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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102223/global-and-local-selection-acting-on-the-pathogen-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-the-human-lung
#1
Hattie Chung, Tami D Lieberman, Sara O Vargas, Kelly B Flett, Alexander J McAdam, Gregory P Priebe, Roy Kishony
Bacterial populations diversify during infection into distinct subpopulations that coexist within the human body. Yet, it is unknown to what extent subpopulations adapt to location-specific selective pressures as they migrate and evolve across space. Here we identify bacterial genes under local and global selection by testing for spatial co-occurrence of adaptive mutations. We sequence 552 genomes of the pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia across 23 sites of the lungs from a patient with cystic fibrosis. We show that although genetically close isolates colocalize in space, distant lineages with distinct phenotypes separated by adaptive mutations spread throughout the lung, suggesting global selective pressures...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101582/aurka-dlgap5-tpx2-kif11-and-ckap5-five-specific-mitosis-associated-genes-correlate-with-poor-prognosis-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#2
Marc A Schneider, Petros Christopoulos, Thomas Muley, Arne Warth, Ursula Klingmueller, Michael Thomas, Felix J F Herth, Hendrik Dienemann, Nikola S Mueller, Fabian Theis, Michael Meister
The growth of a tumor depends to a certain extent on an increase in mitotic events. Key steps during mitosis are the regulated assembly of the spindle apparatus and the separation of the sister chromatids. The microtubule-associated protein Aurora kinase A phosphorylates DLGAP5 in order to correctly segregate the chromatids. Its activity and recruitment to the spindle apparatus is regulated by TPX2. KIF11 and CKAP5 control the correct arrangement of the microtubules and prevent their degradation. In the present study, we investigated the role of these five molecules in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101415/endoscopic-sensing-of-alveolar-ph
#3
D Choudhury, M G Tanner, S McAughtrie, F Yu, B Mills, T R Choudhary, S Seth, T H Craven, J M Stone, I K Mati, C J Campbell, M Bradley, C K I Williams, K Dhaliwal, T A Birks, R R Thomson
Previously unobtainable measurements of alveolar pH were obtained using an endoscope-deployable optrode. The pH sensing was achieved using functionalized gold nanoshell sensors and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The optrode consisted of an asymmetric dual-core optical fiber designed for spatially separating the optical pump delivery and signal collection, in order to circumvent the unwanted Raman signal generated within the fiber. Using this approach, we demonstrate a ~100-fold increase in SERS signal-to-fiber background ratio, and demonstrate multiple site pH sensing with a measurement accuracy of ± 0...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093328/cinnamaldehyde-induces-apoptosis-and-reverses-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-inhibition-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Cunen Wu, Yuwen Zhuang, Shan Jiang, Fang Tian, Yuhao Teng, Xu Chen, Peiqiu Zheng, Shenlin Liu, Jinyong Zhou, Jian Wu, Ruiping Wang, Xi Zou
Cinnamaldehyde, the main chemical component of the essential oil separated from the traditional herb Cinnamomum cassia, has been demonstrated to be an efficient cytotoxic agent against several human cancers. The present experiment showed that cinnamaldehyde dose-dependently depresses the proliferation of three types of NSCLC cells and induces cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde attenuated CoCl2-induced EMT and decreased matrix metalloprotease (MMP) family while the in vivo study showed the same trend...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090302/three-dimensional-micro-computed-tomography-analysis-of-the-lung-vasculature-and-differential-adipose-proteomics-in-the-sugen-hypoxia-rat-model-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#5
Kelly J Shields, Kostas Verdelis, Michael J Passineau, Erin M Faight, Lee Zourelias, Changgong Wu, Rong Chong, Raymond L Benza
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterized by significant vascular remodeling. The obesity epidemic has produced great interest in the relationship between small visceral adipose tissue depots producing localized inflammatory conditions, which may link metabolism, innate immunity, and vascular remodeling. This study used novel micro computed tomography (microCT) three-dimensional modeling to investigate the degree of remodeling of the lung vasculature and differential proteomics to determine small visceral adipose dysfunction in rats with severe PAH...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090288/expression-profiling-elucidates-a-molecular-gene-signature-for-pulmonary-hypertension-in-sarcoidosis
#6
Sunit Singla, Tong Zhou, Kamran Javaid, Taimur Abbasi, Nancy Casanova, Wei Zhang, Shwu-Fan Ma, Michael S Wade, Imre Noth, Nadera J Sweiss, Joe G N Garcia, Roberto F Machado
Pulmonary hypertension (PH), when it complicates sarcoidosis, carries a poor prognosis, in part because it is difficult to detect early in patients with worsening respiratory symptoms. Pathogenesis of sarcoidosis occurs via incompletely characterized mechanisms that are distinct from the mechanisms of pulmonary vascular remodeling well known to occur in conjunction with other chronic lung diseases. To address the need for a biomarker to aid in early detection as well as the gap in knowledge regarding the mechanisms of PH in sarcoidosis, we used genome-wide peripheral blood gene expression analysis and identified an 18-gene signature capable of distinguishing sarcoidosis patients with PH (n = 8), sarcoidosis patients without PH (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 45)...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089971/incidence-of-malignancy-prior-to-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-vasculitis-compared-to-the-general-population
#7
Emma E van Daalen, Chinar Rahmattulla, Ron Wolterbeek, Jan A Bruijn, Ingeborg M Bajema
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported an increased malignancy risk preceding antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), suggesting common pathogenic pathways in these 2 entities. However, the study results were conflicting and often limited to patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Here, we study the malignancy risk prior to AAV diagnosis [either GPA or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA)] to elaborate on the putative association between malignancy and AAV...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088797/automated-interpretation-of-pulmonary-function-tests-in-adults-with-respiratory-complaints
#8
Marko Topalovic, Stefan Laval, Jean-Marie Aerts, Thierry Troosters, Marc Decramer, Wim Janssens
BACKGROUND: The use of pulmonary function tests is primarily based on expert opinion and international guidelines. Current interpretation strategies are using predefined cutoffs for the description of a typical pattern. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the predicted disease outcome based on the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) interpreting strategy. Subsequently, we investigated whether an unbiased machine learning framework integrating lung function with clinical variables may provide alternative decision trees resulting in a more accurate diagnosis...
