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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149867/efficacy-and-safety-of-nasal-high-flow-oxygen-in-copd-patients
#1
Helene Vogelsinger, Michael Halank, Silke Braun, Heinrike Wilkens, Thomas Geiser, Sebastian Ott, Armin Stucki, Christian M Kaehler
BACKGROUND: Nasal high-flow oxygen therapy (HFOT) is a novel treatment option for patients suffering from acute or chronic respiratory failure. Aim of our study was to compare safety and efficacy of HFOT with those of conventional oxygen treatment (COT) in normo- and hypercapnic COPD patients. METHODS: A single cohort of 77 clinically stable hypoxemic patients with an indication for long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT) with or without hypercapnia successively received COT and HFOT for 60 min each, including oxygen adaption and separated by a 30 min washout phase...
November 17, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148851/airway-geometry-airway-flow-and-particle-measurement-methods-implications-on-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#2
A Kourmatzis, S Cheng, H-K Chan
The effectiveness of drug delivery to the lungs is inextricably linked to the fundamental interactions that occur between particles and flow in the extrathoracic airway. Research in this field requires time resolved in-vivo and in-vitro measurements of three separate, yet intricately linked parameters: i) airway flow, ii) airway geometry, and iii) drug particle characteristics. A number of recent significant developments have been made in the experimental diagnostic tools used to characterise these parameters...
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147800/the-pediatric-heart-failure-workforce-an-international-multicenter-survey
#3
Scott R Auerbach, Melanie D Everitt, Ryan J Butts, David N Rosenthal, Yuk M Law
Our objective was to understand the scope of pediatric heart failure (HF) and the current staffing environment of HF programs. An online survey was distributed to members of the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study and the Pediatric Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All participants received the primary 23-question survey. Additionally, HF program directors received a 32-question supplemental survey. Of 235 invitations sent, there were 69 (29%) primary surveys and 34 program director surveys completed (24 U...
November 17, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144183/age-and-rest-activity-rhythm-as-predictors-of-survival-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-lung-cancer
#4
Wen-Pei Chang, Robert Smith, Chia-Chin Lin
Disruption of the rest-activity rhythm in patients with lung cancer can accelerate cancer progression and affect survival. Rest-activity rhythm changes with age. Therefore, we investigated the effects of rest-activity rhythm and age on patients' survival. A total of 84 patients with lung cancer were recruited, then separated into two groups; younger patients aged under 65 years or elderly patients aged 65 and over. The dichotomy index (I < O) was used to estimate the rest-activity rhythm measured through the actigraphy motion detector...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143119/infectious-and-non-infectious-diseases-causing-the-air-crescent-sign-a-state-of-the-art-review
#5
REVIEW
Joyce Betta Sevilha, Rosana Souza Rodrigues, Miriam Menna Barreto, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger, Edson Marchiori
Aspergilloma, also known as mycetoma or fungus ball, is characterized by a round or oval mass with soft-tissue attenuation within a preexisting lung cavity. The typical computed tomography (CT) aspect of an aspergilloma is a mass separated from the wall of the cavity by an airspace of variable size and shape, resulting in the air crescent sign, also known as the meniscus sign. This CT feature is non-specific and can be simulated by several other entities that result in intracavitary masses. This review describes the main clinical and imaging aspects of the infectious and non-infectious diseases that may present with fungus-ball appearance, including pulmonary hydatid cyst, Rasmussen aneurysm, pulmonary gangrene, intracavitary clot, textiloma, lung cancer, metastasis, and teratoma, focusing on the differential diagnosis...
