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Ocd research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780877/disgust-and-the-rubber-hand-illusion-a-registered-replication-report-of-jalal-krishnakumar-and-ramachandran-2015
#1
Hiroshi Nitta, Haruto Tomita, Yi Zhang, Xinxin Zhou, Yuki Yamada
Heightened experience of disgust is a feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), particularly contamination-related OCD (C-OCD). Previous studies of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) reported that the sense of body ownership is related to the interaction between vision, touch, and proprioception. One recent study demonstrated a link between the RHI and disgust, suggesting that there is an interaction between these three perceptual modalities and disgust (Jalal et al., PLOS ONE 10:e0139159, 2015). However, there have been no direct replications of this initial study...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763844/developing-image-sets-for-inducing-obsessive-compulsive-checking-symptoms
#2
Helena Brooks, Stephen A Kichuk, Thomas G Adams, William N Koller, H Nur Eken, Mariela Rance, Shelby Monahan, Suzanne Wasylink, Benjamin Kelmendi, Christopher Pittenger, Patricia Gruner, Michelle Hampson
Visual stimuli are often used for obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom provocation in research studies. We tested the induction of anxiety and OC checking symptoms across different types of checking provocation stimuli in three populations: individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), individuals with checking symptoms but without a diagnosis of OCD, and control individuals with neither checking symptoms nor a clinical diagnosis. One set of provocative images depicted objects that are commonly associated with checking anxiety...
April 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739634/mindfulness-based-exposure-and-response-prevention-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-findings-from-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Clara Strauss, Laura Lea, Mark Hayward, Elizabeth Forrester, Tamara Leeuwerik, Anna-Marie Jones, Claire Rosten
BACKGROUND: Only about half of people with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) show clinically significant improvement following the recommended therapy, exposure and response prevention (ERP), partly due to poor therapy acceptability. A mindfulness-based approach to ERP (MB-ERP) has the potential to improve acceptability and outcomes. METHODS: This was an internal pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of group MB-ERP compared to group ERP. 37 participants meeting DSM-IV OCD criteria were randomly allocated to MB-ERP or ERP...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739633/getting-it-just-right-a-reevaluation-of-ocd-symptom-dimensions-integrating-traditional-and-bayesian-approaches
#4
Daniel Schulze, Norbert Kathmann, Benedikt Reuter
Previous research using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) suggests that the heterogeneous symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may reflect four underlying dimensions. However, past results vary substantially, which may be due to (a) the reliance on aggregated scores, (b) the common use of exploratory factor analyses, and (c) the exclusion of several symptoms. The present study tested the homogeneity of the original Y-BOCS categories using confirmatory factor analysis and modified categories where necessary...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728248/determining-anxiety-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-through-behavioural-clustering-and-variations-in-repetition-intensity
#5
Conor Cameron, Ibrahim Khalil, David Castle
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Over the last decade, the application of computer vision techniques to the analysis of behavioural patterns has seen a considerable increase in research interest. One such interesting and recent application is the visual behavioural analysis of mental disorders. Despite the very recent surge in interest in this area, relatively little has been done thus far to assist individuals living with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. The work proposed herein represents a proof of concept system designed to demonstrate the efficacy of such an approach, from the computational perspective...
July 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722936/antibiotics-for-pandas-limited-evidence-review-and-putative-mechanisms-of-action
#6
Elisabetta Burchi, Stefano Pallanti
Objective: Antibiotics have been used extensively by clinicians to treat patients with PANDAS or PANS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections and pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome, respectively). This review examines the best-quality evidence supporting the practice-based use of antibiotics in these psychiatric conditions. Data Sources: PubMed was searched for English-language articles published between January 1994 and July 2017 using the search terms [PANDAS OR PANS OR new-onset pediatric OCD] AND [antibiotics OR macrolides OR beta-lactams]...
