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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334943/effects-of-prefrontal-cortex-damage-on-emotion-understanding-eeg-and-behavioural-evidence
#1
Anat Perry, Samantha N Saunders, Jennifer Stiso, Callum Dewar, Jamie Lubell, Torstein R Meling, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Tor Endestad, Robert T Knight
Humans are highly social beings that interact with each other on a daily basis. In these complex interactions, we get along by being able to identify others' actions and infer their intentions, thoughts and feelings. One of the major theories accounting for this critical ability assumes that the understanding of social signals is based on a primordial tendency to simulate observed actions by activating a mirror neuron system. If mirror neuron regions are important for action and emotion recognition, damage to regions in this network should lead to deficits in these domains...
February 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334762/missense-uros-mutations-causing-congenital-erythropoietic-porphyria-reduce-uros-homeostasis-that-can-be-rescued-by-proteasome-inhibition
#2
Jean-Marc Blouin, Ganeko Bernardo-Seisdedos, Emma Sasso, Julie Esteve, Cécile Ged, Magalie Lalanne, Arantza Sanz-Parra, Pedro Urquiza, Hubert de Verneuil, Oscar Millet, Emmanuel Richard
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is an inborn error of heme biosynthesis characterized by uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) deficiency resulting in deleterious porphyrin accumulation in blood cells responsible for hemolytic anemia and cutaneous photosensitivity. We analyzed here the molecular basis of UROS impairment associated with twenty nine UROS missense mutations actually described in CEP patients. Using a computational and biophysical joint approach we predicted that most disease-causing mutations would affect UROS folding and stability...
February 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334230/guided-bayesian-imputation-to-adjust-for-confounding-when-combining-heterogeneous-data-sources-in-comparative-effectiveness-research
#3
Joseph Antonelli, Corwin Zigler, Francesca Dominici
In comparative effectiveness research, we are often interested in the estimation of an average causal effect from large observational data (the main study). Often this data does not measure all the necessary confounders. In many occasions, an extensive set of additional covariates is measured for a smaller and non-representative population (the validation study). In this setting, standard approaches for missing data imputation might not be adequate due to the large number of missing covariates in the main data relative to the smaller sample size of the validation data...
March 3, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333703/higher-fresh-gas-flow-rates-decrease-tidal-volume-during-pressure-control-ventilation
#4
Shazia Mohammad, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Drew Gonsalves, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Samsun Lampotang
BACKGROUND: We observed that increasing fresh gas flow (FGF) decreased exhaled tidal volume (VT) during pressure control ventilation (PCV). A literature search produced no such description whereby unintended VT changes occur with FGF changes during PCV. METHODS: To model an infant's lungs, 1 lung of a mechanical lung model (Dual Adult TTL 1600; Michigan Instruments, Inc, Grand Rapids, MI) was set at a compliance of 0.0068 L/cm H2O. An Rp50 resistor (27.2 cm H2O/L/s at 15 L/min) simulated normal bronchial resistance...
March 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333677/y-site-physical-compatibility-of-beta-blocker-infusions-with-intensive-care-unit-admixtures
#5
Jaime A Foushee, Pmichaele Meredith, Laura M Fox, EdwardE Grace
Parenteral beta-blocker therapy via continuous infusion has shown promising results for improved outcomes for patients with septic shock. As patients with septic shock may require multiple intravenous medications, compatibility is necessary to co-infuse these medications through a y-site connector. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical compatibility of select intravenous drugs used for patients with septic shock combined with various intravenous beta-blockers including esmolol, labetalol, and metoprolol through a simulated y-site infusion...
July 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333615/use-of-whonet-satscan-system-for-simulated-real-time-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance-clusters-in-a-hospital-in-italy-2012-to-2014
#6
Alessandra Natale, John Stelling, Marcello Meledandri, Louisa A Messenger, Fortunato D'Ancona
Resistant pathogens infections cause in healthcare settings, higher patient mortality, longer hospitalisation times and higher costs for treatments. Strengthening and coordinating local, national and international surveillance systems is the cornerstone for the control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In this study, the WHONET-SaTScan software was applied in a hospital in Italy to identify potential outbreaks of AMR. Data from San Filippo Neri Hospital in Rome between 2012 and 2014 were extracted from the national surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AR-ISS) and analysed using the simulated prospective analysis for real-time cluster detection included in the WHONET-SaTScan software...
