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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222359/disgust-proneness-predicts-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-symptom-severity-in-a-clinical-sample-of-youth-distinctions-from-negative-affect
#1
Bunmi O Olatunji, Chad Ebesutani, Jingu Kim, Bradley C Riemann, David M Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Although studies have linked disgust proneness to the etiology and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults, there remains a paucity of research examining the specificity of this association among youth. METHOD: The present study employed structural equation modeling to examine the association between disgust proneness, negative affect, and OCD symptom severity in a clinical sample of youth admitted to a residential treatment facility (N =471)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219490/a-multisite-study-of-family-functioning%C3%A2-impairment-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#2
S Evelyn Stewart, Yu-Pei Hu, Aldrich Leung, Elaine Chan, Dianne M Hezel, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Casey Walsh, Daniel A Geller, David L Pauls
OBJECTIVE: Familial aspects of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including accommodation and treatment, have received notable and warranted attention. However, individual perspectives of its repercussions on family functioning, including emotional and occupational parental burden, have not been closely examined. The present study details this topic using a large multicenter sample. METHOD: Participants included 354 youth affected with OCD and their mothers and fathers ascertained through OCD programs in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 180) and Vancouver, British Columbia (n = 174)...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183286/register-based-study-of-the-incidence-comorbidities-and-demographics-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-specialist-healthcare
#3
Hanna Rintala, Roshan Chudal, Sami Leppämäki, Susanna Leivonen, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Andre Sourander
BACKGROUND: Incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been suspected to increase but nationwide epidemiological studies are limited. This study aims to examine sex-specific incidence time trends and characterize psychiatric and neurodevelopmental comorbidities and sociodemographic risk factors of OCD in specialist healthcare in Finland. METHODS: A nationwide register-based study using data from four Finnish registers identified 3372 OCD cases and 13,372 matched controls (1:4)...
February 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170102/enhancement-of-self-conducted-exposure-for-ocd-using-cognitive-bias-modification-a-case-study
#4
Sadia Najmi, Nader Amir
The psychological treatment of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is exposure and response prevention (ERP). However, the training required for practitioners to be proficient in delivering ERP is not readily available, thereby rendering the treatment inaccessible to most patients. Self-directed ERP (sERP) programs designed to increase the accessibility of ERP have not proven effective, perhaps because patients find it difficult to comply with exposure exercises without the guidance of a clinician...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165861/-i-feel-your-disgust-and-relief-can-the-action-understanding-system-mirror-neuron-system-be-recruited-to-induce-disgust-and-relief-from-contamination-vicariously-in-individuals-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-symptoms
#5
Baland Jalal, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
Research has shown that brain regions mediating disgust (e.g., the insula) become activated when viewing others' disgust, a response mediated, perhaps by the mirror neuron system or the Theory of Mind module. In a novel behavioral experiment, we explore vicarious disgust and relief, in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Participants (N = 10) provided disgust ratings to self-contamination or watching the contamination of an experimenter; and to the experimenter washing his own hands after the subjects had been contaminated...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137336/a-pilot-investigation-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-clinical-perfectionism-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Shalane K Sadri, Rebecca A Anderson, Peter M McEvoy, Robert T Kane, Sarah J Egan
BACKGROUND: Perfectionism is strongly associated with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism (CBT-P) has been found to result in reductions in a range of symptoms in individuals with anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders. AIM: To pilot-test the efficacy of group CBT for perfectionism in participants with OCD and elevated perfectionism. METHOD: Participants were randomized to receive immediate 8-week group CBT-P (n = 4) or an 8-week waitlist followed by CBT-P (n = 7)...
