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Simulated airway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942270/tracking-dynamic-tongue-motion-in-ultrasound-images-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#1
Chih-Yen Chien, Jeng-Wen Chen, Chun-Hsiang Chang, Chih-Chung Huang
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a breathing disorder characterized by repetitive collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep, can cause intermittent hypoxemia and frequent arousal. The evaluation of dynamic tongue motion not only provides the biomechanics and pathophysiology for OSA diagnosis, but also helps doctors to determine treatment strategies for these patients with OSA. The purpose of this study was to develop and verify a dedicated tracking algorithm, called the modified optical flow (OF)-based method, for monitoring the dynamic motion of the tongue base in ultrasound image sequences derived from controls and patients with OSA...
September 20, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942008/transport-of-ellipsoid-fibers-in-oscillatory-shear-flows-implications-for-aerosol-deposition-in-deep-airways
#2
Lihi Shachar-Berman, Yan Ostrovski, Alessandro De Rosis, Stavros Kassinos, Josué Sznitman
It is widely acknowledged that inhaled fibers, e.g. air pollutants and anthropogenic particulate matter, hold the ability to deposit deep into the lungs reaching the distal pulmonary acinar airways as a result of their aerodynamic properties; these particles tend to align with the flow and thus stay longer airborne relative to their spherical counterpart, due to higher drag forces that resist sedimentation. Together with a high surface-to-volume ratio, such characteristics may render non-spherical particles, and fibers in particular, potentially attractive airborne carriers for drug delivery...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941830/experimental-and-computational-study-of-the-effect-of-breath-actuated-mechanism-built-in-the-nexthaler-%C3%A2-dry-powder-inhaler
#3
Árpád Farkas, David Lewis, Tanya Church, Alan Tweedie, Francesca Mason, Allen E Haddrell, Jonathan P Reid, Alpár Horváth, Imre Balásházy
The breath-actuated mechanism (BAM) is a mechanical unit included in NEXThaler(®) with the role of delaying the emission of the drug until the inhalation flow rate of the patient is sufficiently high to detach the drug particles from their carriers. The main objective of this work was to analyse the effect of the presence of BAM on the size distribution of the emitted drug and its airway deposition efficiency and distribution. Study of the hygroscopic growth of the emitted drug particles and its effect on the deposition was another goal of this study...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938303/optimizing-education-in-difficult-airway-management-meeting-the-challenge
#4
Sheila N Myatra, Rupali S Kalkundre, Jigeeshu V Divatia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The last 2 decades have seen a vast change in the science and technology of airway management. As a result, there is an increasing need to equip anesthesiologists with the new knowledge and skills for the safe management of a difficult airway. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to knowledge and expertise, human factors and nontechnical skills (NTS), including situational awareness, communication and team work, play an important role during difficult airway management and contribute to the outcome...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919404/emergency-in-the-clinic-a-simulation-curriculum-to-improve-outpatient-safety
#5
Eve Espey, Gillian Baty, John Rask, Michelle Chungtuyco, Brenda Pereda, Lawrence Leeman
BACKGROUND: Emergency response skills are essential when events such as seizure, anaphylaxis or hemorrhage occur in the outpatient setting. As services and procedures increasingly move outside the hospital, training to manage complications may improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate a simulation-based curriculum in outpatient emergency management skills with the outcome measures of graded objective performance and learner self-efficacy...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917963/an-efficient-computational-fluid-particle-dynamics-method-to-predict-deposition-in-a-simplified-approximation-of-the-deep-lung
#6
P G Koullapis, P Hofemeier, J Sznitman, S C Kassinos
High-fidelity simulations of the complete airway tree are still largely beyond current computational capabilities. Towards large-scale simulations of the human lung, the current study introduces a numerical methodology to predict particle deposition in a simplified approximation of the deep lung during a full breathing cycle. The geometrical model employed consists of an idealised bronchial tree that represents generations 10 to 19 of the conducting zone and an heterogeneous acinar model created using a space-filling algorithm...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906592/influence-of-bronchial-diameter-change-on-the-airflow-dynamics-based-on-a-pressure-controlled-ventilation-system
#7
Shuai Ren, Maolin Cai, Yan Shi, Weiqing Xu, Xiaohua Douglas Zhang
Bronchial diameter is a key parameter that affects the respiratory treatment of mechanically ventilated patients. In this paper, to reveal the influence of bronchial diameter on the airflow dynamics of pressure-controlled mechanically ventilated patients, a new respiratory system model is presented which combines multi-generation airways with lungs. Furthermore, experiments and simulation studies to verify the model are performed. Finally, through the simulation study, it can be determined that in airway generations 2 to 7, when the diameter is reduced to half of the original value, the maximum air pressure (maximum air pressure in lungs) decreases by nearly 16%, the maximum flow decreases by nearly 30%, and the total airway pressure loss (sum of each generation pressure drop) is more than 5 times the original value...