March 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333347/polymyxin-resistant-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-is-eradicated-by-a-triple-combination-of-agents-that-lack-individual-activity
#7
Justin R Lenhard, Visanu Thamlikitkul, Fernanda P Silveira, Samira M Garonzik, Xun Tao, Alan Forrest, Beom Soo Shin, Keith S Kaye, Jürgen B Bulitta, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Brian T Tsuji
Objectives: The emergence of polymyxin resistance threatens to leave clinicians with few options for combatting drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii . The objectives of the current investigation were to define the in vitro emergence of polymyxin resistance and identify a combination regimen capable of eradicating A. baumannii with no apparent drug susceptibilities. Methods: Two clonally related, paired, A. baumannii isolates collected from a critically ill patient who developed colistin resistance while receiving colistin methanesulfonate in a clinical population pharmacokinetic study were evaluated: an A...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332225/molecular-dynamics-validation-of-crizotinib-resistance-to-alk-mutations-l1196m-and-g1269a-and-identification-of-specific-inhibitors
#8
Nagasundaram Nagarajan, Carlton Ranjith Wilson Alphonse, Prakash Vincent Samuel Gnana, Rajesh Kannan Rajaretinam
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are mostly treated with ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Crizotinib is the first generation ALK inhibitor practiced as a primary chemo to combat cancer cells followed by second generation inhibitor ceritinib which are effective against crizotinib resistant ALK mutations. However, patients treated with these drugs invariably relapsed because of the development of new drug resistance mutations. In this study we explored the crizotinib resistance in the presence of ALK mutations L1196M and G1269A through molecular dynamics simulation studies...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331492/correlation-of-body-mass-index-and-waist-hip-ratio-with-severity-and-complications-of-hyperlipidemic-acute-pancreatitis-in-chinese-patients
#9
Lixin Yang, Jing Liu, Yun Xing, Lichuan Du, Jing Chen, Xin Liu, Jianyu Hao
Hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis (HLAP) is characterized by critical condition and high recurrence rate compared with non-HLAP. We conducted this study to investigate the value of body mass index and waist-hip ratio in predicting severity and local complications in HLAP. 96 patients with HLAP were categorized by body mass index and waist-hip ratio, respectively. According to the body mass index, they were divided into 3 groups, including normal weight, overweight, and obesity. According to the waist-hip ratio, they were divided into central obesity group and no central obesity group...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330889/robust-microbiota-based-diagnostics-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
A Eck, E F J de Groot, T G J de Meij, M Welling, P H M Savelkoul, A E Budding
Strong evidence suggests that gut microbiota is altered in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), indicating its potential role in non-invasive diagnostics. However, no clinical applications are currently used for routine patient care. The main obstacle to implementing a gut microbiota test for IBD is the lack of standardization, which leads to high inter-laboratory variations. We studied the between-hospital and between-platform batch effects and their effect on predictive accuracy for IBD.Fecal samples from 91 pediatric IBD patients and 58 healthy children were collected...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329208/differentiated-hiv-rna-viral-load-monitoring-in-resource-limited-settings-an-economic-analysis
#11
Diana M Negoescu, Zhenhuan Zhang, Heiner C Bucher, Eran Bendavid
Background: Viral load (VL) monitoring for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended worldwide. However, the costs of frequent monitoring are a barrier to implementation in resource-limited settings. The extent to which personalized monitoring frequencies may be cost-effective is unknown. Methods: We created a simulation model parameterized using person-level longitudinal data to assess the benefits of flexible monitoring frequencies. Our data-driven model tracked HIV+ individuals for 10 years following ART initiation...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329034/use-of-pfhrp2-only-rdts-rapidly-select-for-pfhrp2-negative-parasites-with-serious-implications-for-malaria-case-management-and-control
#12
Michelle L Gatton, Jessica Dunn, Alisha Chaudhry, Sadmir Ciketic, Jane Cunningham, Qin Cheng
Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are an important tool for malaria diagnosis, with most utilising antibodies against histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). Reports of Plasmodium falciparum lacking this protein are increasing, creating a problem for diagnosis of falciparum malaria in locations without quality microscopy. Methods: An agent-based stochastic simulation model of P.falciparum transmission was used to investigate the selective pressure exerted on parasite populations by use of RDTs for diagnosis of symptomatic cases...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328525/moving-sum-of-number-of-positive-patient-result-as-a-quality-control-tool
#13
Jiakai Liu, Chin Hon Tan, Tony Badrick, Tze Ping Loh
BACKGROUND: Recently, the total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay used in a laboratory had a positive bias of 0.03 μg/L, which went undetected. Consequently, a number of post-prostatectomy patients with previously undetectable PSA concentrations (defined as <0.03 μg/L in that laboratory) were being reported as having detectable PSA, which suggested poorer prognosis according to clinical guidelines. METHODS: Through numerical simulations, we explored (1) how a small bias may evade the detection of routine quality control (QC) procedures with specific reference to the concentration of the QC material, (2) whether the use of 'average of normals' approach may detect such a small bias, and (3) describe the use of moving sum of number of patient results with detectable PSA as an adjunct QC procedure...
