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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899165/cognitive-dysfunction-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-new-implications-for-nosological-systems-and-neurobiological-models
#1
Kiri Jefferies-Sewell, Samuel R Chamberlain, Naomi A Fineberg, Keith R Laws
: Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterized by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, and which has been newly classified within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder. METHODS: Participants with BDD (n=12) and participants without BDD (n=16) were tested using a computerized neurocognitive battery investigating attentional set-shifting (Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift Task), decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), motor response-inhibition (Stop-Signal Reaction Time Task), and affective processing (Affective Go-No Go Task)...
November 30, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893695/clinical-assessment-tests-in-evaluating-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Ming-Lung Chuang, I-Feng Lin, Chai-Yuan Lee
Exertional dyspnea scales (EDS) and health-related quality-of-life questionnaires (HRQoLQs) are used to assess chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The GOLD guidelines categorize patients according to either 1 of these 2 domains, the lung function and the frequency of acute exacerbations in the preceding year, however with inconsistent results. Combining EDS and HRQoLQs may yield better results; however, the best combination is unclear. Whether the EDS quantifies the exercise capacity or the dyspnea perception is also unclear...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887679/-mindfulness-based-interventions-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-mechanisms-of-action-and-presentation-of-a-pilot-study
#3
M Gasnier, A Pelissolo, G Bondolfi, S Pelissolo, M Tomba, L Mallet, K N'diaye
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent and severe disease, potentially inducing a major impairment for the patient and burden for their family. Recent research in psychiatry and neuroscience have led to better comprehension of the disease's mechanisms and helped to improve its treatment. However, a large proportion of patients have refractory symptoms, including for traditional cognitive and behavioral therapy by exposure and response prevention (ERP), leading clinicians to look for new treatments...
November 22, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869250/preliminary-analyses-of-psychometric-characteristics-of-the-polish-version-of-the-obsessive-compulsive-inventory-revised-oci-r-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#4
Justyna Mojsa-Kaja, Krystyna Golonka, Magda Gawłowska
OBJECTIVES: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety-spectrum disorder that affects 1-2% of the adult population. People with OCD are more likely to report impaired social and occupational functioning. Although effective treatments of the OCD exist, many sufferers from this disorder are continuously misdiagnosed. Therefore, improving the assessment of the OCD remains an important area of scientific research. The main goal of the study is the initial verification of psychometric properties in the Polish version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) in a college student sample...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830935/use-of-computer-vision-tools-to-identify-behavioral-markers-of-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-pilot-study
#5
Gail A Bernstein, Tasoulla Hadjiyanni, Kathryn R Cullen, Julia W Robinson, Elizabeth C Harris, Austin D Young, Joshua Fasching, Nicholas Walczak, Susanne Lee, Vassilios Morellas, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos
OBJECTIVES: The clinical presentation of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is heterogeneous, which is a stumbling block to understanding pathophysiology and to developing new treatments. A major shift in psychiatry, embodied in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative of National Institute of Mental Health, recognizes the pitfalls of categorizing mental illnesses using diagnostic criteria. Instead, RDoC encourages researchers to use a dimensional approach, focusing on narrower domains of psychopathology to characterize brain-behavior relationships...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822492/changes-of-nitric-oxide-and-peroxynitrite-serum-levels-during-drug-therapy-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Leila Kouti, Mehdi Sayyah, Parisa Mosallanezhad, Sara Kooti, Maryam Aghakoochakzadeh, Kaveh Eslami
Objectives. Some studies have shown that increased nitric oxide (NO) concentrations may be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In a few animal researches, enhanced synthesis of NO had reversed the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The present study tries to find the effect of treatment with SSRIs on NO serum levels and its product peroxynitrite. Patients and Methods. Patients diagnosed with OCD who are candidates of receiving SSRIs entered this study. Two blood samples were taken from subjects, prior to drug therapy and after the patients had shown some improvements due to their regimen...
2016: Advances in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807685/ocd-taboo-thoughts-and-stigmatizing-attitudes-in-clinicians
#7
Daniel S Steinberg, Chad T Wetterneck
Individuals who suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder have persistent intrusive thoughts that cause severe distress that impairs daily functioning. These individuals often conceal their intrusive thoughts and delay help-seeking for fear of being stigmatized. Stigma can be problematic when it is present among mental health professionals because they may distance themselves from their clients and have a negative outlook on treatment outcome. To date there has not been any research that focuses on stigma that clinician's may hold towards obsessive-compulsive disorder or specific obsessions; however, there is evidence that mental health professionals may have prejudices towards individuals who suffer from other mental illnesses...
