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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637291/pediatric-to-adult-care-transition-perspectives-of-young-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#1
Jerlym S Porter, Kimberly M Wesley, Mimi S Zhao, Rebecca J Rupff, Jane S Hankins
The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of transition and transition readiness of young adult patients (YAs) with sickle cell disease (SCD) who have transitioned to adult health care. In all, 19 YAs with SCD (ages 18-30 years) participated in one of three focus groups and completed a brief questionnaire about transition topics. Transcripts were coded and emergent themes were examined using the social-ecological model of adolescent and young adult readiness for transition (SMART). Themes were consistent with most SMART components...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637279/high-dimensional-multivariate-mediation-with-application-to-neuroimaging-data
#2
Oliver Y Chén, Ciprian Crainiceanu, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Brian S Caffo, Tor D Wager, Martin A Lindquist
Mediation analysis is an important tool in the behavioral sciences for investigating the role of intermediate variables that lie in the path between a treatment and an outcome variable. The influence of the intermediate variable on the outcome is often explored using a linear structural equation model (LSEM), with model coefficients interpreted as possible effects. While there has been significant research on the topic, little work has been done when the intermediate variable (mediator) is a high-dimensional vector...
June 15, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636768/driving-aggression-and-anxiety-intersections-assessment-and-interventions
#3
Heidi M Zinzow, Stephanie M Jeffirs
OBJECTIVE: Driving aggression and anxiety are significant contributors to risky driving and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), which are leading causes of U.S. morbidity and mortality. Even though aggression and anxiety can be conceptualized as related features of the fight-or-flight response, literature on these topics has not been integrated. Driving aggression and anxiety are also transdiagnostic constructs that span multiple psychiatric disorders. Assessment and treatment of these complex problems must be understood to reduce the public health burden of MVCs...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634655/effect-of-adherence-on-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-relationships-of-oral-targeted-anticancer-drugs
#4
Evelina Cardoso, Chantal Csajka, Marie P Schneider, Nicolas Widmer
The emergence of oral targeted anticancer agents transformed several cancers into chronic conditions with a need for long-term oral treatment. Although cancer is a life-threatening condition, oncology medication adherence-the extent to which a patient follows the drug regimen that is intended by the prescriber-can be suboptimal in the long term, as in any other chronic disease. Poor adherence can impact negatively on clinical outcomes, notably because most of these drugs are given as a standard non-individualized dosage despite marked inter-individual variabilities that can lead to toxic or inefficacious drug concentrations...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634413/topical-fibronectin-improves-wound-healing-of-irradiated-skin
#5
Maxwell B Johnson, Brandon Pang, Daniel J Gardner, Solmaz Niknam-Benia, Vinaya Soundarajan, Athanasios Bramos, David P Perrault, Kian Banks, Gene K Lee, Regina Y Baker, Gene H Kim, Sunju Lee, Yang Chai, Mei Chen, Wei Li, Lawrence Kwong, Young-Kwon Hong, Alex K Wong
Wound healing is significantly delayed in irradiated skin. To better understand global changes in protein expression after radiation, we utilized a reverse phase protein array (RPPA) to identify significant changes in paired samples of normal and irradiated human skin. Of the 210 proteins studied, fibronectin was the most significantly and consistently downregulated in radiation-damaged skin. Using a murine model, we confirmed that radiation leads to decreased fibronectin expression in the skin as well as delayed wound healing...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633867/review-of-a-causal-role-of-fructose-containing-sugars-in-myocardial-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
REVIEW
Gerald J Maarman, Amy E Mendham, Kim Lamont, Cindy George
In 2012, the World Health Organization Global Status Report on noncommunicable diseases showed that 7.4 million deaths were due to ischemic heart disease. Consequently, cardiovascular disease is a significant health burden, especially when partnered with comorbidities such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of note, these diseases can all be induced or exacerbated by diet. Carbohydrates, in particular, fructose and glucose, generally form the largest part of the human diet. Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggests that if large amounts of fructose are consumed either in isolation or in combination with glucose (fructose-containing sugars), myocardial susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury increases...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633440/low-alanine-aminotransferase-levels-in-the-elderly-frailty-disability-sarcopenia-and-reduced-survival
#7
Umberto Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Antonio De Vincentis, Luigi Ferrucci, Stefania Bandinelli, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi, Antonio Picardi
Background: Although low alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels have been associated with poor outcomes in the elderly, the determinants subtending this association have been poorly explored. To gain insight into this topic, we analyzed data from a prospective population-based database (InCHIANTI study) in which frailty, disability, sarcopenia and pyridoxine levels were systematically assessed. Methods: Data are from 765 participants aged >65 years (mean age 75...