May 3, 2018: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704962/new-directions-in-the-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-of-ocd-theory-research-and-practice
#7
Jonathan S Abramowitz, Shannon M Blakey, Lillian Reuman, Jennifer L Buchholz
The beneficial effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions (particularly exposure and response prevention) for OCD are among the most consistent research findings in the mental health literature. Nevertheless, even after an adequate trial, many individuals experience residual symptoms, and others never receive adequate treatment due to limited access. These and other issues have prompted clinicians and researchers to search for ways to improve the conceptual and practical aspects of existing treatment approaches, as well as look for augmentation strategies...
May 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696644/validating-an-abbreviated-version-of-the-obsessive-beliefs-questionnaire
#8
Jean-Philippe Gagné, Nathaniel Van Kirk, Alexandra Hernandez-Vallant, Sriramya Potluri, Jason W Krompinger, Jordan E Cattie, Lauryn E Garner, Jesse M Crosby, Brian P Brennan, Jason A Elias
OBJECTIVES: A shorter version of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44) is needed to promote the use of this measure in research and increase our understanding of cognitive phenomena maintaining obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Additionally, an abbreviated version of the OBQ-44 would encourage frequent monitoring of dysfunctional beliefs in intensive care settings. This study aimed to validate a nine-item version of the questionnaire (OBQ-9). METHOD: Participants seeking intensive/residential treatment for OCD (N = 311) completed relevant measures on a weekly basis and at admission and discharge...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685064/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-impulsive-action-in-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder
#9
Austin W Blum, Samuel R Chamberlain, Michael D Harries, Brian L Odlaug, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) has similarities to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) diagnostic class in DSM-5. Separate neuroimaging and neurocognitive studies suggest that people affected by SPD find it difficult to inhibit dominant motor responses due to a failure of "top-down" control mechanisms. No study has examined the neural correlates of SPD in participants with varying degrees of impulsive motor behavior...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679897/the-role-of-eveningness-in-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-cross-sectional-and-prospective-approaches
#10
Rebecca C Cox, Breanna Tuck, Bunmi O Olatunji
BACKGROUND: Eveningness may be defined as the tendency to be most active and alert during the evening. Previous research has linked eveningness with maladaptive psychological outcomes, and recent evidence has highlighted circadian dysregulation as a novel factor in psychopathology, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, limited research has examined the unique relationship between eveningness and OC symptoms. Two studies were conducted to thoroughly examine the links between eveningness and OC symptoms, while also considering the role of depression symptoms and sleep-related factors...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673581/hoping-for-more-how-cognitive-science-has-and-hasn-t-been-helpful-to-the-ocd-clinician
#11
REVIEW
Allison J Ouimet, Andrea R Ashbaugh, Adam S Radomsky
Cognitive-behavioural models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) stemmed from knowledge acquired from cognitive science. Researchers continue to apply basic cognitive-affective science methods to understanding OCD, with the overarching goal of improving and refining evidence-based treatments. However, the degree to which such research has contributed to this goal is unclear. We reviewed OCD research in the general areas that comprise basic cognitive science, and evaluated the degree to which it has contributed to our understanding of the development, maintenance, and treatment of OCD...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656430/individual-differences-in-stop-related-activity-are-inflated-by-the-adaptive-algorithm-in-the-stop-signal-task
#12
Nicholas D'Alberto, Bader Chaarani, Catherine A Orr, Philip A Spechler, Matthew D Albaugh, Nicholas Allgaier, Alexander Wonnell, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Juliane H Fröhner, Vincent Frouin, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Itterman, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Eric Artiges, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Luise Poustka, Trevor W Robbins, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Alexandra S Potter, Hugh Garavan
Research using the Stop Signal Task employing an adaptive algorithm to accommodate individual differences often report inferior performance on the task in individuals with ADHD, OCD, and substance use disorders compared to non-clinical controls. Furthermore, individuals with deficits in inhibitory control tend to show reduced neural activity in key inhibitory regions during successful stopping. However, the adaptive algorithm systematically introduces performance-related differences in objective task difficulty that may influence the estimation of individual differences in stop-related neural activity...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568566/could-dietary-glutamate-be-contributing-to-the-symptoms-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#13
Kathleen F Holton, Elizabeth W Cotter
A 50-year-old man who had suffered from daily obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms for 39 years, in addition to fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, was enrolled in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial to test the effects of a low-glutamate diet on fibromyalgia/irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. After 1 month on the low-glutamate diet all of his symptoms remitted, including his OCD, which had previously been nonresponsive to pharmacological treatment. This case study is limited by self-report of symptoms; however, glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to be dysregulated in OCD, suggesting biological plausibility for this observation...
