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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550763/mechanical-properties-of-a-nanoporous-membrane-used-in-implantable-medical-devices-correlation-between-experimental-characterization-and-2d-numerical-simulation
#1
F Cristofari, B Piotrowski, R Pesci
Nanoporous membranes are used for the elaboration of implantable medical devices. In order to guaranty their integrity after implantation in a patient body, it is necessary to characterize the microstructure and the mechanical behavior of such membranes. They present randomly distributed pores around 1µm in diameter at the surface. X-ray nanotomography permits to get the geometry of the pores through the thickness with a reduction of the diameter in the core. A multiscale study is done to characterize the membranes: macroscopic tensile tests permit to get the behavior law of the non porous material and in situ tensile tests are carried on in a Scanning Electron Microscope in order to observe the evolution of pores and cracks during loading...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550374/performance-of-an-artificial-multi-observer-deep-neural-network-for-fully-automated-segmentation-of-polycystic-kidneys
#2
Timothy L Kline, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Marie E Edwards, Jaime D Blais, Frank S Czerwiec, Peter C Harris, Bernard F King, Vicente E Torres, Bradley J Erickson
Deep learning techniques are being rapidly applied to medical imaging tasks-from organ and lesion segmentation to tissue and tumor classification. These techniques are becoming the leading algorithmic approaches to solve inherently difficult image processing tasks. Currently, the most critical requirement for successful implementation lies in the need for relatively large datasets that can be used for training the deep learning networks. Based on our initial studies of MR imaging examinations of the kidneys of patients affected by polycystic kidney disease (PKD), we have generated a unique database of imaging data and corresponding reference standard segmentations of polycystic kidneys...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550295/effects-of-protein-corona-on-iapp-amyloid-aggregation-fibril-remodelling-and-cytotoxicity
#3
Emily H Pilkington, Yanting Xing, Bo Wang, Aleksandr Kakinen, Miaoyi Wang, Thomas P Davis, Feng Ding, Pu Chun Ke
Aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a peptide hormone co-synthesized and co-stored with insulin in pancreatic cells and also co-secreted to the circulation, is associated with beta-cell death in type-2 diabetes (T2D). In T2D patients IAPP is found aggregating in the extracellular space of the islets of Langerhans. Although the physiological environments of these intra- and extra-cellular compartments and vascular systems significantly differ, the presence of proteins is ubiquitous but the effects of protein binding on IAPP aggregation are largely unknown...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549883/a-non-iterative-multi-scale-approach-for-intensity-inhomogeneity-correction-in-mri
#4
Maryjo M George, S Kalaivani, M S Sudhakar
Intensity inhomogeneity is the prime obstacle for MR image processing like automatic segmentation, registration etc. This complication has strong dependence on the associated acquisition hardware and patient anatomy which recommends retrospective correction. In this paper, a new method is developed for correcting the intensity inhomogeneity using a non-iterative multi-scale approach that doesn't necessitate segmentation and any prior knowledge on the scanner or subject. The proposed algorithm extracts bias field at different scales using a Log-Gabor filter bank followed by smoothing operation...
May 23, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549788/implementation-of-a-multicenter-shoulder-dystocia-injury-prevention-program
#5
Linda Szymanski, Christine Arnold, Arthur J Vaught, Susan LaMantia, Theresa Harris, Andrew J Satin
Although the evidence for supporting the effectiveness of many patient safety practices has increased in recent years, the ability to implement programs to positively impact clinical outcomes across multiple institutions is lagging. Shoulder dystocia simulation has been shown to reduce avoidable patient harm. Neonatal injury from shoulder dystocia contributes to a significant percentage of liability claims. We describe the development and the process of implementation of a shoulder dystocia simulation program across five academic medical centers and their affiliated hospitals united by a common insurance carrier...
May 23, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549780/patient-specific-pointer-tool-for-corrective-osteotomy-quality-of-symmetry-based-planning-and-case-study-of-ulnar-reconstruction-surgery
#6
Samuel Mueller, Lueder A Kahrs, Johannes Gaa, Tobias Ortmaier, Jan-Dierk Clausen, Christian Krettek
Malunion after forearm fractures are described to appear in 2% to 10% of cases. Reconstructive surgeries ensure adequate anatomical repositioning. Their importance derives from the fact that malunion can often lead to severe pain as well as deformities causing loss of function and aesthetic issues not only in the forearm, but also the wrist and elbow joint. In this paper a clinical case will be presented using a Patient Specific Instrument (PSI) as navigational aid for reconstructive surgery after malunion of a proximal ulnar fracture combined with allograft surgery of the radial head and radial condyle due to chronic traumatic radial head luxation (Monteggia fracture)...