June 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632931/iowa-model-of-evidence-based-practice-revisions-and-validation
#8
Kathleen C Buckwalter, Laura Cullen, Kirsten Hanrahan, Charmaine Kleiber, Ann Marie McCarthy, Barbara Rakel, Victoria Steelman, Toni Tripp-Reimer, Sharon Tucker
BACKGROUND: The Iowa Model is a widely used framework for the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP). Changes in health care (e.g., emergence of implementation science, emphasis on patient engagement) prompted the re-evaluation, revision, and validation of the model. METHODS: A systematic multi-step process was used capturing information from the literature and user feedback via an electronic survey and live work groups. The Iowa Model Collaborative critically assessed and synthesized information and recommendations before revising the model...
June 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632241/nursing-support-of-home-hospice-caregivers-on-the-day-of-patient-death
#9
Margaret F Clayton, Jennifer Hulett, Kirandeep Kaur, Maija Reblin, Andrew Wilson, Lee Ellington
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To describe nurse-caregiver communication on the day of patient death.
. DESIGN: A descriptive secondary analysis of 44 audio-recorded home hospice nursing visits on day of death.
. SETTING: Nine hospices in Utah, Oregon, and Massachusetts.
. SAMPLE: 42 caregiver-patient dyads, 27 hospice nurses.
. METHODS: Transcripts of audio recordings were coded for supportive nursing communication and relative time spent in physical, psychosocial, and spiritual discussion...
July 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632042/lesions-to-the-left-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-impair-decision-threshold-adjustment-for-lexical-selection
#10
Royce Anders, Stéphanie Riès, Leendert Van Maanen, F-Xavier Alario
Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data...
March 1, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631350/standard-errors-and-confidence-intervals-for-correlations-corrected-for-indirect-range-restriction-a-simulation-study-comparing-analytic-and-bootstrap-methods
#11
Tamar Kennet-Cohen, Dvir Kleper, Elliot Turvall
A frequent topic of psychological research is the estimation of the correlation between two variables from a sample that underwent a selection process based on a third variable. Due to indirect range restriction, the sample correlation is a biased estimator of the population correlation, and a correction formula is used. In the past, bootstrap standard error and confidence intervals for the corrected correlations were examined with normal data. The present study proposes a large-sample estimate (an analytic method) for the standard error, and a corresponding confidence interval for the corrected correlation...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631227/frequent-occurrence-of-pain-and-prescription-opioid-use-for-treatment-of-pain-among-women-with-and-at-risk-for-hiv-infection
#12
Anjali Sharma, Donald R Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Jennie C I Tsao, Christopher Cox, Deborah R Gustafson, Kathleen Weber, Ruth M Greenblatt, Bradley E Aouizerat, Michael W Plankey
Pain is frequent and underreported among HIV+ women. We determined occurrence and severity of pain, and types of pain treatments used among HIV+ and HIV- women. Cross-sectional analyses of pain as measured by the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form, and related pain therapies nested in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Multiple variable linear regression models examined differences by HIV status in pain severity and pain interference in general activity, mood, ability to walk, work, relationships with others, sleep, and enjoyment of life...
June 19, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630952/estimating-patient-s-health-state-using-latent-structure-inferred-from-clinical-time-series-and-text
#13
Aaron Zalewski, William Long, Alistair E W Johnson, Roger G Mark, Li-Wei H Lehman
Modern intensive care units (ICUs) collect large volumes of data in monitoring critically ill patients. Clinicians in the ICUs face the challenge of interpreting large volumes of high-dimensional data to diagnose and treat patients. In this work, we explore the use of Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes (HDP) as a Bayesian nonparametric framework to infer patients' states of health by combining multiple sources of data. In particular, we employ HDP to combine clinical time series and text from the nursing progress notes in a probabilistic topic modeling framework for patient risk stratification...
February 2017: IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630951/phenotyping-hypotensive-patients-in-critical-care-using-hospital-discharge-summaries
#14
Yang Dai, Sharukh Lokhandwala, William Long, Roger Mark, Li-Wei H Lehman
Among critically-ill patients, hypotension represents a failure in compensatory mechanisms and may lead to organ hypoperfusion and failure. In this work, we adopt a data-driven approach for phenotype discovery and visualization of patient similarity and cohort structure in the intensive care unit (ICU). We used Hierarchical Dirichlet Process (HDP) as a nonparametric topic modeling technique to automatically learn a d-dimensional feature representation of patients that captures the latent "topic" structure of diseases, symptoms, medications, and findings documented in hospital discharge summaries...