March 2018: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568212/effectiveness-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-comorbid-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-review-of-the-research
#14
Leman Kaniturk Kose, Lise Fox, Eric A Storch
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are highly comorbid, precipitating an urgent need to identify evidence-based practices that might be used to address this comorbidity exclusively. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of intervention research and clinical reports to examine the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals who have comorbid ASD and OCD. Based on the pre-determined review inclusion criteria, 11 studies were included in the review: three randomized control trials (RCT), one case controlled study, two single subject experimental designs, and five case studies...
February 2018: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527593/the-role-of-stress-in-the-pathogenesis-and-maintenance-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
T G Adams, B Kelmendi, C A Brake, P Gruner, C L Badour, C Pittenger
Individuals with OCD often identify psychosocial stress as a factor that exacerbates their symptoms, and many trace the onset of symptoms to a stressful period of life or a discrete traumatic incident. However, the pathophysiological relationship between stress and OCD remains poorly characterized: it is unclear whether trauma or stress is an independent cause of OCD symptoms, a triggering factor that interacts with a preexisting diathesis, or simply a nonspecific factor that can exacerbate OCD along with other aspects of psychiatric symptomatology...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520239/behavioral-phenotyping-of-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats-compulsive-traits-motor-stereotypies-and-anhedonia
#16
Stefano Cinque, Francesca Zoratto, Anna Poleggi, Damiana Leo, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Enrico Alleva, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET) mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476949/high-obsessive-compulsive-individuals-may-have-attenuated-access-to-internal-cues-associated-with-active-movement-evidence-from-a-head-repositioning-study
#17
Or Ezrati, Eyal Sherman, Reuven Dar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Seeking Proxies for Internal States model of OCD posits that obsessive-compulsive (OC) individuals have attenuated access to their internal states. Consequently, they seek and rely on discernible substitutes for these internal states. Previous research has supported these conjectures. Other studies, using a variety of measures, reported a reduced sense of agency (SoA) in OCD. The current study aimed to connect these two bodies of research by focusing on internal signals associated with active movement, which are related to the SoA...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455687/distinct-risk-factors-for-obsessive-and-compulsive-symptoms-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#18
Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Yulia Worbe, Miguel Bernardo, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common in clozapine-treated patients although the actual prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to address the three aforementioned questions. METHODS: The electronic records of a large cohort of clozapine-medicated schizophrenia patients routinely screened for OCD were used. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory Revised version (OCI-R) was available from 118 cases and a 21 points cut-off threshold for OCD was defined...
February 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426573/intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-youth-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-generalized-anxiety-disorder-a-transdiagnostic-construct-with-implications-for-phenomenology-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Carrie B Gillett, Emily L Bilek, Gregory L Hanna, Kate D Fitzgerald
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are early-onset disorders with significant overlapping phenomenology, especially in young patients who, due to developmental stage, may have difficulty recognizing obsessions and worries as unrealistic or excessive. Shared phenomenology and high rates of comorbidity between OCD and GAD raise the possibility of common underlying processes, and recent work has focused on intolerance of uncertainty (IU) as a reasonable candidate. With an emphasis on the youth literature, we review the phenomenological overlap between OCD and GAD, how symptoms may relate to IU, and how IU may be measured...
March 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408052/a-computerized-neuropsychological-evaluation-of-cognitive-functions-in-a-subclinical-obsessive-compulsive-sample
#20
Naama Hamo, Amitai Abramovitch, Ada Zohar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ample research in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reveals a moderate degree of underperformance on various neuropsychological tasks. Less is known about neuropsychological function in subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) samples. Most analogue OCD studies did not use a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and none utilized a fully computerized battery. To fill this gap in the literature, the present study aimed at assessing cognitive functions in a subclinical OC sample using a validated computerized neuropsychological battery...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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