May 11, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549743/intensive-care-nursing-students-perceptions-of-simulation-for-learning-confirming-communication-skills-a-descriptive-qualitative-study
#7
Marte-Marie Wallander Karlsen, Anita Kristin Gabrielsen, Anne Lise Falch, Dag-Gunnar Stubberud
AIM: The aim of this study was to explore intensive care nursing students experiences with confirming communication skills training in a simulation-based environment. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: The study has a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design. The participants were students in a post-graduate program in intensive care nursing, that had attended a one day confirming communication course. Three focus group interviews lasting between 60 and 80min were conducted with 14 participants...
May 23, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549483/whole-breast-and-regional-nodal-irradiation-in-prone-versus-supine-position-in-left-sided-breast-cancer
#8
Pieter Deseyne, Bruno Speleers, Wilfried De Neve, Bert Boute, Leen Paelinck, Tom Van Hoof, Joris Van de Velde, Annick Van Greveling, Chris Monten, Giselle Post, Herman Depypere, Liv Veldeman
BACKGROUND: Prone whole breast irradiation (WBI) leads to reduced heart and lung doses in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy. In this feasibility trial, we investigated the prone position for whole breast + lymph node irradiation (WB + LNI). METHODS: A new support device was developed for optimal target coverage, on which patients are positioned in a position resembling a phase from the crawl swimming technique (prone crawl position)...
May 26, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549119/systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-of-myocardial-perfusion-scintigraphy-in-patients-with-ischaemic-heart-disease-a-report-from-the-cardiovascular-committee-of-the-european-association-of-nuclear-medicine-endorsed-by-the-european-association-of-cardiovascular
#9
Elin Trägårdh, Siok Swan Tan, Jan Bucerius, Alessia Gimelli, Oliver Gaemperli, Oliver Lindner, Denis Agostini, Christopher Übleis, Roberto Sciagrà, Riemer H Slart, S Richard Underwood, Fabien Hyafil, Marcus Hacker, Hein J Verberne
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability. Several diagnostic tests, such as myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), are accurate for the detection of CAD, as well as having prognostic value for the prediction of cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the diagnostic and prognostic value of these tests should be cost-effective and should lead to improved clinical outcome. We have reviewed the literature on the cost-effectiveness of MPS in different circumstances: (i) the diagnosis and management of CAD; (ii) comparison with exercise electrocardiography (ECG) and other imaging tests; (iii) as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), (iv) the impact of appropriate use criteria; (v) acute chest pain, and (vi) screening of asymptomatic patients with type-2 diabetes...
May 26, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548901/neuroendocrine-differentiation-in-basal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Yoldez Houcine, Ines Chelly, Alia Zehani, Linda Belhaj Kacem, Haifa Azzouz, Wafa Rekik, Hend C, Slim Haouet, Nidhameddine Kchir
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the prototypical basaloid tumour of the skin. It may show various patterns simulating other cutaneous tumours due to its pleomorphism. It may have unusal pattern of differentiaton such as squamous, sebaceous, apocrine, eccrine, pilar and endocrine differentiation. In order to establish the relative frequency of neuroendocrine differentiation in BCC, we performed a retrospective study of 33 consecutive BCCs using conventional immunohistochemistry with two neuroendocrine antibodies: Chromogranine A and synaptophysine...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548693/hemodynamic-impact-of-the-c-pulse-cardiac-support-device-a-one-dimensional-arterial-model-study
#11
Daimé Campos Arias, Francisco Londono, Tania Rodríguez Moliner, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Nikos Stergiopulos, Patrick Segers
The C-Pulse is a novel extra-aortic counter-pulsation device to unload the heart in patients with heart failure. Its impact on overall hemodynamics, however, is not fully understood. In this study, the function of the C-Pulse heart assist system is implemented in a one-dimensional (1-D) model of the arterial tree, and central and peripheral pressure and flow waveforms with the C-Pulse turned on and off were simulated. The results were studied using wave intensity analysis and compared with in vivo data measured non-invasively in three patients with heart failure and with invasive data measured in a large animal (pig)...
May 26, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548240/viscoelastic-computational-modeling-of-the-human-head-neck-system-eigenfrequencies-and-time-dependent-analysis
#12
E Boccia, A Gizzi, C Cherubini, M G C Nestola, S Filippi
A subject-specific three-dimensional viscoelastic finite element model of the human head-neck system is presented and investigated based on Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance biomedical images. Ad hoc imaging processing tools are developed for the reconstruction of the simulation domain geometry and the internal distribution of bone and soft tissues. Materials viscoelastic properties are characterized point-wise through an image-based interpolating function used then for assigning the constitutive prescriptions of a heterogenous viscoelastic continuum model...
May 26, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547923/pediatric-heart-disease-simulation-curriculum-educating-the-pediatrician
#13
Tyler H Harris, Mark Adler, Sharon M Unti, Mary E McBride
BACKGROUND: Training guidelines state that pediatricians should be able to diagnose, manage, and triage patients with heart disease. Acutely ill cardiac patients present infrequently and with high acuity, yet residents receive less exposure to acute cardiac conditions than previous generations. Trainees must learn to manage these situations despite this gap. Simulation has been used successfully to train learners to provide acute care. We hypothesized that a simulation-based cardiac curriculum would improve residents' ability to manage cardiac patients...
