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Junsi Wang, Yue Lu, William McCarthy, Robert Conway-Kenny, Brendan Twamley, Jianzhang Zhao, Sylvia M Draper
Novel mono- and di-nuclear Ru(ii) and Ir(iii) complexes, bearing a modified carbazole moiety are synthesised. In comparison to their mononuclear analogues, the homonuclear diatomic complexes (RuCRu and IrCIr), in which the carbazole containing-ligand functions as a bridge, display increased absorbance in the visible region, and give rise to higher singlet oxygen quantum yields.
January 12, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jane C Quinn, Yuchi Chen, Belinda Hackney, Muhammad Shoaib Tufail, Leslie A Weston, Panayiotis Loukopoulos
BACKGROUND: Primary photosensitisation (PS) subsequent to ingestion of the pasture legume Biserrula pelecinus L. (biserrula) has recently been confirmed in grazing livestock. Given the potential utility of this pasture species in challenging climates, a grazing trial was undertaken to examine if both varieties 'Casbah' and 'Mauro' were able to cause photosensitisation in livestock, and if this could be mitigated by grazing in winter, or in combination with other common pasture species...
January 11, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Layla Mohammad-Hadi, Alexander J MacRobert, Marilena Loizidou, Elnaz Yaghini
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the subject of considerable research in experimental cancer models mainly for the treatment of solid cancerous tumours. Recent studies on the use of nanoparticles as photosensitiser carriers have demonstrated improved PDT efficacy in experimental cancer therapy. Experiments typically employ conventional monolayer cell culture but there is increasing interest in testing PDT using three dimensional (3D) cancer models. 3D cancer models can better mimic in vivo models than 2D cultures by for example enabling cancer cell interactions with a surrounding extracellular matrix which should enable the treatment to be optimised prior to in vivo studies...
January 8, 2018: Nanoscale
Bishakh Rout, Chi-Hsien Liu, Wei-Chi Wu
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy has been studied by many studies as a method for inactivating bacterial growth. Workers have used planktonic bacterial as well as biofilm bacterial cultures to evaluate the potential of photodynamic therapy in inactivating bacteria. However, almost all the studies use a photosensitiser in aqueous solution, which could be detrimental to the efficiency of photodynamic therapy. METHODS: In this study, the photodynamic killing effect of toluidine blue O (TBO) has been investigated on Staphylococcal biofilms in -vitro...
December 13, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Francesca Bryden, Antoine Maruani, João M M Rodrigues, Miffy H Y Cheng, Huguette Savoie, Andrew Beeby, Vijay Chudasama, Ross W Boyle
Exploitation of photosensitizers as payloads for antibody-based anticancer therapeutics offers a novel alternative to the small pool of commonly utilized cytotoxins. However, existing bioconjugation methodologies are incompatible with the requirement of increased antibody loading without compromising antibody function, stability, or homogeneity. Herein, we describe the first application of dendritic multiplier groups to allow the loading of more than 4 porphyrins to a full IgG antibody in a site-specific and highly homogeneous manner...
December 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Hussaini Majiya, Oluwapelumi O Adeyemi, Nicola J Stonehouse, Paul Millner
Singlet oxygen mediated oxidation has been shown to be responsible for photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of viruses in solution with photosensitisers such as 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridinio) porphyrin tetra p-toluenesulfonate (TMPyP). The capsids of non-enveloped viruses, such as bacteriophage MS2, are possible targets for viral inactivation by singlet oxygen oxidation. Within the capsid (predominantly composed of coat protein), the A-protein acts as the host recognition and attachment protein. The A-protein has two domains; an α-helix domain and a β-sheet domain...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Lisa Wright, Daniel Baptista-Hon, Fiona Bull, Faith Dalgaty, Michael Gallacher, Sally H Ibbotson, Tim G Hales
Phototoxicity-induced pain is a major clinical problem triggered by light acting on photosensitising drugs or endogenous porphyrins, notably protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an intermediary in heme biosynthesis. Protoporphyrin IX accumulates in individuals with erythropoietic protoporphyria and is elevated during photodynamic therapy subsequent to application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Pain occurs during irradiation of PpIX and responds poorly to conventional analgesics. Our objective was to develop a model of PpIX phototoxicity pain and investigate the potential of menthol as an analgesic...