January 12, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088512/ros1-fusions-rarely-overlap-with-other-oncogenic-drivers-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Jessica J Lin, Lauren L Ritterhouse, Siraj M Ali, Mark Bailey, Alexa B Schrock, Justin F Gainor, Lorin A Ferris, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Vincent A Miller, Anthony J Iafrate, Jochen K Lennerz, Alice T Shaw
INTRODUCTION: Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ROS1) define a distinct molecular subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with sensitivity to ROS1 inhibitors. Recent reports have suggested a significant overlap between ROS1 fusions and other oncogenic driver alterations, including mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS proto-oncogene (KRAS). METHODS: We identified patients at our institution with ROS1-rearranged NSCLC who had undergone testing for genetic alterations in additional oncogenes, including EGFR, KRAS, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078376/ipsilateral-dual-site-same-sitting-percutaneous-lung-biopsy-a-feasibility-study
#10
Joseph Barnett, Aniket N Tavare, Sajid Khan, Ashish Saini, Dean D Creer, Samanjit S Hare
PURPOSE: Patients with thoracic malignancies often have more than one site of pulmonary, nodal or pleural disease within one hemithorax. In addition, large heterogeneous lesions may comprise distinct, mixed pathological entities. Histological analysis of these lesions can alter tumour staging and treatment options. We investigated the feasibility, safety and benefit of performing image-guided percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB) of two lesions in the same hemithorax at a single sitting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten consecutive outpatients with two or more potential disease foci within the same hemithorax were analysed over a 15-month period...
January 11, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075183/systematic-evaluation-of-lung-tumor-motion-using-four-dimensional-computed-tomography
#11
Sebastian Sarudis, Anna Karlsson Hauer, Jan Nyman, Anna Bäck
BACKGROUND: Respiratory-induced lung tumor motion may decrease robustness and outcome of radiation therapy (RT) if not accounted for. This study provides detailed information on the motion distribution of lung tumors for a group of 126 patients treated with stereotactic body RT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four-dimensional computed tomography scans were reviewed to assess lung tumor motion. The tumor motion was determined by the center of mass shift based on a rigid registration of the breathing phases containing the largest positional differences in the inferior-superior (IS), left-right (LR), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions...
January 11, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074800/effectiveness-of-ventilation-of-nondependent-lung-for-a-brief-period-in-improving-arterial-oxygenation-during-one-lung-ventilation-a-prospective-study
#12
Keerthi Chigurupati, Suneel Puthuvassery Raman, Unnikrishnan Koraparambil Pappu, Unnikrishnan Madathipat
BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia is common during one-lung ventilation(OLV), predominantly due to transpulmonary shunt. None of the strategies tried showed consistent results. We evaluated the effectiveness of ventilating the operated, non-dependent lung (NDL) with small tidal volumes in improving the oxygenation during OLV. METHODS: 30 ASA 1 and 2 patients undergoing elective, open thoracotomy were studied. After standard induction of anesthesia, lung seperation was acheived with left sided DLT...
