures...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457837/cost-effectiveness-of-deep-brain-stimulation-versus-treatment-as-usual-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Pieter Ooms, Matthijs Blankers, Martijn Figee, Isidoor O Bergfeld, Pepijn van den Munckhof, P Richard Schuurman, Damiaan Denys
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is effective for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but requires expensive medical procedures. To date, no study has examined the cost-effectiveness of DBS for OCD. OBJECTIVE: To perform the first economic evaluation of DBS for therapy refractory OCD. METHODS: We conducted a 2-year prospective, open cost-effectiveness study, comparing DBS (n = 17) with treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 11), with cost per Quality-Adjusted-Life-Year (QALY) as outcome measure...
July 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453999/symptoms-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-predict-cannabis-misuse
#19
Alexander Spradlin, Dakota Mauzay, Carrie Cuttler
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis use has been linked to many psychological disorders. There is, however, a paucity of research investigating the link between cannabis use and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study sought to examine this link by exploring associations between severity of OCD symptoms, cannabis use, and cannabis misuse; determining whether these associations exist above and beyond symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress; and testing the mediating role of cannabis coping motives (i...
March 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434589/from-an-animal-model-to-human-patients-an-example-of-a-translational-study-on-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd
#20
REVIEW
David Eilam
The application of similar analyses enables a direct projection from translational research in animals to human studies. Following is an example of how the methodology of a specific animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was applied to study human patients. Specifically, the quinpirole rat model for OCD was based on analyzing the trajectories of travel among different locales, and scoring the set of acts performed at each locale. Applying this analytic approach in human patients unveiled various aspects of OCD, such as the repetition and addition of acts, incompleteness, and the link between behavior and specific locations...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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