November 15, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141631/detection-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-2-during-the-wild-rabbit-oryctolagus-cuniculus-eradication-from-the-berlengas-archipelago-portugal
#6
F A Abade Dos Santos, C Carvalho, Oliveira Nuno, J J Correia, M Henriques, M C Peleteiro, M Fevereiro, M D Duarte
BACKGROUND: In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those deaths was never investigated. Our aim was to investigate the cause of death of 11 rabbits collected between April and May 2016. RESULTS: While screening samples from rabbit carcasses for the major viral rabbit pathogens, five tested positive to RHDV2 but all were negative for RHDV and myxoma virus (MYXV)...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140412/alcohol-consumption-and-lung-cancer-risk-in-never-smokers-a-pooled-analysis-of-case-control-studies
#7
José A García Lavandeira, Alberto Ruano-Ravina, Karl T Kelsey, María Torres-Durán, Isaura Parente-Lamelas, Virginia Leiro-Fernández, Maruxa Zapata, José Abal-Arca, Iria Vidal-García, Carmen Montero-Martínez, Margarita Amenedo, Olalla Castro-Añón, Antonio Golpe-Gómez, Rosirys Guzmán-Taveras, Cristina Martínez, Mariano Provencio, María J Mejuto-Martí, Silvia García-García, Alberto Fernández-Villar, María Piñeiro, Juan M Barros-Dios
Background: Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer in developed countries but the etiology of lung cancer risk in never smokers (LCRINS) is largely unknown. We aim to assess the effects of alcohol consumption, in its different forms, on LCRINS. Methods: We pooled six multi-center case-control studies developed in the northwest of Spain. Cases and controls groups were composed of never smokers. We selected incident cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer diagnoses...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137621/copa-syndrome-in-an-icelandic-family-caused-by-a-recurrent-missense-mutation-in-copa
#8
Brynjar O Jensson, Sif Hansdottir, Gudny A Arnadottir, Gerald Sulem, Ragnar P Kristjansson, Asmundur Oddsson, Stefania Benonisdottir, Hakon Jonsson, Agnar Helgason, Jona Saemundsdottir, Olafur T Magnusson, Gisli Masson, Gudmundur A Thorisson, Adalbjorg Jonasdottir, Aslaug Jonasdottir, Asgeir Sigurdsson, Ingileif Jonsdottir, Vigdis Petursdottir, Jon R Kristinsson, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Reynir Arngrimsson, Patrick Sulem, Gunnar Gudmundsson, Kari Stefansson
BACKGROUND: Rare missense mutations in the gene encoding coatomer subunit alpha (COPA) have recently been shown to cause autoimmune interstitial lung, joint and kidney disease, also known as COPA syndrome, under a dominant mode of inheritance. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe an Icelandic family with three affected individuals over two generations with a rare clinical presentation of lung and joint disease and a histological diagnosis of follicular bronchiolitis...
November 14, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137177/comprehensive-profiling-of-lincrnas-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-of-never-smokers-reveals-their-roles-in-cancer-development-and-prognosis
#9
Ying Li, Zheng Wang, Asha Nair, Wei Song, Ping Yang, Xiaoju Zhang, Zhifu Sun
Long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) is a family of gene transcripts, the functions of which are largely unknown. Although cigarette smoking is the main cause for lung cancer, lung cancer in non-smokers is a separate entity and its underlying cause is little known. Growing evidence suggests lincRNAs play a significant role in cancer development and progression; however, such data is lacking for lung cancer in non-smokers, or those who have never smoked. This study conducted comprehensive profiling of lincRNAs from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data of non-smoker patients with lung adenocarcinoma...
November 13, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135771/detecting-lung-and-colorectal-cancer-recurrence-using-structured-clinical-administrative-data-to-enable-outcomes-research-and-population-health-management
#10
Michael J Hassett, Hajime Uno, Angel M Cronin, Nikki M Carroll, Mark C Hornbrook, Debra Ritzwoller
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent cancer is common, costly, and lethal, yet we know little about it in community-based populations. Electronic health records and tumor registries contain vast amounts of data regarding community-based patients, but usually lack recurrence status. Existing algorithms that use structured data to detect recurrence have limitations. METHODS: We developed algorithms to detect the presence and timing of recurrence after definitive therapy for stages I-III lung and colorectal cancer using 2 data sources that contain a widely available type of structured data (claims or electronic health record encounters) linked to gold-standard recurrence status: Medicare claims linked to the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study, and the Cancer Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse linked to registry data...
