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May 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Lorrin M Koran, Elias Aboujaoude
Many patients with OCD respond partially or not at all to standard medications and cognitive behavioral therapy approaches, making alternate treatments necessary. We review the preliminary evidence that exists in support of the use of stimulants, high-dose caffeine, opiates, memantine, ondansetron, ketamine, and transcranial magnetic stimulation in some patients with OCD. Although limited by small or modest sample sizes, open-label study designs, and brief follow-up periods, studies suggest that each of these strategies can help some patients who have inadequately responded to first-line treatments...
May 26, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Fakhrudin Faizi, Abbas Tavallaee, Aboulfazl Rahimi, Masoud Saghafinia
Objective: Patients with chronic daily headache (CDH) suffer from several significant psychiatric comorbidities and have unhealthy lifestyle. We aimed at studying psychiatric comorbidities, environmental triggers, lifestyle factors, and intensity of CDH in patients referred by the department of neurology from 2011 to 2014. Method: Through medical and psychiatric interviews and using 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS), we assessed patients with CDH, using a checklist, to elicit psychiatric comorbidities, intensity of CDH, environmental factors, and lifestyle derangement...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Mehran Shayganfard, Leila Jahangard, Marzieh Nazaribadie, Mohammad Haghighi, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Hafez Bajoghli, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
OBJECTIVE: Whereas there is growing evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) favorably impacts on symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), less is known regarding the influence of rTMS on cognitive performance of patients with OCD. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rTMS has a positive impact both on symptom severity and executive functions in such patients. METHODS: We assessed 10 patients diagnosed with OCD (mean age: 33.5 years) and treated with a standard medication; they were randomly assigned either to a treatment-first or to a sham-first condition...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
M Gasnier, A Pelissolo, G Bondolfi, S Pelissolo, M Tomba, L Mallet, K N'diaye
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent and severe disease, potentially inducing a major impairment for the patient and burden for their family. Recent research in psychiatry and neuroscience have led to better comprehension of the disease's mechanisms and helped to improve its treatment. However, a large proportion of patients have refractory symptoms, including for traditional cognitive and behavioral therapy by exposure and response prevention (ERP), leading clinicians to look for new treatments...
December 2017: L'Encéphale
Che-Sheng Chu, Po-Han Chou, Ching-Heng Lin, Chin Cheng, Chia-Jui Tsai, Tsuo-Hung Lan, Min-Wei Huang, Gerald Nestadt
BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested a link between antidepressants use and the development of cerebrovascular events, but there has never been any study investigating the risk of stroke in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Database of Taiwan between the year of 2001 and 2009...
2016: PloS One
Jean-François Pelletier, Christine Boisvert, Marie-Claude Galipeau-Leduc, Christian Ducasse, Denis Pouliot-Morneau, Julie Bordeleau
Objectives Located at the heart of a mental health university institute in Montreal, Canada, the University of Recovery (UR) is a peer-run agency of service users who came together as a private non-profit organization to promote their experiential knowledge in science and public health, and to transform the academic milieu as an inclusive work environment conducive to recovery and full citizenship. UR students can thus have access to scientific conferences and classes on various topics and invite scientists or other professionals to further discuss new discoveries and techniques, and possible ways of improving healthcare from a patients' and service users' perspective...
December 0: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Jana Zímová, Pavlína Zímová
Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1)...
June 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Giada Pietrabissa, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Padraic Gibson, Donald Boardman, Alessio Gori, Gianluca Castelnuovo
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling psychopathology. The mainstay of treatment includes cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and medication management. However, individual suffering, functional impairments as well as the direct and indirect costs associated with the disease remain substantial. New treatment programmes are necessary and the brief strategic therapy (BST) has recently shown encouraging results in clinical practice but no quantitative study has as yet been conducted...
March 24, 2016: BMJ Open
Alexander Häge, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan K Buitelaar, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Barbara Franke, David J Lythgoe, Konstantin Mechler, Steven C R Williams, Ralf W Dittmann
BACKGROUND: Compulsivity is a cross-disorder trait underlying phenotypically distinct psychiatric disorders that emerge in childhood or adolescence. Despite the effectiveness of serotonergic compounds in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant symptoms remaining in 40 to 60 % of patients present a pressing clinical problem. There are currently no medications that effectively treat the core impairments of autism spectrum disorder. There is an urgent need for the development of conceptually novel pharmacological strategies...
