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Simulated airway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209038/-a-comparison-of-leak-compensation-in-six-acute-care-ventilators-during-non-invasive-ventilation
#1
X S Hu, Y Wang, Z T Wang, P Yan, X G Zhang, S F Zhao, F Xie, H J Gu, L X Xie
Objective: To compare the ability of leak compensation in 6 medical ventilators during non-invasive ventilation. Methods: Six medical ventilators were selected, including 3 non-invasive ventilators (V60, Flexo and Stellar150), and 3 invasive ventilators(Avea, Servo I and BellaVist). Using a lung simulator, the ability of leak compensation was evaluated during triggering and cycling in 2 respiratory mechanics conditions (high airway resistance condition and high elastance resistance condition), and each condition was performed under 2 PEEP levels (4, and 8 cmH(2)O, 1 mmHg=0...
February 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207594/using-high-technology-simulators-to-prepare-anesthesia-providers-before-implementation-of-a-new-electronic-health-record-module-a-technical-report
#2
Ari Y Weintraub, Ellen S Deutsch, Roberta L Hales, Newton A Buchanan, Whitney L Rock, Mohamed A Rehman
Learning to use a new electronic anesthesia information management system can be challenging. Documenting anesthetic events, medication administration, and airway management in an unfamiliar system while simultaneously caring for a patient with the vigilance required for safe anesthesia can be distracting and risky. This technical report describes a vendor-agnostic approach to training using a high-technology manikin in a simulated clinical scenario. Training was feasible and valued by participants but required a combination of electronic and manual components...
February 15, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195345/in-vivo-measurements-of-human-neck-skin-elasticity-using-mri-and-finite-element-modeling
#3
Yunqiang An, Changjin Ji, Yong Li, Jianxia Wang, Xinyue Zhang, Yaqi Huang
PURPOSE: The assessment of mechanical properties of the human skin is very important in investigating the mechanism of obstructive sleep apnea, a common disorder characterized by repetitive collapse and obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, a unique method, combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and finite element modeling (FEM), was developed to obtain the value of the in vivo elastic modulus of the neck skin. MEHTHOD: A total of 22 subjects, 16 males and 6 females, were recruited to participate in the MRI studies...
February 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185512/in-emergency-care-simulation-training-matters
#4
Neal Aplin
In a workplace emergency recently I was able to competently and confidently provide airway ventilation to a patient in cardiac arrest. Why? Because I had practised for such an eventuality during simulation training.
February 10, 2017: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169367/development-of-a-novel-simulation-reactor-for-chronic-exposure-to-atmospheric-particulate-matter
#5
Jianhuai Ye, Sepehr Salehi, Michelle L North, Anjelica M Portelli, Chung-Wai Chow, Arthur W H Chan
Epidemiological studies have shown that air pollution is associated with the morbidity and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases. Currently, limited experimental models are available to evaluate the physiological and cellular pathways activated by chronic multi-pollutant exposures. This manuscript describes an atmospheric simulation reactor (ASR) that was developed to investigate the health effects of air pollutants by permitting controlled chronic in vivo exposure of mice to combined particulate and gaseous pollutants...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165671/carbon-dioxide-washout-during-high-flow-nasal-cannula-versus-nasal-cpap-support-an-in-vitro-study
#6
Emidio M Sivieri, Elizabeth E Foglia, Soraya Abbasi
OBJECTIVE: To compare CO2 washout time at different levels of HFNC versus NCPAP in a premature infant lung model with simulated mouth-closed and mouth-open conditions using two sizes of nasal cannula and full- and half-prong HFNC insertion depths. DESIGN/METHODS: A piston-cylinder lung simulator, having a fixed volume of 30 ml and a 4.8 ml dead space, simulated spontaneous breathing (6.5 ml tidal volume, 50 br/min, Ti = 0.5 sec). Two Fisher & Paykel™ cannulas (Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Ltd...
February 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157810/bayes-to-the-rescue-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-has-less-mortality-than-high-flow-oxygen
#7
Vicent Modesto I Alapont, Robinder G Khemani, Alberto Medina, Pablo Del Villar Guerra, Alfred Molina Cambra
OBJECTIVES: The merits of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen versus bubble continuous positive airway pressure are debated in children with pneumonia, with suggestions that randomized controlled trials are needed. In light of a previous randomized controlled trial showing a trend for lower mortality with bubble continuous positive airway pressure, we sought to determine the probability that a new randomized controlled trial would find high-flow nasal cannula oxygen superior to bubble continuous positive airway pressure through a "robust" Bayesian analysis...