December 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133028/evolution-and-postglacial-colonization-of-seewis-hantavirus-with-sorex-araneus-in-finland
#11
Jiaxin Ling, Teemu Smura, Daniel Tamarit, Otso Huitu, Liina Voutilainen, Heikki Henttonen, Antti Vaheri, Olli Vapalahti, Tarja Sironen
Hantaviruses have co-existed with their hosts for millions of years. Seewis virus (SWSV), a soricomorph-borne hantavirus, is widespread in Eurasia, ranging from Central Siberia to Western Europe. To gain insight into the phylogeography and evolutionary history of SWSV in Finland, lung tissue samples of 225 common shrews (Sorex araneus) trapped from different parts of Finland were screened for the presence of SWSV RNA. Forty-two of the samples were positive. Partial small (S), medium (M) and large (L) segments of the virus were sequenced, and analyzed together with all SWSV sequences available in Genbank...
November 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130448/a-review-on-the-effects-of-current-chemotherapy-drugs-and-natural-agents-in-treating-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Chih-Yang Huang, Da-Tong Ju, Chih-Fen Chang, P Muralidhar Reddy, Bharath Kumar Velmurugan
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and this makes it an attractive disease to review and possibly improve therapeutic treatment options. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted treatments, and immunotherapy separate or in combination are commonly used to treat lung cancer. However, these treatment types may cause different side effects, and chemotherapy-based regimens appear to have reached a therapeutic plateau. Hence, effective, better-tolerated treatments are needed to address and hopefully overcome this conundrum...
December 2017: BioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127023/interobserver-variation-among-pathologists-and-refinement-of-criteria-in-distinguishing-separate-primary-tumours-from-intrapulmonary-metastases-in-lung
#13
Andrew G Nicholson, Kathleen Torkko, Patrizia Viola, Edwina Duhig, Kim Geisinger, Alain C Borczuk, Kenzo Hiroshima, Ming S Tsao, Arne Warth, Sylvie Lantuejoul, Prudence A Russell, Erik Thunnissen, Alberto Marchevsky, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Mary Beth Beasley, Johan Botling, Sanja Dacic, Yasushi Yatabe, Masayuki Noguchi, William D Travis, Keith Kerr, Fred R Hirsch, Lucian R Chirieac, Ignacio I Wistuba, Andre Moreira, Jin-Haeng Chung, Teh Ying Chou, Lukas Bubendorf, Gang Chen, Giuseppe Pelosi, Claudia Poleri, Frank C Detterbeck, Wilbur A Franklin
Multiple tumor nodules (MTNs) are seen with increasing frequency in clinical practice. Based on the 2015 WHO classification of lung tumors, we assessed the reproducibility of the comprehensive histologic assessment (CHA) to distinguish second primary lung cancers (SPLC) from intrapulmonary metastases (IPM), looking for the most distinctive histological features. An international panel of lung pathologists reviewed a scanned sequential cohort of 126 tumors from 48 patients, recorded an agreed set of histologic features, including tumor typing and predominant pattern of adenocarcinoma, thereby opining whether the case was SPLC, IPM or a combination...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120326/the-liquid-structure-of-elastin
#14
Sarah Rauscher, Régis Pomès
The protein elastin imparts extensibility, elastic recoil, and resilience to tissues including arterial walls, skin, lung alveoli, and the uterus. Elastin and elastin-like peptides are hydrophobic, disordered, and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation upon self-assembly. Despite extensive study, the structure of elastin remains controversial. We use molecular dynamics simulations on a massive scale to elucidate the structural ensemble of aggregated elastin-like peptides. Consistent with the entropic nature of elastic recoil, the aggregated state is stabilized by the hydrophobic effect...
November 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120053/tumor-conditions-induce-bone-marrow-expansion-of-granulocytic-but-not-monocytic-immunosuppressive-leukocytes-with-increased-cxcr2-expression-in-mice
#15
Zhen Bian, Lei Shi, Mahathi Venkataramani, Ahmed Mansour Abdelaal, Courtney Culpepper, Koby Kidder, Hongwei Liang, Ke Zen, Yuan Liu
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) promote tumor growth through, in part, inhibiting T cell immunity. However, mechanisms underlying MDSC expansion and guidance of MDSCs toward the tumor microenvironment remain unclear. Employing Percoll density gradients, we separate bone marrow (BM) leukocytes from tumor-bearing mice into four density-increasing bands with myeloid leukocytes enriched in bands III and IV. Band III comprises monocytes and low-density granulocytes, both confirmed to be M-MDSCs and G-MDSCs, respectively, by displaying potent inhibition of T cell proliferation...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116689/evaluation-of-hemodynamic-performance-of-total-cavopulmonary-connection-tcpc-with-porous-inserts
#16
K Dhayananth, Arunn Narasimhan
Infants born with univentricular heart disease undergo Fontan surgery in order to establish separate systemic and pulmonary circulations. This surgery results in better blood circulation across a single ventricle that supplies oxygenated blood to the body and passively returns venous blood to the lungs through the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). Reducing the pressure drop across the TCPC during Fontan circulation helps in reducing the work load of univentricular heart and various designs have been proposed for this purpose...