March 17, 2016: Trials
O Bonnot, D Cohen, D Thuilleaux, A Consoli, S Cabal, M Tauber
UNLABELLED: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic syndrome. The phenotype includes moderate to intellectual disability, dysmorphia, obesity, and behavioral disturbances (e.g., hetero and self-injurious behaviors, hyperphagia, psychosis). Psychotropic medications are widely prescribed in PWS for symptomatic control. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to examine psychotropic medications used in PWS. MEDLINE was searched to identify articles published between January 1967 and December 2014 using key words related to pharmacological treatments and PWS...
January 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Marta Wiszniewska, Jolanta Walusiak-Skorupa
Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) remains prevalent among workers and impacts quality of life and workability. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent advances in occupational contact dermatitis as well as potential hazardous agents in the workplaces causing OCD. The review covers new developments in the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of occupational contact dermatitis. This article also provides updated information on the prevalence of work-related skin symptoms and on new contact allergens among working population...
July 2015: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Kimberly Glazier, Matt Swing, Lata K McGinn
OBJECTIVE: Medical settings are the primary mode of care for mental health problems; physicians' abilities with regard to psychiatric diagnosis and treatment recommendations are therefore essential. While misdiagnosis can occur across all psychiatric conditions, the heterogeneous nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may make this condition at an elevated risk for misidentification. The study's aim was to assess primary care physicians' ability to identify OCD. METHOD: The study was cross-sectional in design...
June 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Andrea L Hinds, Erik Z Woody, Louis A Schmidt, Michael Van Ameringen, Henry Szechtman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In previous experiments, OCD washers did not differ significantly from controls in their initial level of activation in response to the potential threat of contamination; however, they were less able to reduce their activation by engaging in hand-washing, suggesting that the key problem in OCD is a faulty stopping mechanism. The main objectives of the present experiments were to develop a similar experimental paradigm for investigating checking behavior, and to use it to test the hypothesis that a faulty stopping mechanism also underlies OCD checking...
December 2015: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
D Cath
BACKGROUND: Tics, the most serious form of which is the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), belong to the group of hyperkinetic movement disorders. The most extreme forms of these movement disorders are often characterised by psychiatric comorbidity. AIM: To acquaint the reader with the psychiatric aspects of tics and with the role played by comorbidities in OCD and ADHD patients who also suffer from tics. METHOD: Recent new insights in psychiatric aspects of GTS are described...
2015: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Giorgio Bonmassar, Nikos Makris
We present work in progress on the virtual patient model for patients with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) implants based on Connectome and 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. Virtual patients are realistic computerized models of patients that allow medical-device companies to test new products earlier, helping the devices get to market more quickly and cheaply according to the Food and Drug Administration. We envision that the proposed new virtual patient simulator will enable radio frequency power dosimetry on patients with the DBS implant undergoing MRI...
2014: International Conference on Advanced Cognitive Technologies and Applications
H H Jung, S J Kim, D Roh, J G Chang, W S Chang, E J Kweon, C-H Kim, J W Chang
Despite optimal pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral treatments, a proportion of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) remain refractory to treatment. Neurosurgical ablative or nondestructive stimulation procedures to treat these refractory patients have been investigated. However, despite the potential benefits of these surgical procedures, patients show significant surgery-related complications. This preliminary study investigated the use of bilateral thermal capsulotomy for patients with treatment-refractory OCD using magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) as a novel, minimally invasive, non-cranium-opening surgical technique...
October 2015: Molecular Psychiatry
Wayne K Goodman, Dorothy E Grice, Kyle A B Lapidus, Barbara J Coffey
This article reviews the clinical features and neurochemical hypotheses of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with a focus on the serotonin system. In DSM-5, OCD was moved from the anxiety disorders to a new category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. OCD is a common, typically persistent disorder marked by intrusive and disturbing thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that the person feels driven to perform. The preferential efficacy of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in OCD led to the so-called serotonin hypothesis...
September 2014: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Nicole M Cain, Emily B Ansell, H Blair Simpson, Anthony Pinto
The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. This study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others, whereas OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others...
2015: Journal of Personality Assessment
Hisato Matsunaga, Tokuzo Matsui, Kenzo Ohya, Kenya Okino, Kazuhisa Hayashida, Kensei Maebayashi, Nobuo Kiriike, Dan J Stein
Even though selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the mainstay of pharamacological treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), as many as 40% of patients do not have an adequate response to these medications. For such SSRI-refractory patients, the augmentation of SSRIs with new-generation antipsychotics that modulate both 5-HT and DA systems has recently been proven effective in controlled augmentation studies. The benzisothiazole derivative perospirone is a new serotonin 5-HT2 and dopamine D2 antagonist available in Japan for the treatment of schizophrenia...
2006: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
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