February 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155703/numerical-study-of-the-effects-of-bronchial-structural-abnormalities-on-respiratory-flow-distribution
#8
Shen Yu, Jizhe Wang, Xiuzhen Sun, Yingxi Liu
BACKGROUND: The anatomical configurations of respiratory tract would be directly associated with their ventilatory function. It is necessary to fully understand the association between airway configurations and their functions as well as the interactions between different airway segments. In this study, we developed a respiratory airway model to investigate the effects of bronchial structural abnormalities on flow distribution in the bronchi and upper airway. METHODS: Derived from computed tomography (CT) scanner data, three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of healthy human respiratory tracts were developed with anatomically realistic configurations, including the nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and partial bronchi...
December 28, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144596/effect-of-cilia-beat-frequency-on-muco-ciliary-clearance
#9
M H Sedaghat, M M Shahmardan, M Norouzi, M Heydari
BACKGROUND: The airway surface liquid (ASL), which is a fluid layer coating the interior epithelial surface of the bronchi and bronchiolesis, plays an important defensive role against foreign particles and chemicals entering lungs. OBJECTIVE: Numerical investigation has been employed to solve two-layer model consisting of mucus layer as a viscoelastic fluid and periciliary liquid layer as a Newtonian fluid to study the effects of cilia beat frequency (CBF) at various amounts of mucus properties on muco-ciliary transport problem...
December 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143389/airway-management-education-simulation-based-training-versus-non-simulation-based-training-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#10
Yanxia Sun, Chuxiong Pan, Tianzuo Li, Tong J Gan
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based training (SBT) has become a standard for medical education. However, the efficacy of simulation based training in airway management education remains unclear. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate all published evidence comparing the effectiveness of SBT for airway management versus non-simulation based training (NSBT) on learner and patient outcomes. Systematic review with meta-analyses were used. Data were derived from PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to May 2016...
February 1, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139309/comparison-of-macintosh-and-intubrite-laryngoscopes-for-intubation-performed-by-novice-physicians-in-a-difficult-airway-scenario
#11
Lukasz Szarpak, Jacek Smereka, Jerzy R Ladny
INTRODUCTION: In the difficult airway, the intubation skills are critically important. In selected cases, particularly in airway edema, laryngeal or tongue edema, endotracheal intubation can turn out very difficult, and repeated attempts may even worsen the airway edema, causing trauma and bleeding, and finally leading to complete airway obstruction and inability to ventilate the patient. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of endotracheal intubation performed by novice physicians using a standard Macintosh laryngoscope and an Intubrite videolaryngoscope...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139171/correlation-between-subjective-nasal-patency-and-intranasal-airflow-distribution
#12
Kevin P Casey, Azadeh A T Borojeni, Lisa J Koenig, John S Rhee, Guilherme J M Garcia
Objectives (1) Analyze the relationship between intranasal airflow distribution and subjective nasal patency in healthy and nasal airway obstruction (NAO) cohorts using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). (2) Determine whether intranasal airflow distribution is an important objective measure of airflow sensation that should be considered in future NAO virtual surgery planning. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting Academic tertiary medical center and academic dental clinic. Subjects and Methods Three-dimensional models of nasal anatomy were created based on computed tomography scans of 15 patients with NAO and 15 healthy subjects and used to run CFD simulations of nasal airflow and mucosal cooling...
January 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132766/piloting-a-pediatric-trauma-course-in-western-jamaica-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#13
Hadley K Wesson, Valerie Plant, Marieka Helou, Karen Wharton, Delroy Fray, Jeffrey Haynes, Charles Bagwell
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric injuries are a leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite this, there are few formal pediatric-specific trauma educational initiatives available in LMICs. While new educational tools are being developed to address this, they have not been piloted in LMICs. In Jamaica, pediatric injuries are a leading cause of hospital admission but care is limited by a lack of training in triage and stabilization. Our objective was to implement and evaluate a pediatric trauma course in Jamaica to determine the impact this may have on further course development...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132419/detection-of-smoothly-distributed-spatial-outliers-with-applications-to-identifying-the-distribution-of-parenchymal-hyperinflation-following-an-airway-challenge-in-asthmatics
#14
Andrew L Thurman, Jiwoong Choi, Sanghun Choi, Ching-Long Lin, Eric A Hoffman, Chang Hyun Lee, Kung-Sik Chan
Methacholine challenge tests are used to measure changes in pulmonary function that indicate symptoms of asthma. In addition to pulmonary function tests, which measure global changes in pulmonary function, computed tomography images taken at full inspiration before and after administration of methacholine provide local air volume changes (hyper-inflation post methacholine) at individual acinar units, indicating local airway hyperresponsiveness. Some of the acini may have extreme air volume changes relative to the global average, indicating hyperresponsiveness, and those extreme values may occur in clusters...
