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Topic modeling

Duncan Taylor, Bas Kokshoorn, Alex Biedermann
The evaluation of results of forensic genetic analyses given activity level propositions is an emerging discipline in forensic genetics. Although it is a topic with a long history, it has never been considered to be such a critically important topic for the field, as today. With the increasing sensitivity of analysis techniques, and advances in data interpretation using probabilistic models ('probabilistic genotyping'), there is an increasing demand on forensic biologists to share specialised knowledge to help recipients of expert information address mode and timing of transfer and persistence of traces in court...
June 7, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Yu Tsurekawa, Misaki Morita, Mary Ann Suico, Masataka Moriuchi, Yoshio Nakano, Mariam Piruzyan, Masafumi Takada, Sanako Fukami, Tsuyoshi Shuto, Hirofumi Kai
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease caused by immune disorder. The chronic skin inflammation involves inflammatory molecules that are released from T lymphocytes and keratinocytes. Therefore, developing an anti-inflammatory therapy that is suitable for long-term treatment is needed. Electrical stimulation induces biological responses by modulating intracellular signaling pathways. Our previous studies showed that the optimized combination treatment of mild electrical stimulation (MES, 0.1-millisecond; ms, 55-pulses per second; pps) and heat shock (HS, 42°C) modulates inflammatory symptoms of metabolic disorders and chronic kidney disease in mice models and clinical trials...
June 21, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
(no author information available yet)
Tissue-resident alveolar macrophages (TR-AM) are depleted from the lung during the early stages of bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis. The recovery of the population of macrophages after bleomycin could be completely attributable to the recruitment and differentiation of monocyte-derived alveolar macrophages (Mo-AM). The authors used multiple lineage-trace mouse models where they selectively depleted TR-AM or Mo-AM and induced fibrosis with bleomycin. Deletion of TR-AM had no effect on the severity of the fibrotic phenotype...
December 2017: Breathe
Tristan McCaughey, David Mark Budden, Paul G Sanfilippo, George E C Gooden, Li Fan, Eva Fenwick, Gwyneth Rees, Casimir MacGregor, Lei Si, Christine Chen, Helena Hai Liang, Alice Pebay, Timothy Baldwin, Alex W Hewitt
BACKGROUND: The CRISPR/Cas system could provide an efficient and reliable means of editing the human genome and has the potential to revolutionise modern medicine; however, rapid developments are raising complex ethical issues. There has been significant scientific debate regarding the acceptability of some applications of CRISPR/Cas, with leaders in the field highlighting the need for the lay public's views to shape expert discussion. As such, we sought to determine the factors that influence public opinion on gene editing...
June 21, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Peter R Chai, Anne-Michelle Ruha, Kelly E Wong, Derek L Monette, Meghan B Spyres, Jeff Lapoint, Howard Greller, Mark B Mycyk
BACKGROUND: Twitter-based chat groups (tweetchats) structured as virtual journal clubs have been demonstrated to provide value to learners. In order to promote topics in medical toxicology, we developed the #firesidetox tweetchat as a virtual journal club to discuss and disseminate topics in medical toxicology. METHODS: A group of medical toxicologists from the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Public Affairs Committee and editorial board of the Journal of Medical Toxicology (JMT) developed a quarterly one hour tweetchat featuring JMT manuscripts...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Mariam Taha, Hesham Abdelbary, F Patrick Ross, Alberto V Carli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication after total joint replacement. A main source for antibiotic tolerance and treatment failure is bacterial production of biofilm-a resilient barrier against antibiotics, immune system, and mechanical debridement. The purpose of this review is to explore some novel approaches to treat PJI and biofilm-related infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Innovative treatment strategies of bacterial and biofilm infections revolve around (a) augmenting current therapies, such as improving the delivery and efficiency of conventional antibiotics and enhancing the efficacy of antiseptics and (b) administrating completely new therapeutic modalities, such as using immunotherapy, nanoparticles, lytic bacteriophages, photodynamic therapy, novel antibiotics, and antimicrobial peptides...
June 20, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Ben Curran, Kyle Higham, Elisenda Ortiz, Demival Vasques Filho
Quantitative methods to describe the participation to debate of Members of Parliament and the parties they belong to are lacking. Here we propose a new approach that combines topic modeling with complex networks techniques, and use it to characterize the political discourse at the New Zealand Parliament. We implement a Latent Dirichlet Allocation model to discover the thematic structure of the government's digital database of parliamentary speeches, and construct from it two-mode networks linking Members of the Parliament to the topics they discuss...