January 31, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135888/curcumin-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-a-review-of-in-vitro-animal-and-human-studies
#7
Adrian L Lopresti
Turmeric has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat a range of ailments. Its primary active constituent curcumin, can influence an array of biological activities. Many of these, such as its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, and monoaminergic effects are dysregulated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. In this systematic review, in vitro, animal, and human studies investigating the potential of curcumin as a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), bipolar disorder, psychotic disorders, and autism are reviewed, and directions for future research are proposed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113062/implicit-aggressiveness-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-as-assessed-by-an-implicit-association-test
#8
Barbara Cludius, Alexander F Schmidt, Steffen Moritz, Rainer Banse, Lena Jelinek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) highlight the role of cognitive biases for the development of the disorder. One of these biases, an inflated sense of responsibility has been associated with higher anger scores and latent aggression on self-report scales, especially in patients with compulsive checking. Validity of self-report assessment is, however, compromised by inaccuracy, social desirability, and low metacognitive awareness of traits and behaviors in patients...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104554/abnormalities-in-metabolite-concentrations-in-tourette-s-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#9
Siyan Fan, Danielle C Cath, Odile A van den Heuvel, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Caroline Schöls, Dick J Veltman, Petra J W Pouwels
INTRODUCTION: Abnormal glutamatergic transmission in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the current study aimed to investigate regional concentrations of glutamatergic compounds in TD and OCD patients in comparison to healthy control subjects (HC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three TD patients, 20 OCD patients and 22 HC were included...
January 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090807/neurocognitive-function-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Daniel A Geller, Amitai Abramovitch, Andrew Mittelman, Abigail Stark, Kesley Ramsey, Allison Cooperman, Lee Baer, S Evelyn Stewart
OBJECTIVES: The small body of neuropsychological research in pediatric OCD yields inconsistent results. A recent meta-analysis found small effect sizes, concluding that pediatric OCD may not be associated with cognitive impairments, stressing the need for more research. We investigated neuropsychological performance in a large sample of OCD youth, while assessing potential moderators. METHODS: Participants with OCD (n = 102), and matched controls (n = 161) were thoroughly screened and blindly evaluated for comorbidities, and completed a neuropsychological battery assessing processing-speed, visuospatial abilities (VSA), working memory (WM), nonverbal memory (NVM), and executive functions (EF)...
January 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070247/effectiveness-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-fluoxetine-on-sexual-function-of-women-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Zahra Sabetnejad, Fatemeh Assarian, Abdollah Omidi, Mohammad Reza Najarzadegan
BACKGROUND: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental health concern due to its various negative consequences, especially in sexual function. Therefore, the treatment of sexual dysfunction in women with OCD is important in order to improve the patient's marital function and mental health. OBJECTIVES: To compare the sexual behavior and sexual and marital satisfaction in women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) before and after treatment with fluoxetine and cognitive behavior therapy...
November 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057396/inverse-reasoning-processes-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Shiu F Wong, Jessica R Grisham
The inference-based approach (IBA) is one cognitive model that aims to explain the aetiology and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The model proposes that certain reasoning processes lead an individual with OCD to confuse an imagined possibility with an actual probability, a state termed inferential confusion. One such reasoning process is inverse reasoning, in which hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Although previous research has found associations between a self-report measure of inferential confusion and OCD symptoms, evidence of a specific association between inverse reasoning and OCD symptoms is lacking...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992792/brain-network-dysfunction-in-youth-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-induced-by-simple-uni-manual-behavior-the-role-of-the-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#13
Amy L Friedman, Ashley Burgess, Karthik Ramaseshan, Phil Easter, Dalal Khatib, Asadur Chowdury, Paul D Arnold, Gregory L Hanna, David R Rosenberg, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
In an effort to elucidate differences in functioning brain networks between youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls, we used fMRI signals to analyze brain network interactions of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during visually coordinated motor responses. Subjects made a uni-manual response to briefly presented probes, at periodic (allowing participants to maintain a "motor set") or random intervals (demanding reactive responses). Network interactions were assessed using psycho-physiological interaction (PPI), a basic model of functional connectivity evaluating modulatory effects of the dACC in the context of each task condition...
February 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939647/intolerance-of-uncertainty-not-just-right-experiences-and-compulsive-checking-test-of-a-moderated-mediation-model-on-a-non-clinical-sample
#14
Gioia Bottesi, Marta Ghisi, Claudio Sica, Mark H Freeston
OBJECTIVE: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and not just right experiences (NJREs) have been claimed putative vulnerability factors for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the present study was to test whether IU could represent a trans-diagnostic construct accountable for OC checking behaviors and whether NJREs could embody an OCD-specific criterion through which IU operates. METHOD: One hundred and eighty-eight Italian community individuals completed self-report measures of IU, NJREs, OC symptoms, worry, anxiety, and depression...