November 25, 2017: Pain
Devashish Sengupta, Zeaul Hoque Mazumdar, Avinaba Mukherjee, Debdulal Sharma, Amit Kumar Halder, Samita Basu, Tarun Jha
Amphiphilic porphyrin photosensitisers (PSs) having combinations of directly substituted pyridyl group(s) at the meso-position of a porphyrin macrocycle, and/or indirectly linked pyridyl groups as benzamide derivatives are reported. The compounds 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-pyridylbenzamide)porphyrin (A.2), 5,10,15,20-tetra[N-(pyridine-4-yl)benzamidium] porphyrin (A.3), 5-mono-(4-pyridyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-pyridylbenzamide)porphyrin (B.2) and 5-mono-(4-methylpyridinium)-10,15,20-tris-(4-pyridiniumbenzamide)porphyrin (B...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Katherine L Orchard, Daisuke Hojo, Katarzyna P Sokol, Meng-Ju Chan, Naoki Asao, Tadafumi Adschiri, Erwin Reisner
Visible-light driven H2 evolution in water is achieved using catechol-photosensitised TiO2 nanoparticles with a molecular nickel catalyst. Layer-by-layer immobilisation of catechol-TiO2 onto tin-doped indium oxide electrodes generates photocathodic currents in the presence of an electron acceptor. This approach represents a new strategy for controlling photocurrent direction in dye-sensitised photoelectrochemical applications.
November 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
F Bolze, S Jenni, A Sour, V Heitz
Two-photon excitation has attracted the attention of biologists, especially after the development of two-photon excited microscopy in the nineties. Since then, new applications have rapidly emerged such as the release of biologically active molecules and photodynamic therapy (PDT) using two-photon excitation. PDT, which requires a light-activated drug (photosensitiser), is a clinically approved and minimally invasive treatment for cancer and for non-malignant diseases. This feature article focuses on the engineering of molecular two-photon photosensitisers for PDT, which should bring important benefits to the treatment, increase the treatment penetration depth with near-infrared light excitation, improve the spatial selectivity and reduce the photodamage to healthy tissues...
November 8, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Muhammad Qutayba Almerie, Gemma Gossedge, Kathleen E Wright, David G Jayne
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal carcinomatosis results when tumour cells implant and grow within the peritoneal cavity. Treatment and prognosis vary based on the primary cancer. Although therapy with intention-to-cure is offered to selective patients using cytoreductive surgery with chemotherapy, the prognosis remains poor for most of the patients. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer-therapeutic modality where a photosensitiser is administered to patients and exerts a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells when excited by light of a specific wavelength...
October 27, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Paul A Scattergood, Paul I P Elliott
The photophysical properties of transition metal complexes have long attracted interest in the literature with significant research activity during the past two to three decades due to the potential exploitation of these materials in solar energy conversion, light-emitting technology, luminescence biological imaging and photodynamic therapeutic applications to name but a few. Since the advent of the facile preparation of 1,2,3-triazole-based compounds through copper(i)-catalysed cycloaddition, ligands based on this heterocycle have received widespread attention in coordination chemistry...
November 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Michael Glueck, Barbara Schamberger, Peter Eckl, Kristjan Plaetzer
Outbreaks of foodborne diseases are regularly reported worldwide. In particular, uncooked plant food is considered risky in terms of microbiological safety. Food is also the most important transmission route for resistant microorganisms from animals to humans. Photodynamic Decontamination (PDc) of foodstuff was recently introduced as a novel approach for increasing microbiological food safety. We investigated the efficiency of PDc on plant food with different geometries (flat, spherical and complex) using a two-dimensional LED array as a light source (435 nm, 33...