November 2, 2016: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792972/a-preliminary-study-of-cognitive-behavioral-family-based-treatment-versus-parent-training-for-young-children-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Ana I Rosa-Alcázar, Marina Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Eric A Storch, Ángel Rosa-Alcázar, José L Parada-Navas, José Olivares Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-Behavioral Family-Based Treatment (CBFT) is the standard of care in young children with OCD. Developmental considerations, parent desires, and cost-effective advantages motivate research to explore the relative efficacy of parent-only interventions. The main goal in this study was to test the effectiveness and feasibility of a parent only intervention for OCD in young children, comparing, in a preliminary fashion the relative efficacy of reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms through two treatment conditions: 1) an individual CBFT for early OCD involving both parents and children, and 2) the family component of the intervention involving only individual Parent Training (PT)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755142/current-understanding-of-the-relationships-between-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-personality-disturbance
#9
Vladan Starcevic, Vlasios Brakoulias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to examine the relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and personality disturbance, with a particular focus on the diagnostic, aetiological and treatment implications of these relationships. RECENT FINDINGS: Personality disorders are common in OCD. They interact in various ways and in accordance with a number of the proposed models. The relationship between OCD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is the most important, but it can be conceptualised in different ways and may vary from one person to another...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745541/patient-preferences-and-acceptability-of-evidence-based-and-novel-treatments-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Sapana R Patel, Hanga Galfavy, Marcia B Kimeldorf, Lisa B Dixon, Helen Blair Simpson
OBJECTIVE: This study examined preferences for and acceptability of treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: Through an online survey, adults who self-reported OCD chose their preferred evidence-based treatments, rated acceptability of novel treatments, and answered open-ended questions about their preferences. Analyses examined associations between demographic, clinical, and treatment variables and first-line and augmentation treatment preferences...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744071/is-disgust-proneness-sensitive-to-treatment-for-ocd-among-youth-examination-of-diagnostic-specificity-and-symptom-correlates
#11
Kelly A Knowles, Megan A Viar-Paxton, Bradley C Riemann, David M Jacobi, Bunmi O Olatunji
Although disgust proneness has been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a paucity of research examining change in disgust proneness during treatment as well as the correlates of such change, especially in children. This study examined the relationship between changes in disgust proneness and disorder-specific symptoms during residential treatment among youth with OCD, anxiety, and mood disorders. Youth ages 12-18 (n=472) completed pre- and post-outcome measures of OCD, anxiety, and mood symptoms and disgust proneness...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723545/spontaneous-neural-activity-in-the-right-superior-temporal-gyrus-and-left-middle-temporal-gyrus-is-associated-with-insight-level-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Jie Fan, Mingtian Zhong, Jun Gan, Wanting Liu, Chaoyang Niu, Haiyan Liao, Hongchun Zhang, Changlian Tan, Jinyao Yi, Xiongzhao Zhu
BACKGROUND: Insight into illness is an important issue for psychiatry disorder. Although the existence of a poor insight subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was recognized in the DSM-IV, and the insight level in OCD was specified further in DSM-V, the neural underpinnings of insight in OCD have been rarely explored. The present study was designed to bridge this research gap by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Spontaneous neural activity were examined in 19 OCD patients with good insight (OCD-GI), 18 OCD patients with poor insight (OCD-PI), and 25 healthy controls (HC) by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the resting state...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713631/a-longitudinal-event-related-potential-pilot-study-of-adult-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-1-year-follow-up
#13
Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Koji Okada, Naoko Kishimoto, Toyosaku Ota, Junzo Iida, Toshifumi Kishimoto
AIM: Earlier brain imaging research studies have suggested that brain abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) normalize as clinical symptoms improve. However, although many studies have investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with OCD compared with healthy control subjects, it is currently unknown whether ERP changes reflect pharmacological and psychotherapeutic effects. As such, the current study examined the neurocognitive components of OCD to elucidate the pathophysiological abnormalities involved in the disorder, including the frontal-subcortical circuits...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711249/-on-my-own-but-not-alone-adolescents-experiences-of-internet-delivered-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
Fabian Lenhard, Sarah Vigerland, Hedvig Engberg, Anna Hallberg, Hanna Thermaenius, Eva Serlachius