September 14, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894833/ethmoidectomy-combined-with-superior-meatus-enlargement-increases-olfactory-airflow
#8
Hironobu Nishijima, Kenji Kondo, Tsutomu Nomura, Tatsuya Yamasoba
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between a particular surgical technique in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and airflow changes in the post-operative olfactory region has not been assessed. The present study aimed to compare olfactory airflow after ESS between conventional ethmoidectomy and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement, using virtual ESS and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective computational study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nasal computed tomography images of four adult subjects were used to generate models of the nasal airway...
August 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894819/computational-modelling-of-cough-function-and-airway-penetrant-behavior-in-patients-with-disorders-of-laryngeal-function
#9
Bari Hoffman Ruddy, Don Nadun Kuruppumullage, Giselle Carnaby, Michael Crary, Jeffery Lehman, Olusegun J Ilegbusi
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Patients with laryngeal disorders often exhibit changes to cough function contributing to aspiration episodes. Two primary cough variables (peak cough flow: PCF and compression phase duration: CPD) were examined within a biomechanical model to determine their impact on characteristics that impact airway compromise. STUDY DESIGN: Computational study. METHODS: A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique was used to simulate fluid flow within an upper airway model reconstructed from patient CT images...
February 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891710/the-use-of-a-thyroid-shield-for-intra-oral-anterior-oblique-occlusal-views-a-risk-based-approach
#10
Mark Worrall, Alison Menhinick, Donald J Thomson
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the radiation dose reduction to the thyroid for an anterior oblique occlusal view from the use of a thyroid shield, compare this to the variation in thyroid dose resulting from differences in examination positioning and discuss the additional considerations associated with the use of a thyroid shield before making a recommendation on their routine use for this examination. METHODS: Doses to the oral mucosa, the salivary glands, the thyroid, the extra-thoracic airways, the oesophagus and the lungs were directly measured for anterior oblique occlusal x-rays of a Rando phantom with and without a thyroid shield using strips of calibrated XRQA Gafchromic film...
September 11, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890203/regional-aerosol-deposition-in-the-human-airways-the-siminhale-benchmark-case-and-a-critical-assessment-of-in-silico-methods
#11
P Koullapis, S C Kassinos, J Muela, C Perez-Segarra, J Rigola, O Lehmkuhl, Y Cui, M Sommerfeld, J Elcner, M Jicha, I Saveljic, N Filipovic, F Lizal, L Nicolaou
Regional deposition effects are important in the pulmonary delivery of drugs intended for the topical treatment of respiratory ailments. They also play a critical role in the systemic delivery of drugs with limited lung bioavailability. In recent years, significant improvements in the quality of pulmonary imaging have taken place, however the resolution of current imaging modalities remains inadequate for quantifying regional deposition. Computational Fluid-Particle Dynamics (CFPD) can fill this gap by providing detailed information about regional deposition in the extrathoracic and conducting airways...
September 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883723/comparison-of-pulsed-versus-continuous-oxygen-delivery-using-realistic-adult-nasal-airway-replicas
#12
John Z Chen, Ira M Katz, Marine Pichelin, Kaixian Zhu, Georges Caillibotte, Michelle L Noga, Warren H Finlay, Andrew R Martin
BACKGROUND: Portable oxygen concentrators (POCs) typically include pulse flow (PF) modes to conserve oxygen. The primary aims of this study were to develop a predictive in vitro model for inhaled oxygen delivery using a set of realistic airway replicas, and to compare PF for a commercial POC with steady flow (SF) from a compressed oxygen cylinder. METHODS: Experiments were carried out using a stationary compressed oxygen cylinder, a POC, and 15 adult nasal airway replicas based on airway geometries derived from medical images...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881101/nasal-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-impairs-heated-humidification-a-neonatal-bench-study
#13
Tim L Ullrich, Christoph Czernik, Christoph Bührer, Gerd Schmalisch, Hendrik S Fischer
OBJECTIVE: Nasal high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) is a novel mode of non-invasive ventilation used in neonates. However, upper airway obstructions due to viscous secretions have been described as specific adverse effects. We hypothesized that high-frequency oscillations reduce air humidity in the oropharynx, resulting in upper airway desiccation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of nHFOV ventilatory settings on oropharyngeal gas conditions. METHODS: NHFOV or nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) was applied, along with heated humidification, to a previously established neonatal bench model that simulates oropharyngeal gas conditions during spontaneous breathing through an open mouth...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874304/effect-of-cricoid-pressure-on-the-insertion-efficacy-of-six-supraglottic-devices-a-crossover-randomized-simulation-trial
#14
Fumihiro Ohchi, Nobuyasu Komasawa, Ryosuke Mihara, Kazuo Hattori, Toshiaki Minami