January 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074712/high-throughput-whole-genome-sequencing-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-from-cell-culture-materials-and-clinical-specimens-using-next-generation-sequencing-technology
#13
Jianqiang Zhang, Ying Zheng, Xiao-Qin Xia, Qi Chen, Sarah A Bade, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Karen M Harmon, Phillip C Gauger, Rodger G Main, Ganwu Li
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have increasingly played crucial roles in biological and medical research, but are not yet in routine use in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. We developed and applied a procedure for high-throughput RNA sequencing of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from cell culture-derived isolates and clinical specimens. Ten PRRSV isolates with known sequence information, 2 mixtures each with 2 different PRRSV isolates, and 51 clinical specimens (19 sera, 16 lungs, and 16 oral fluids) with various PCR threshold cycle (Ct) values were subjected to nucleic acid extraction, cDNA library preparation (24-plexed), and sequencing...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074060/s100a8-a9-and-s100a9-reduce-acute-lung-injury
#14
Yuka Hiroshima, Kenneth Hsu, Nicodemus Tedla, Sze Wing Wong, Sharron Chow, Naomi Kawaguchi, Carolyn L Geczy
S100A8 and S100A9 are myeloid cell-derived proteins that are elevated in several types of inflammatory lung disorders. Pro- and anti-inflammatory properties are reported and these proteins are proposed to activate TLR4. S100A8 and S100A9 can function separately, likely through distinct receptors but a systematic comparison of their effects in vivo are limited. Here we assess inflammation in murine lung following S100A9 and S100A8/A9 inhalation. Unlike S100A8, S100A9 promoted mild neutrophil and lymphocyte influx, possibly mediated in part, by increased mast cell degranulation and selective upregulation of some chemokine genes, particularly CXCL-10...
January 11, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071878/occupational-exposure-to-beryllium-final-rule
#15
(no author information available yet)
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to beryllium at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to beryllium are at increased risk of developing chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. This final rule establishes new permissible exposure limits of 0...
9, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070917/dual-energy-ct-quantitative-imaging-a-comparison-study-between-twin-beam-and-dual-source-ct-scanners
#16
Isabel P Almeida, Lotte E J R Schyns, Michel C Öllers, Wouter van Elmpt, Katia Parodi, Guillaume Landry, Frank Verhaegen
PURPOSE: To assess image quality and to quantify the accuracy of relative electron densities (ρe ) and effective atomic numbers (Zeff ) for three dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scanners: a novel single-source split-filter (i.e., twin-beam) and two dual-source scanners. METHODS: Measurements were made with a second generation dual-source scanner at 80/140Sn kVp, a third-generation twin-beam single-source scanner at 120 kVp with gold (Au) and tin (Sn) filters, and a third-generation dual-source scanner at 90/150Sn kVp...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068637/assembling-of-multifunctional-latex-based-hybrid-nanocarriers-from-calotropis-gigantea-for-sustained-doxorubicin-dox-releases
#17
Periyakaruppan Pradeepkumar, Dharman Govindaraj, Murugaraj Jeyaraj, Murugan A Munusamy, Mariappan Rajan
Natural rubber Latex (Lax) is a colloidal dispersion of polymer particles in liquid and shows good biodegradable, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. Natural polymers are the most important materials used in food packaging, micro/nano-drug delivery, tissue engineering, agriculture, and coating. In the present study, natural compounds extracted from plant Lax were designed to function as drug carriers using various surfactants via emulation and solvent evaporation method. Calotropis gigantea belongs to the family Apocynaceae and has received considerable attention in modern medicine, ayurvedeic, siddha, and traditional medicine...
January 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066627/survival-analyses-in-lung-cancer
#18
EDITORIAL
Kari Chansky, Dragan Subotic, Nathan R Foster, Torsten Blum
BACKGROUND: Although survival analyses represent one of the cornerstones in oncology in general, some aspects of the reported survival data in lung cancer patients are still not fully elucidated. METHODS: After having defined several open questions, an evidence based approach was applied in order to answer these questions. Areas of interest were: (I) possible uncertainties in reported survival data; (II) survival surrogates; (III) recommended methods for evaluating progression free survival (PFS) as a surrogate endpoint in future datasets; (IV) postoperative lung cancer recurrence and survival...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062694/effective-combination-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunotherapeutic-approaches-in-a-mouse-melanoma-model
#19
Alexander L Rakhmilevich, Mildred Felder, Lauren Lever, Jacob Slowinski, Kayla Rasmussen, Anna Hoefges, Tyler J Van De Voort, Hans Loibner, Alan J Korman, Stephen D Gillies, Paul M Sondel
Most cancer immunotherapies include activation of either innate or adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that the combined activation of both innate and adaptive immunity will result in better antitumor efficacy. We have previously shown the synergy of an agonistic anti-CD40 mAb (anti-CD40) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides in activating macrophages to induce tumor cell killing in mice. Separately, we have shown that a direct intratumoral injection of immunocytokine (IC), an anti-GD2 Ab linked to IL-2, can activate T and NK cells resulting in antitumor effects...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060917/a-novel-mouse-segmentation-method-based-on-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-micro-ct-images
#20
Dongmei Yan, Zhihong Zhang, Qingming Luo, Xiaoquan Yang
With the development of hybrid imaging scanners, micro-CT is widely used in locating abnormalities, studying drug metabolism, and providing structural priors to aid image reconstruction in functional imaging. Due to the low contrast of soft tissues, segmentation of soft tissue organs from mouse micro-CT images is a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a mouse segmentation scheme based on dynamic contrast enhanced micro-CT images. With a homemade fast scanning micro-CT scanner, dynamic contrast enhanced images were acquired before and after injection of non-ionic iodinated contrast agents (iohexol)...
2017: PloS One
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