November 6, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Wen-Qing Li, Aaron M Drucker, Eunyoung Cho, Francine Laden, Trang VoPham, Suyun Li, Martin A Weinstock, Abrar A Qureshi
BACKGROUND: Tetracycline is a photosensitising medication that increases skin vulnerability to UV-related damage. METHODS: We prospectively examined tetracycline use and risk of incident melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) based on 213 536 participants from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHS2, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Information on ever use of tetracycline was asked via questionnaire. Diagnoses of melanoma and SCC were pathologically confirmed...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
Rubén Ruiz-González, Francesca Setaro, Òscar Gulías, Montserrat Agut, Uwe Hahn, Tomás Torres, Santi Nonell
In the present study we describe the synthesis, photophysical properties and the photoinactivation performance against representative microorganisms of two families of cationic dendrimeric phthalocyanines as potential photosensitisers. Four charged dendrimeric compounds varying in their degree of ionicity (4 or 8 positive charges) and the coordinating metal (zinc or ruthenium) are compared and assessed as potential photosensitising agents in terms of their antimicrobial activity.
October 31, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Santosh K Pagire, Asik Hossain, Lukas Traub, Sabine Kerres, Oliver Reiser
An efficient method for the synthesis of substituted cyclobutanes from cinnamates, chalcones, and styrenes has been developed utilizing a visible-light triplet sensitisation mode. This reaction provides a diverse range of substituted cyclobutanes in high yields under mild conditions without the need of external additives. Good regioselectivity is obtained due to strong π-π-stacking of arene moieties, whereas diastereoselectivity relies on the electronic effects or ortho-substitution of the arene substrate...
November 7, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Lili Duse, Shashank Reddy Pinnapireddy, Boris Strehlow, Jarmila Jedelská, Udo Bakowsky
Oncological use of photodynamic therapy is an evolving field in cancer therapeutics. Photosensitisers are prone to accumulation inside healthy tissues causing undesirable effects. To avoid this, we have developed tetraether lipid liposomal formulations containing curcumin which is a naturally occurring anti-cancer substance and deemed to be safe towards healthy cells. Upon excitation with light at a specific wavelength, curcumin produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in presence of oxygen, thereby exhibiting a cytotoxic effect towards the surrounding tissues, giving a total control on the onset of therapy...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Peter Møller, Kim Jantzen, Mille Løhr, Maria Helena Andersen, Ditte Marie Jensen, Martin Roursgaard, Pernille Høgh Danielsen, Annie Jensen, Steffen Loft
The formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1)-modified comet assays have been widely used in human biomonitoring studies. The purpose of this article is to assess differences in reported levels of Fpg- and hOGG1-sensitive sites in leukocytes and suggest suitable assay controls for the measurement of oxidatively damaged DNA. An assessment of the literature showed a large variation in the reported levels of Fpg-sensitive sites (range 0.05-1.31 lesions/106 bp). The levels of Fpg-sensitive sites are lower in studies where Fpg has been obtained from commercial suppliers or unknown sources as compared to Fpg from one particular non-commercial source (χ2 = 7...
September 15, 2017: Mutagenesis
Rahul Bhattacharyya, Bhaskar Saha, Mrityunjaya Tyagi, Sandip K Bandyopadhyay, Birija Sankar Patro, Subrata Chattopadhyay
In this study, we demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of the protoberberine alkaloids such as coralyne, berberine and jatrorrhizine to several human cancer cell lines can be improved significantly in combination with UVA exposure. However, the phototoxic property of coralyne was much higher than that of the other two alkaloids. The combination of coralyne and UVA (designated as CUVA) induced oxygen-independent cytotoxicity in the human lung cancer A549 cells by producing more lethal DNA double-strand breaks, and the effect was mediated via the replication machinery...
September 5, 2017: Free Radical Research
Yongwei Hao, Cuixia Zheng, Lei Wang, Jinjie Zhang, Xiuxiu Niu, Qingling Song, Qianhua Feng, Hongjuan Zhao, Li Li, Hongling Zhang, Zhenzhong Zhang, Yun Zhang
Amorphous biodegradable metal phosphate nanomaterials are considered to possess great potential in cancer theranostic application due to their promise in providing ultra-sensitive pH-responsive therapeutic benefits and diagnostic functions simultaneously. Here we report the synthesis of photosensitising and acriflavine-carrying amorphous porous manganese phosphate (PMP) nanoparticles with ultra-sensitive pH-responsive degradability and their application for a photoactivable synergistic nanosystem that imparts reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cytotoxicity in synchrony with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α/vascular endothelial growth factor (HIF1α/VEGF) inhibitor that suppresses tumor growth and treatment escape signalling pathway...
August 24, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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