February 2017: IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630568/the-effects-of-a-self-efficacy-intervention-on-exercise-behavior-of-fitness-club-members-in-52-weeks-and-long-term-relationships-of-transtheoretical-model-constructs
#15
Jan Middelkamp, Maaike van Rooijen, Peter Wolfhagen, Bert Steenbergen
The transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) is often used to understand changes in health-related behavior, like exercise. Exercise behavior in fitness clubs is an understudied topic, but preliminary studies showed low frequencies and large numbers of drop-out. An initial 12-week self-efficacy intervention reported significant effects on exercise behavior. The objective of this follow up study is testing effects on exercise behavior over 52 weeks and the long-term relationships of all TTM constructs...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629764/oral-versus-topical-calcium-channel-blockers-for-chronic-anal-fissure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
REVIEW
Shaheel M Sahebally, Khalid Ahmed, Raminta Cerneveciute, Asif Iqbal, Stewart R Walsh, Myles R Joyce
BACKGROUND: Chemical sphincterotomy with pharmacological agents is recommended as first line therapy for chronic anal fissures (CAF). Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are associated with similar efficacy but fewer side effects compared to nitrates. However, the optimal formulation (oral versus topical) is unknown. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness of oral and topical CCB in the treatment of CAF. METHODS: PubMed and Embase online databases were searched for relevant articles...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629348/applying-the-plan-do-study-act-pdsa-approach-to-a-large-pragmatic-study-involving-safety-net-clinics
#17
Jennifer Coury, Jennifer L Schneider, Jennifer S Rivelli, Amanda F Petrik, Evelyn Seibel, Brieshon D'Agostini, Stephen H Taplin, Beverly B Green, Gloria D Coronado
BACKGROUND: The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle is a commonly used improvement process in health care settings, although its documented use in pragmatic clinical research is rare. A recent pragmatic clinical research study, called the Strategies and Opportunities to STOP Colon Cancer in Priority Populations (STOP CRC), used this process to optimize the research implementation of an automated colon cancer screening outreach program in intervention clinics. We describe the process of using this PDSA approach, the selection of PDSA topics by clinic leaders, and project leaders' reactions to using PDSA in pragmatic research...
June 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629004/performance-evaluation-of-non-ionic-surfactant-based-tazarotene-encapsulated-proniosomal-gel-for-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#18
Vure Prasad, Sundeep Chaurasia
The study aims to explore the potential of non-ionic surfactant based proniosomal gel (PNG) in improving the topical delivery of tazarotene by in vitro and in vivo studies. The PNG was prepared using coacervation phase separation method composed of span, stearylamine, cholesterol, and lecithin. The PNG demonstrated favorable vesicle size (3.26±0.22μm) and percent encapsulation efficiency (49.50±2.3%). The PNG was evaluated for viscosity which indicated that the ratio of span:cholesterol:stearylamine (64...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626530/discovery-of-a-series-of-indazole-trpa1-antagonists
#19
David C Pryde, Brian E Marron, Christopher W West, Steven Reister, George Amato, Katrina Yoger, Brett Antonio, Karen Padilla, Peter J Cox, Jamie Turner, Joseph S Warmus, Nigel A Swain, Kiyoyuki Omoto, John H Mahoney, Aaron C Gerlach
A series of TRPA1 antagonists is described which has as its core structure an indazole moiety. The physical properties and in vitro DMPK profiles are discussed. Good in vivo exposure was obtained with several analogs, allowing efficacy to be assessed in rodent models of inflammatory pain. Two compounds showed significant activity in these models when administered either systemically or topically. Protein chimeras were constructed to indicate compounds from the series bound in the S5 region of the channel, and a computational docking model was used to propose a binding mode for example compounds...
June 8, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625100/applications-of-meta-analytic-structural-equation-modeling-in-health-psychology-examples-issues-and-recommendations
#20
Mike W-L Cheung, Ryan Y Hong
Statistical methods play an important role in behavioral, medical and social sciences. Two recent statistical advances are structural equation modeling (SEM) and meta-analysis. SEM is used to test hypothesized models based on substantive theories, which can be path, confirmatory factor analytic, or full structural equation models. Meta-analysis is used to synthesize research findings in a particular topic. This article demonstrates another recent statistical advance-meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM)-that combines meta-analysis and SEM to synthesize research findings for the purpose of testing hypothesized models...
June 18, 2017: Health Psychology Review
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