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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913989/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-isavuconazole-vs-voriconazole-as-first-line-treatment-for-invasive-aspergillosis
#1
Rachel Harrington, Edward Lee, Hongbo Yang, Jin Wei, Andrew Messali, Nkechi Azie, Eric Q Wu, James Spalding
INTRODUCTION: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is associated with a significant clinical and economic burden. The phase III SECURE trial demonstrated non-inferiority in clinical efficacy between isavuconazole and voriconazole. No studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole compared to voriconazole. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole vs. voriconazole for the first-line treatment of IA from the US hospital perspective...
December 2, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913950/mechanics-reveals-the-biological-trigger-in-wrinkly-fingers
#2
P Sáez, A M Zöllner
Fingertips wrinkle due to long exposure to water. The biological reason for this morphological change is unclear and still not fully understood. There are two main hypotheses for the underlying mechanism of fingertip wrinkling: the 'shrink' model (in which the wrinkling is driven by the contraction of the lower layers of skin, associated with the shrinking of the underlying vasculature), and the 'swell' model (in which the wrinkling is driven by the swelling of the upper layers of the skin, associated with osmosis)...
December 2, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913340/efficient-3d-reconstruction-in-ultrasound-elastography-via-a-sparse-iteration-based-on-markov-random-fields
#3
Atul Ingle, Tomy Varghese, William Sethares
Percutaneous needle-based liver ablation procedures are becoming increasingly common for treatment of small isolated tumors in hepatocellular carcinoma patients who are not candidates for surgery. Rapid three dimensional visualization of liver ablations has potential clinical value because it can enable interventional radiologists to plan and execute needle-based ablation procedures with real time feedback. Ensuring the right volume of tissue is ablated is desirable to avoid recurrence of tumors from residual untreated cancerous cells...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913322/automatic-detection-and-classification-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-depth-eeg-signals
#4
Nisrine Jrad, Amar Kachenoura, Isabelle Merlet, Fabrice Bartolomei, Anca Nica, Arnaud Biraben, Fabrice Wendling
GOAL: Interictal High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs [30-600 Hz]) have proven to be relevant biomarkers in epilepsy. In this paper, four categories of HFOs are considered: Gamma ([30- 80 Hz]), High-Gamma ([80-120 Hz]), Ripples ([120-250 Hz]) and Fast-Ripples ([250-600 Hz]). A universal detector of the four types of HFOs is proposed. It has the advantages of i) classifying HFOs, and thus being robust to inter- and intra-subject variability; ii) rejecting artefacts, thus being specific. METHODS: Gabor atoms are tuned to cover the physiological bands...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913159/assessing-functional-performance-using-computer-based-simulations-of-everyday-activities
#5
Sara J Czaja, David A Loewenstein, Chin Chin Lee, Shih Hua Fu, Philip D Harvey
Current functional capacity (FC) measures for patients with schizophrenia typically involve informant assessments or are in paper and pencil format, requiring in-person administration by a skilled assessor. This approach presents logistic problems and limits the possibilities for remote assessment, an important issue for these patients. This study evaluated the feasibility of using a computer-based assessment battery, including simulations of everyday activities. The battery was compared to in-person standard assessments of cognition and FC with respect to baseline convergence and sensitivity to group differences...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911805/functional-split-brain-in-a-driving-listening-paradigm
#6
Shuntaro Sasai, Melanie Boly, Armand Mensen, Giulio Tononi
We often engage in two concurrent but unrelated activities, such as driving on a quiet road while listening to the radio. When we do so, does our brain split into functionally distinct entities? To address this question, we imaged brain activity with fMRI in experienced drivers engaged in a driving simulator while listening either to global positioning system instructions (integrated task) or to a radio show (split task). We found that, compared with the integrated task, the split task was characterized by reduced multivariate functional connectivity between the driving and listening networks...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911370/integrated-compensatory-responses-in-a-human-model-of-hemorrhage
#7
Victor A Convertino, Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Gary W Muniz, Robert Carter
Hemorrhage is the leading cause of trauma-related deaths, partly because early diagnosis of the severity of blood loss is difficult. Assessment of hemorrhaging patients is difficult because current clinical tools provide measures of vital signs that remain stable during the early stages of bleeding due to compensatory mechanisms. Consequently, there is a need to understand and measure the total integration of mechanisms that compensate for reduced circulating blood volume and how they change during ongoing progressive hemorrhage...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911234/ventriculostomy-associated-hemorrhage-a-risk-assessment-by-radiographic-simulation
#8
Faith C Robertson, Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr, Srinivasan Mukundan, William B Gormley
OBJECTIVE Ventriculostomy entry sites are commonly selected by freehand estimation of Kocher's point or approximations from skull landmarks and a trajectory toward the ipsilateral frontal horn of the lateral ventricles. A recognized ventriculostomy complication is intracranial hemorrhage from cortical vessel damage; reported rates range from 1% to 41%. In this report, the authors assess hemorrhagic risk by simulating traditional ventriculostomy trajectories and using CT angiography (CTA) with venography (CTV) data to identify potential complications, specifically from cortical draining veins...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911069/-urological-pathology-of-lymphatic-origin
#9
A Domènech, A Serrano, I Forner-Cordero, F Gómez, D Maldonado, C Domínguez
OBJECTIVES: Lymphatic disease is a rarely cause of some very unspecific genitourinary manifestations, assuming a diagnostic challenge in most cases. The aim of this paper is to warn about the possible etiology of these urological lymphatic presentations and discuss its management. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical data in pediatric patients with urological pathology of lymphatic origin between 2008-2014. Three patients, two boys and a girl, were included...