January 29, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122680/the-society-of-thoracic-surgeons-expert-consensus-for-the-resuscitation-of-patients-who-arrest-after-cardiac-surgery
#15
(no author information available yet)
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Task Force on Resuscitation After Cardiac Surgery provides this professional society perspective on resuscitation in patients who arrest after cardiac surgery. This document was created using a multimodal methodology for evidence generation and includes information from existing guidelines, from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, from our own structured literature reviews on issues particular to cardiac surgery, and from an international survey on resuscitation hosted by CTSNet...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116021/novel-airway-training-tool-that-simulates-vomiting-suction-assisted-laryngoscopy-assisted-decontamination-salad-system
#16
James DuCanto, Karen D Serrano, Ryan J Thompson
INTRODUCTION: We present a novel airway simulation tool that recreates the dynamic challenges associated with emergency airways. The Suction-Assisted Laryngoscopy Assisted Decontamination (SALAD) simulation system trains providers to use suction to manage emesis and bleeding complicating intubation. METHODS: We modified a standard difficult-airway mannequin head (Nasco, Ft. Atkinson, WI) with hardware-store equipment to enable simulation of vomiting or hemorrhage during intubation...
January 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114683/physician-decision-making-and-clinical-outcomes-with-laboratory-polysomnography-or-limited-channel-sleep-studies-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-randomized-trial
#17
Ching Li Chai-Coetzer, Nick A Antic, Garun S Hamilton, Nigel McArdle, Keith Wong, Brendon J Yee, Aeneas Yeo, Rajeev Ratnavadivel, Matthew T Naughton, Teanau Roebuck, Richard Woodman, R Doug McEvoy
Background: The clinical utility of limited-channel sleep studies (which are increasingly conducted at home) versus laboratory polysomnography (PSG) for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unclear. Objective: To compare patient outcomes after PSG versus limited-channel studies. Design: Multicenter, randomized, noninferiority study. (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12611000926932). Setting: 7 academic sleep centers...
January 24, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113736/non-contact-vision-based-cardiopulmonary-monitoring-in-different-sleeping-positions
#18
Michael H Li, Azadeh Yadollahi, Babak Taati
Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can experience partial or complete collapse of the upper airway during sleep. This condition affects between 10-17% of adult men and 3-9% of adult women, requiring arousal to resume regular breathing. Frequent arousals disrupt proper sleeping patterns and cause daytime sleepiness. Untreated OSA has been linked to serious medical issues including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Unfortunately, diagnosis rates are low (~20%) and current sleep monitoring options are expensive, time-consuming, and uncomfortable...
May 11, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112989/airway-management-proficiency-checklist-for-assessing-paramedic-performance
#19
David P Way, Ashish R Panchal, Geoffrey I Finnegan, Thomas E Terndrup
OBJECTIVE: To develop and derive an instrument for assessing airway management proficiency for paramedics. METHODS: Using a validated difficult airway model simulation, we recorded responses to a standard traumatic brain injury scenario requiring airway management in 197 certified paramedics. Discrete items (N = 131) were developed by an expert panel, and referenced to three performance standard subscales (i.e., intubation, ventilation, and backup airway). Responses were scored and subjected to an iterative process to create a more practical number of items for the final Airway Management Proficiency Checklist (AMPC)...
January 23, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112650/inclusion-of-thin-target-and-source-regions-in-alimentary-and-respiratory-tract-systems-of-mesh-type-icrp-adult-reference-phantoms
#20
Han Sung Kim, Yeon Soo Yeom, Thang Tat Nguyen, Chansoo Choi, Min Cheol Han, Jai Ki Lee, Chan Hyeong Kim, Maria Zankl, Nina Petoussi-Henss, Wesley E Bolch, Choonsik Lee, Rui Qiu, Keith Eckerman, Beom Sun Chung
It is not feasible to define very small or complex organs and tissues in the current voxel-type adult reference computational phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which limit dose coefficients for weakly penetrating radiations. To address the problem, the ICRP is converting the voxel-type reference phantoms into mesh-type phantoms. In the present study, as a part of the conversion project, the micrometer-thick target and source regions in the alimentary and respiratory tract systems as described in ICRP Publications 100 and 66 were included in the mesh-type ICRP reference adult male and female phantoms...
January 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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