BACKGROUND: No study has ever compared the efficacy of various types of supraglottic devices (SGDs) for securing the airway under cricoid pressure. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of six SGDs, LMA-ProSeal (ProSeal), LMA-Classic (Classic), Laryngeal Tube (LT), LMA-Supreme (Supreme), air-Q (air-Q), and i-gel (i-gel), in airway management under cricoid pressure using a manikin. METHODS: Fifteen novice doctors and 16 experienced doctors used the six SGDs under cricoid or sham pressure on an adult manikin...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872147/generation-of-a-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-model-in-mice-by-repeated-ozone-exposure
#15
Zhongwei Sun, Feng Li, Xin Zhou, Wen Wang
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent airflow limitation and lung parenchymal destruction. It has a very high incidence in aging populations. The current conventional therapies for COPD focus mainly on symptom-modifying drugs; thus, the development of new therapies is urgently needed. Qualified animal models of COPD could help to characterize the underlying mechanisms and can be used for new drug screening. Current COPD models, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema model, generate COPD-like lesions in the lungs and airways but do not otherwise resemble the pathogenesis of human COPD...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867222/inter-airway-structural-heterogeneity-interacts-with-dynamic-heterogeneity-to-determine-lung-function-and-flow-patterns-in-both-asthmatic-and-control-simulated-lungs
#16
G M Donovan
Asthma is a disease involving both airway remodelling (e.g. thickening of the airway wall) and acute, reversible airway narrowing driven by airway smooth muscle contraction. Both of these processes are known to be heterogeneous, and in this study we consider a new theoretical model which considers the interactions of both mechanisms: structural heterogeneity (variation in airway remodelling) and dynamic heterogeneity (emergent variation in airway narrowing and flow). By integrating both types of inter-airway heterogeneity in a full human lung geometry, we are able to draw several insights regarding the mechanisms underlying observed ventilation heterogeneity...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865707/effect-of-airway-surface-liquid-on-the-forces-on-the-pharyngeal-wall-experimental-fluid-structure-interaction-study
#17
Jernej Pirnar, Brane Širok, Andrej Bombač
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a breathing disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The respiratory epithelium is lined with a thin layer of airway surface liquid preventing interactions between the airflow and epithelium. The effect of the liquid lining in OSAS pathogenesis remains poorly understood despite clinical research. Previous studies have shown that the physical properties of the airway surface liquid or altered stimulation of the airway mechanoreceptors could alleviate or intensify OSAS; however, these studies do not provide a clear physical interpretation...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863405/phantom-study-evaluating-detection-of-simulated-upper-airway-occlusion-using-piezoelectric-ultrasound-transducers
#18
Mohammad Al-Abed, Peter Antich, Donald E Watenpaugh, Khosrow Behbehani
Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterized by repetitive narrowing or full collapse of the upper airway concomitant with continued respiratory effort during sleep lasting 10s or more. OSAHS is the most prevalent form of sleep-disordered breathing, affecting more than 17% of the middle-aged U.S. POPULATION: Hence, many individuals need to be tested for having OSAHS. Currently, detection of airway occlusion due to OSAHS is achieved by indirect measurements, often requiring multiple sensor types, such as a flow transducer combined with chest and abdomen plethysmography...
August 24, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846719/aging-effects-on-airflow-dynamics-and-lung-function-in-human-bronchioles
#19
JongWon Kim, Rebecca L Heise, Angela M Reynolds, Ramana M Pidaparti
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The mortality rate for patients requiring mechanical ventilation is about 35% and this rate increases to about 53% for the elderly. In general, with increasing age, the dynamic lung function and respiratory mechanics are compromised, and several experiments are being conducted to estimate these changes and understand the underlying mechanisms to better treat elderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human tracheobronchial (G1 ~ G9), bronchioles (G10 ~ G22) and alveolar sacs (G23) geometric models were developed based on reported anatomical dimensions for a 50 and an 80-year-old subject...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845544/ventilatory-choices-for-intubated-patients-during-helicopter-stretcher-winching
#20
John Hollott
INTRODUCTION: The winching of intubated patients on a stretcher into a helicopter is a rare event. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation is mandatory, which can either be performed manually with a self-inflating bag, or automatically using a portable ventilator. Theoretically automatic ventilation would provide improved oxygenation, more stable arterial carbon dioxide levels and a reduced risk of airway disconnection. Furthermore, the stretcher attendant may better perform winching procedures with higher situational awareness, contributing to crew and patient safety...
August 28, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
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