INTRODUCTION: Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a prevalent and impairing condition that can be effectively treated with Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). However, a majority of children and adolescents do not have access to CBT. Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) has been suggested as a way to increase availability to effective psychological treatments. Yet, the research on ICBT in children and adolescents has been lagging behind significantly both when it comes to quantitative as well as qualitative studies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690351/disrupted-latent-decision-processes-in-medication-free-pediatric-ocd-patients
#15
Ceyla Erhan, Gresa Çarkaxhiu Bulut, Sebla Gökçe, Duru Ozbas, Esin Turkakin, Onur Burak Dursun, Yanki Yazgan, Fuat Balcı
BACKGROUND: Decision-making in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has typically been investigated in the adult population. Computational approaches have recently started to get integrated into these studies. However, decision-making research in pediatric OCD populations is scarce. METHODS: We investigated latent decision processes in 21 medication-free pediatric OCD patients and 23 healthy control participants. We hypothesized that OCD patients would be more cautious and less efficient in evidence accumulation than controls in a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) task...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688681/ethical-considerations-in-exposure-therapy-with-children
#16
Jennifer A Gola, Rinad S Beidas, Diana Antinoro-Burke, Hilary E Kratz, Randy Fingerhut
Despite the abundance of research that supports the efficacy of exposure therapy for childhood anxiety disorders and OCD, negative views and myths about the harmfulness of this treatment are prevalent. These beliefs contribute to the underutilization of this treatment and less robust effectiveness in community settings compared to randomized clinical trials. Although research confirms that exposure therapy is efficacious, safe, tolerable, and bears minimal risk when implemented correctly, there are unique ethical considerations in exposure therapy, especially with children...
May 2016: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687817/the-link-between-autoimmune-diseases-and-obsessive-compulsive-and-tic-disorders-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Ana Pérez-Vigil, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Gustaf Brander, Kayoko Isomura, Caroline Gromark, David Mataix-Cols
Immunological factors are increasingly recognized as being important in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. We aimed to summarize the disperse and often conflicting literature on the potential association between autoimmune diseases (ADs) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for original studies evaluating the relationship between ADs and OCD/tic disorders until July, 13th 2016. Seventy-four studies met inclusion criteria. Overall, the studies were of limited methodological quality...
September 27, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683902/field-potential-oscillations-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-correlate-with-compulsion-in-a-rat-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Hemmings Wu, Tim Tambuyzer, Ioana Nica, Marjolijn Deprez, Kris van Kuyck, Jean-Marie Aerts, Sabine Van Huffel, Bart Nuttin
UNLABELLED: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in anxiety and reward processing, both of which are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Specific neuronal groups in the BNST related to anxiety and reward have been identified, but quantitative data about the information carried by local field potential (LFP) signals in this area during obsession/compulsion are lacking. Here we investigate the BNST LFP in the schedule-induced polydipsia, an animal model of OCD...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664817/stove-checking-behaviour-in-people-with-ocd-vs-anxious-controls
#19
Bianca Bucarelli, Christine Purdon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A growing body of research suggests that the repetition of an action degrades memory for that action, as well as confidence that is has been done correctly. This has important implications for understanding the compulsive repetition of actions characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). At this time, though, much of the research has been conducted on analogue or nonclinical OCD samples in comparison to healthy controls and often using virtual, as opposed to actual, threat stimuli...
December 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663946/withdrawn-depressed-behaviors-and-error-related-brain-activity-in-youth-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Gregory L Hanna, Yanni Liu, Yona E Isaacs, Angela M Ayoub, Jose J Torres, Nolan B O'Hara, William J Gehring
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) involves increased activity in corticostriatal circuits connecting the anterior cingulate cortex with other brain regions. The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response that is believed to reflect anterior cingulate cortex activity. This study examined the relation of the ERN to OCD symptom dimensions and other childhood symptom dimensions. METHOD: The ERN, correct response negativity, and accuracy were measured during a flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 80 youth with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD and 80 matched healthy comparison participants ranging from 8 to 18 years old...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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