May 26, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547840/performance-of-norwegian-civilian-emts-and-army-medics-in-penetrating-trauma-a-controlled-simulation-based-assessment
#14
S W Blix, J Melau, I Lund-Kordahl
BACKGROUND: Penetrating trauma kills rapidly. Thorough and efficient examination and aggressive hemorrhage control is important to save lives. The aim of this study was to assess the skills of civilian Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) in bleeding examination and control compared to Army Medics. Our hypothesis was that civilian pre-hospital systems perform at a lower level compared to an expert group, and did not have sufficient focus on education and training in examination and treatment of penetrating injuries...
May 25, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547013/new-cfd-tools-to-evaluate-nasal-airflow
#15
M A Burgos, E Sanmiguel-Rojas, C Del Pino, M A Sevilla-García, F Esteban-Ortega
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool to analyse airflow. As currently CFD is not a usual tool for rhinologists, a group of engineers in collaboration with experts in Rhinology have developed a very intuitive CFD software. The program MECOMLAND(®) only required snapshots from the patient's cross-sectional (tomographic) images, being the output those results originated by CFD, such as airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, temperature, or wall shear stress. This is useful complementary information to cover diagnosis, prognosis, or follow-up of nasal pathologies based on quantitative magnitudes linked to airflow...
May 25, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546826/ipf-lasso-integrative-l1-penalized-regression-with-penalty-factors-for-prediction-based-on-multi-omics-data
#16
Anne-Laure Boulesteix, Riccardo De Bin, Xiaoyu Jiang, Mathias Fuchs
As modern biotechnologies advance, it has become increasingly frequent that different modalities of high-dimensional molecular data (termed "omics" data in this paper), such as gene expression, methylation, and copy number, are collected from the same patient cohort to predict the clinical outcome. While prediction based on omics data has been widely studied in the last fifteen years, little has been done in the statistical literature on the integration of multiple omics modalities to select a subset of variables for prediction, which is a critical task in personalized medicine...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546735/nonparametric-regression-method-for-broad-sense-agreement
#17
Akm Fazlur Rahman, Limin Peng, Amita Manatunga, Ying Guo
Characterizing the correspondence between an ordinal measurement and a continuous measurement is often of interest in mental health studies. To this end, Peng, Li, Guo, and Manatunga (2011) introduced the concept of broad sense agreement (BSA) and developed nonparametric estimation and inference for a BSA measure. In this work, we propose a non-parametric regression framework for BSA, which provides a robust tool to further investigate population heterogeneity in BSA. We develop inferential procedures including regression function estimation and hypothesis testing...
2017: Journal of Nonparametric Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546227/keyboard-a-novel-bayesian-toxicity-probability-interval-design-for-phase-i-clinical-trials
#18
Fangrong Yan, Sumithra J Mandrekar, Ying Yuan
The primary objective of phase I oncology trials is to find the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The 3+3 design is easy to implement but performs poorly in finding the MTD. A newer design, such as the modified toxicity probability interval (mTPI) design, provides better accuracy to identify the MTD but tends to overdose patients. We propose the keyboard design, an intuitive Bayesian design that conducts dose escalation and de-escalation based on whether the strongest key, defined as the dosing interval that most likely contains the current dose, is below or above the target dosing interval...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546104/development-of-a-paediatric-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-to-assess-the-impact-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-tuberculosis-co-infected-malaria-subjects-a-case-study-with-artemether-lumefantrine-and-the-cyp3a4-inducer-rifampicin
#19
Olusola Olafuyi, Michael Coleman, Raj K S Badhan
The fixed dosed combination of artemether and lumefantrine (AL) is widely used for the treatment of malaria in adults and children in sub-Sahara Africa, with lumefantrine day 7 concentrations being widely used as a marker for clinical efficacy. Both are substrates for CYP3A4 and susceptible to drug-drug interactions (DDIs); indeed, knowledge of the impact of these factors is currently sparse in paediatric population groups. Confounding malaria treatment is the co-infection of patients with tuberculosis. The concomitant treatment of AL with tuberculosis chemotherapy, which includes the CYP3A4 inducer rifampicin, increases the risk of parasite recrudescence and malaria treatment failure...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545494/no-correlation-between-radiolucency-and-biomechanical-stability-of-keeled-and-pegged-glenoid-components
#20
Andreas Voss, Knut Beitzel, Elifho Obopilwe, Stefan Buchmann, John Apostolakos, Jessica Di Venere, Michael Nowak, Mark P Cote, Anthony A Romeo, Augustus D Mazzocca
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine biomechanical properties and the degree of radiolucency of two cemented basic glenoid designs for total shoulder arthroplasty. Our hypothesis was that a component with increased micro-motion in the laboratory at time zero would also exhibit a greater amount of radiolucency in patients at a minimum of 2 years post total shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: Thirty cadaveric shoulders were divided into 2 groups (keel vs...
May 25, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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