December 2, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899165/cognitive-dysfunction-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-new-implications-for-nosological-systems-and-neurobiological-models
#15
Kiri Jefferies-Sewell, Samuel R Chamberlain, Naomi A Fineberg, Keith R Laws
: Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterized by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, and which has been newly classified within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder. METHODS: Participants with BDD (n=12) and participants without BDD (n=16) were tested using a computerized neurocognitive battery investigating attentional set-shifting (Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift Task), decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), motor response-inhibition (Stop-Signal Reaction Time Task), and affective processing (Affective Go-No Go Task)...
February 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893695/clinical-assessment-tests-in-evaluating-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Ming-Lung Chuang, I-Feng Lin, Chai-Yuan Lee
Exertional dyspnea scales (EDS) and health-related quality-of-life questionnaires (HRQoLQs) are used to assess chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The GOLD guidelines categorize patients according to either 1 of these 2 domains, the lung function and the frequency of acute exacerbations in the preceding year, however with inconsistent results. Combining EDS and HRQoLQs may yield better results; however, the best combination is unclear. Whether the EDS quantifies the exercise capacity or the dyspnea perception is also unclear...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887679/-mindfulness-based-interventions-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-mechanisms-of-action-and-presentation-of-a-pilot-study
#17
M Gasnier, A Pelissolo, G Bondolfi, S Pelissolo, M Tomba, L Mallet, K N'diaye
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent and severe disease, potentially inducing a major impairment for the patient and burden for their family. Recent research in psychiatry and neuroscience have led to better comprehension of the disease's mechanisms and helped to improve its treatment. However, a large proportion of patients have refractory symptoms, including for traditional cognitive and behavioral therapy by exposure and response prevention (ERP), leading clinicians to look for new treatments...
November 22, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869250/preliminary-analyses-of-psychometric-characteristics-of-the-polish-version-of-the-obsessive-compulsive-inventory-revised-oci-r-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#18
Justyna Mojsa-Kaja, Krystyna Golonka, Magda Gawłowska
OBJECTIVES: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety-spectrum disorder that affects 1-2% of the adult population. People with OCD are more likely to report impaired social and occupational functioning. Although effective treatments of the OCD exist, many sufferers from this disorder are continuously misdiagnosed. Therefore, improving the assessment of the OCD remains an important area of scientific research. The main goal of the study is the initial verification of psychometric properties in the Polish version of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) in a college student sample...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830935/use-of-computer-vision-tools-to-identify-behavioral-markers-of-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-pilot-study
#19
Gail A Bernstein, Tasoulla Hadjiyanni, Kathryn R Cullen, Julia W Robinson, Elizabeth C Harris, Austin D Young, Joshua Fasching, Nicholas Walczak, Susanne Lee, Vassilios Morellas, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos
OBJECTIVES: The clinical presentation of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is heterogeneous, which is a stumbling block to understanding pathophysiology and to developing new treatments. A major shift in psychiatry, embodied in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative of National Institute of Mental Health, recognizes the pitfalls of categorizing mental illnesses using diagnostic criteria. Instead, RDoC encourages researchers to use a dimensional approach, focusing on narrower domains of psychopathology to characterize brain-behavior relationships...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822492/changes-of-nitric-oxide-and-peroxynitrite-serum-levels-during-drug-therapy-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Leila Kouti, Mehdi Sayyah, Parisa Mosallanezhad, Sara Kooti, Maryam Aghakoochakzadeh, Kaveh Eslami
Objectives. Some studies have shown that increased nitric oxide (NO) concentrations may be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In a few animal researches, enhanced synthesis of NO had reversed the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The present study tries to find the effect of treatment with SSRIs on NO serum levels and its product peroxynitrite. Patients and Methods. Patients diagnosed with OCD who are candidates of receiving SSRIs entered this study. Two blood samples were taken from subjects, prior to drug therapy and after the patients had shown some improvements due to their regimen...
2016: Advances in Medicine
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