November 8, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114470/histopathologic-and-molecular-approach-to-staging-of-multiple-lung-nodules
#17
REVIEW
Frank Schneider, Sanja Dacic
Distinguishing multiple primary lung cancers from intrapulmonary metastases in patients with synchronous multifocal lung adenocarcinomas can be challenging. The most recent 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual (AJCC staging manual) distinguishes four disease patterns in patients with multiple lung nodules: (I) two or more distinct and histologically different masses (considered unrelated and staged as individual cancers); (II) multiple ground-glass or part-solid nodules, histologically of with lepidic growth pattern (considered separate tumors, T staged based on highest T stage lesion); (III) patchy areas of ground-glass and consolidations, histologically often invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas (considered single tumor with diffuse "pneumonic-type" involvement); and (IV) separate nodules with the same histologic features based on comprehensive histologic subtyping (considered intrapulmonary metastases)...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114468/classification-of-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-tumors-new-insights
#18
REVIEW
Giuseppe Pelosi, Angelica Sonzogni, Sergio Harari, Adriana Albini, Enrica Bresaola, Caterina Marchiò, Federica Massa, Luisella Righi, Gaia Gatti, Nikolaos Papanikolaou, Namrata Vijayvergia, Fiorella Calabrese, Mauro Papotti
Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (Lu-NETs) embrace a heterogeneous family of neoplasms classified into four histological variants, namely typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Defining criteria on resection specimens include mitotic count in 2 mm(2) and the presence or absence of necrosis, alongside a constellation of cytological and histological traits including cell size and shape, nuclear features and overall architecture...
October 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110849/continued-use-of-afatinib-with-the-addition-of-cetuximab-after-progression-on-afatinib-in-patients-with-egfr-mutation-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-acquired-resistance-to-gefitinib-or-erlotinib
#19
Leora Horn, Scott Gettinger, D Ross Camidge, Egbert F Smit, Yelena Y Janjigian, Vincent A Miller, William Pao, Matthias Freiwald, Jean Fan, Bushi Wang, Vikram K Chand, Harry J M Groen
OBJECTIVES: In a phase Ib trial, afatinib plus cetuximab demonstrated promising clinical activity (objective response rate [ORR]: 29%; median progression-free survival [PFS]: 4.7 months) in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with acquired resistance to erlotinib or gefitinib. Here, a separate cohort exploring afatinib plus cetuximab after progression on afatinib is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC who progressed on erlotinib or gefitinib received afatinib 40mg daily until progression, followed by afatinib daily plus cetuximab 500mg/m(2) every 2 weeks until progression or intolerable adverse events (AEs)...
November 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110848/relationship-between-nodule-count-and-lung-cancer-probability-in-baseline-ct-lung-cancer-screening-the-nelson-study
#20
Marjolein A Heuvelmans, Joan E Walter, Robin B Peters, Geertruida H de Bock, Uraujh Yousaf-Khan, Carlijn M van der Aalst, Harry J M Groen, Kristiaan Nackaerts, Peter Ma van Ooijen, Harry J de Koning, Matthijs Oudkerk, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between nodule count and lung cancer probability in baseline low-dose CT lung cancer screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included were participants from the NELSON trial with at least one baseline nodule (3392 participants [45% of screen-group], 7258 nodules). We determined nodule count per participant. Malignancy was confirmed by histology. Nodules not diagnosed as screen-detected or interval cancer until the end of the fourth screening round were regarded as benign...
November 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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