January 25, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911025/effect-of-balloon-expandable-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-positioning-a-patient-specific-numerical-model
#10
Matteo Bianchi, Gil Marom, Ram P Ghosh, Harold A Fernandez, James R Taylor, Marvin J Slepian, Danny Bluestein
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as a life-saving and effective alternative to surgical valve replacement in high-risk, elderly patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis. Despite its early promise, certain limitations and adverse events, such as suboptimal placement and valve migration, have been reported. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the effect of various TAVR deployment locations on the procedural outcome by assessing the risk for valve migration. The deployment of a balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN valve was simulated via finite element analysis in a patient-specific calcified aortic root, which was reconstructed from CT scans of a retrospective case of valve migration...
December 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910829/optimization-of-photon-beam-energies-in-gold-nanoparticle-enhanced-arc-radiation-therapy-using-monte-carlo-methods
#11
B Koger, C Kirkby
As a recent area of development in radiation therapy, gold nanoparticle (GNP) enhanced radiation therapy has shown potential to increase tumour dose while maintaining acceptable levels of healthy tissue toxicity. In this study, the effect of varying photon beam energy in GNP enhanced arc radiation therapy (GEART) is quantified through the introduction of a dose scoring metric, and GEART is compared to a conventional radiotherapy treatment. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code was used to model several simple phantoms consisting of a spherical tumour containing GNPs (concentration: 15 mg Au g(-1) tumour, 0...
December 2, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910827/an-improved-asymmetric-gradient-coil-design-for-high-resolution-mri-head-imaging
#12
Fangfang Tang, Feng Liu, Fabio Freschi, Yu Li, Maurizio Repetto, Luca Giaccone, Yaohui Wang, Stuart Crozier
For head magnetic resonance imaging, local gradient coils are often used to achieve high solution images. To accommodate the human head and shoulder, the head gradient coils are usually designed in an asymmetric configuration, allowing the region-of-uniformity (ROU) close to the coil's patient end. However, the asymmetric configuration leads to technical difficulties in maintaining a high gradient performance for the insertable head coil with very limited space. In this work, we present a practical design configuration of an asymmetric insertable gradient head coil offering an improved performance...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910826/enhancing-radiotherapy-for-lung-cancer-using-immunoadjuvants-delivered-in-situ-from-new-design-radiotherapy-biomaterials-a-preclinical-study
#13
Yao Hao, Sayeda Yasmin-Karim, Michele Moreau, Neeharika Sinha, Erno Sajo, Wilfred Ngwa
Studies show that radiotherapy of a primary tumor in combination with immunoadjuvants (IA) can result in increased survival or immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However, toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of IA have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. To minimize the toxicities and prime a more potent immune response, Ngwa et al have proposed that inert radiotherapy biomaterials such as fiducials could be upgraded to multifunctional ones loaded with IA for in situ delivery directly into the tumor sub-volume at no additional inconvenience to patients...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910122/one-stage-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis-models-estimation-of-treatment-covariate-interactions-must-avoid-ecological-bias-by-separating-out-within-trial-and-across-trial-information
#14
Hairui Hua, Danielle L Burke, Michael J Crowther, Joie Ensor, Catrin Tudur Smith, Richard D Riley
Stratified medicine utilizes individual-level covariates that are associated with a differential treatment effect, also known as treatment-covariate interactions. When multiple trials are available, meta-analysis is used to help detect true treatment-covariate interactions by combining their data. Meta-regression of trial-level information is prone to low power and ecological bias, and therefore, individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses are preferable to examine interactions utilizing individual-level information...