March 22, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328394/proposing-telecardiology-services-on-cloud-for-different-medical-institutions-a-model-of-reference
#14
Isabel De la Torre-Díez, Begoña Garcia-Zapirain, Miguel López-Coronado, Joel J P C Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: For a cloud-based telecardiology solution to be established in any scenario, it is necessary to ensure optimum levels of security, as patient's data will not be in the same place from where access is gained. The main objective of this article is to present a secure, cloud-based solution for a telecardiology service in different scenarios: a hospital, a health center in a city, and a group of health centers in a rural area. METHODS: iCanCloud software is used to simulate the scenarios...
March 1, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327473/simulation-study-of-a-d-shape-pet-scanner-for-improved-sensitivity-and-reduced-cost-in-whole-body-imaging
#15
Abdella M Ahmed, Hideaki Tashima, Taiga Yamaya
Many research efforts are being made to increase the sensitivity and improve the imaging performance of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Conventionally, sensitivity can be increased by increasing the number of detector rings in the axial direction (but at high cost) or reduce the diameter of the scanner (with the disadvantages of reducing the space for patients and degrading the spatial resolution due to the parallax error). In this study, we proposed a PET scanner with a truncated ring and an array of detectors that can be arranged in a straight line below the bed...
March 22, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327471/motion-compensation-in-extremity-cone-beam-ct-using-a-penalized-image-sharpness-criterion
#16
Alejandro Sisniega, Joseph Stayman, John Yorkston, Jeffrey Siewerdsen, Wojciech Zbijewski
Cone-beam CT (CBCT) for musculoskeletal imaging would benefit from a method to reduce the effects of involuntary patient motion. In particular, the continuing improvement in spatial resolution of CBCT may enable tasks such as quantitative assessment of bone microarchitecture (0.1 mm - 0.2 mm detail size), where even subtle, sub-mm motion blur might be detrimental. We propose a purely image based motion compensation method that requires no fiducials, tracking hardware or prior images. A statistical optimization algorithm (CMA-ES) is used to estimate a motion trajectory that optimizes an objective function consisting of an image sharpness criterion augmented by a regularization term that encourages smooth motion trajectories...
March 22, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327466/regional-deep-hyperthermia-impact-of-observer-variability-in-ct-based-manual-tissue-segmentation-on-a-simulated-temperature-distribution
#17
Bassim Aklan, Josefin Hartmann, Diana Zink, Hadi Siavooshhaghighi, Ricarda Merten, Florian Putz, Oliver Ott, Rainer Fietkau, Christoph Bert
The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of inter- and intra-observer segmentation variation of tumor and organs at risk on the simulated temperature coverage of the target. CT scans of six patients with tumors in the pelvic region acquired for radiotherapy treatment planning were used for the hyperthermia treatment planning. To study the effect of inter-observer variation, three observers manually segmented in the CT images of each patient the following structures: fat, muscle, bone and bladder...
March 22, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327195/does-rating-the-operation-videos-with-a-checklist-score-improve-the-effect-of-e-learning-for-bariatric-surgical-training-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Javier Rodrigo De La Garza, Karl-Friedrich Kowalewski, Mirco Friedrich, Mona Wanda Schmidt, Thomas Bruckner, Hannes Götz Kenngott, Lars Fischer, Beat-Peter Müller-Stich, Felix Nickel
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic training has become an important part of surgical education. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure performed. Surgeons must be well trained prior to operating on a patient. Multimodality training is vital for bariatric surgery. E-learning with videos is a standard approach for training. The present study investigates whether scoring the operation videos with performance checklists improves learning effects and transfer to a simulated operation...
March 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327183/modeling-multi-mutation-and-drug-resistance-analysis-of-some-case-studies
#19
Mitra Shojania Feizabadi
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced resistance is one the major obstacles that may lead to therapeutic failure during cancer treatment. Different genetic alterations occur when tumor cells divide. Among new generations of tumor cells, some may express intrinsic resistance to a specific chemotherapeutic agent. Also, some tumor cells may carry a gene that can develop resistance induced by the therapeutic drug. The methods by which the therapeutic approaches need to be revised in the occurrence of drug induced resistance is still being explored...
March 21, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326925/interaction-of-acupuncture-treatment-and-manipulation-laterality-modulated-by-the-default-mode-network
#20
Xuan Niu, Ming Zhang, Zhenyu Liu, Lijun Bai, Chuanzhu Sun, Shan Wang, Xiaocui Wang, Zhen Chen, Hongyan Chen, Jie Tian
Appropriate selection of ipsilateral or contralateral electroacupuncture (corresponding to the pain site) plays an important role in reaching its better curative effect; however, the involving brain mechanism still remains unclear. Compared with the heat pain model generally established in previous study, capsaicin pain model induces reversible cutaneous allodynia and is proved to be better simulating aspects of clinical nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In the current study, 24 subjects were randomly divided into two groups with a 2 × 2 factorial design: laterality (ipsi- or contralateral side, inter-subject) × treatment with counter-balanced at an interval of one week (verum and placebo electroacupuncture, within-subject)...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
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