December 1, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910116/the-cost-effectiveness-of-testing-for-ns5a-resistance-associated-polymorphisms-at-baseline-in-genotype-1a-infected-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-and-treatment-experienced-subjects-treated-with-all-oral-elbasvir-grazoprevir-regimens-in-the-united-states
#15
E H Elbasha, M N Robertson, C Nwankwo
BACKGROUND: The presence of baseline NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) impacted treatment response in HCV genotype 1a (GT1a)-infected patients treated with elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) for 12 weeks, but not patients treated with EBR/GZR and ribavirin (RBV) for 16 weeks. AIM: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of baseline testing for NS5A RAVs in EBR/GZR-treated patients compared without testing and with current treatments for GT1a patients. METHODS: We simulated the course of treatment with EBR/GZR, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) and ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir+dasabuvir (3D) with or without RBV and natural history of disease of GT1a patients...
December 1, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909943/simulating-different-dosing-scenarios-for-a-child-appropriate-valproate-er-formulation-in-a-new-pediatric-two-stage-dissolution-model
#16
Frank Karkossa, Antonia Krueger, Jana Urbaniak, Sandra Klein
Predictive in vitro test methods addressing the parameters relevant to drug release in the pediatric gastrointestinal tract could be an appropriate means for reducing the number of in vivo studies in children. However, dissolution models addressing the particular features of pediatric gastrointestinal physiology and typical pediatric dosing scenarios have not yet been described. The objective of the present study was to combine the knowledge on common vehicle types and properties and current information on pediatric gastrointestinal physiology to design a dissolution model that enables a biorelevant simulation of the gastrointestinal conditions in young children...
December 1, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909942/experiment-design-for-nonparametric-models-based-on-minimizing-bayes-risk-application-to-voriconazole-formula-see-text
#17
David S Bayard, Michael Neely
An experimental design approach is presented for individualized therapy in the special case where the prior information is specified by a nonparametric (NP) population model. Here, a NP model refers to a discrete probability model characterized by a finite set of support points and their associated weights. An important question arises as to how to best design experiments for this type of model. Many experimental design methods are based on Fisher information or other approaches originally developed for parametric models...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909833/verification-of-a-virtual-fields-method-to-extract-the-mechanical-properties-of-human-optic-nerve-head-tissues-in-vivo
#18
Liang Zhang, Sri Gowtham Thakku, Meghna R Beotra, Mani Baskaran, Tin Aung, James C H Goh, Nicholas G Strouthidis, Michael J A Girard
We aimed to verify a custom virtual fields method (VFM) to estimate the patient-specific biomechanical properties of human optic nerve head (ONH) tissues, given their full-field deformations induced by intraocular pressure (IOP). To verify the accuracy of VFM, we first generated 'artificial' ONH displacements from predetermined (known) ONH tissue biomechanical properties using finite element analysis. Using such deformations, if we are able to match back the known biomechanical properties, it would indicate that our VFM technique is accurate...
December 1, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909673/how-to-build-your-simple-and-cost-effective-arthroscopic-skills-simulator
#19
Georgios Arealis, James Holton, Joana Bento Rodrigues, Maria Sagkrioti, Martyn Snow, Mark Hamlet, Ofer Levy
Acquisition of arthroscopic skills is not always easy and can be time-consuming. Simulation in arthroscopy improves surgical skills and can bridge the gap between reduced surgical exposure and training time and the need to reach a required level of competency. We propose a method to create a simple and cost-effective arthroscopic skills simulator using readily available materials and a low-cost Web camera available from online shops. This arthroscopic simulation device can be used to improve skills of all levels of trainees at home, in a bioskills laboratory, or in the theater...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909522/safety-and-necessity-of-thermal-esophageal-probes-during-radiofrequency-ablation-for-the-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Antonio Fasano, Prof Emeritus, Luca Anfuso Md, Stefano Bozzi Md, Claudio Pandozi Prof
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation is extensively used to achieve pulmonary veins isolation for the cure of atrial fibrillation. Luminal esophageal temperature can be monitored by means of suitable probes to prevent the onset of lesions. OBJECTIVE: To compute the thermal field generated by the ablation, to investigate the interaction between the electromagnetic field and the probe sensors, and to provide a safe interpretation of the temperature detected by the probe, supported by clinical data...
June 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
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