2018: PloS One
Sang-Taek Im, Hee Yeon Kim, Jin Young Yoon, Joo Youn Oh, Mee Kum Kim, Myung-Hee Chung, Hae Jung Paik, Dong Hyun Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) on experimental ocular chemical injury models. METHODS: We created ocular chemical injury models with 8-week-old BALB/c mice (n = 70) by applying 100% ethanol; the mice were then treated with 8-oxo-dG eye drops 10 and 5 mg/mL and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) twice daily. After 7 days, clinical findings such as corneal integrity, clarity, and neovascularization were assessed...
June 19, 2018: Cornea
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan, Reginald P Sequeira, Khalid Aj Al-Khaja
Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. The present study is a network meta-analysis of drugs used for treating PE. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing medical interventions with either placebo or with other active drugs in patients with PE. Inverse variance heterogeneity model was used for mixed-treatment comparisons. Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and adverse events were the main outcome measures. A total of 44 studies were included in the meta-analysis...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
Donghua Chen, Runtong Zhang, Kecheng Liu, Lei Hou
Patient-reported posts in Online Health Communities (OHCs) contain various valuable information that can help establish knowledge-based online support for online patients. However, utilizing these reports to improve online patient services in the absence of appropriate medical and healthcare expert knowledge is difficult. Thus, we propose a comprehensive knowledge discovery method that is based on the Unified Medical Language System for the analysis of narrative posts in OHCs. First, we propose a domain-knowledge support framework for OHCs to provide a basis for post analysis...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Dipika Neupane, Parash Mani Bhandari, Kiran Thapa, Shristi Bhochhibhoya, Shristi Rijal, Ramjee Prasad Pathak
OBJECTIVES: To explore the prevalence, perpetrator characteristics and the correlates of child abuse in Kathmandu, Nepal. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we translated the internationally validated questionnaire developed by the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Home into Nepali. We added questions on descriptive information about students and their family to the questionnaire. We recruited students from 20 schools selected randomly-2 from each of the 10 electoral constituencies of Kathmandu district...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Juan F Masello, Javier Martínez, Luciano Calderón, Michael Wink, Petra Quillfeldt, Virginia Sanz, Jörn Theuerkauf, Luis Ortiz-Catedral, Igor Berkunsky, Dianne Brunton, José A Díaz-Luque, Mark E Hauber, Valeria Ojeda, Antoine Barnaud, Laura Casalins, Bethany Jackson, Alfredo Mijares, Romel Rosales, Gláucia Seixas, Patricia Serafini, Adriana Silva-Iturriza, Elenise Sipinski, Rodrigo A Vásquez, Peter Widmann, Indira Widmann, Santiago Merino
BACKGROUND: Parasites can exert selection pressure on their hosts through effects on survival, on reproductive success, on sexually selected ornament, with important ecological and evolutionary consequences, such as changes in population viability. Consequently, hemoparasites have become the focus of recent avian studies. Infection varies significantly among taxa. Various factors might explain the differences in infection among taxa, including habitat, climate, host density, the presence of vectors, life history and immune defence...
June 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Luca Neri, Ketty Peris, Caterina Longo, Stefano Calvieri, Pasquale Frascione, Aurora Parodi, Eibenschuz Laura, Ugo Bottoni, Giovanni Pellacani
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple actinic keratoses (AK) should be treated with field-directed therapy. Such treatments challenge patients' adherence due out-of-pocket costs, length of treatment and severity of Local Skin Reactions (LSRs). Effective physician-patient communication (PPC) may buffer therapy-related distress thus improving quality of life, treatment satisfaction and adherence. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the interplay between PPC, LSR intensity (safety) and lesion clearance rates (effectiveness) on treatment satisfaction, quality of life and treatment adherence among patients with multiple AK receiving topical field-directed therapies...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Niloofar Shirvanizadeh, Gert Vriend, Seyed Shahriar Arab
Engineering surface loops is a sub-topic of protein engineering that is used routinely in many research fields in academia and industry alike. We provide some tools that search in the PDB for loops satisfying a wide variety of constraints. We illustrate the usefulness of these tools by applying them to a series of recently published studies that included loop engineering or loop modelling. LoopFinder finds loops that fit between two anchor stretches of typically 2, 3, or 4 amino acids each. ProDA find loops of a given length with predefined secondary structure, residue types, hydrophobicity, etc...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Srinath Rangappa, Krishnaswamy K Rangan, Tirumalai S Sudarshan, S Narasimha Murthy
Second degree burn injury is the most common type of burn injury which usually takes 2-3 weeks for complete healing. However, such patients suffer with intense pain associated with development of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Here, we prepare a silver clay patch using Montmorillonite clay, betaine and silver nitrate. Later, the silver clay patches were loaded with fentanyl. Further, the patches were fabricated into burn wound dressings. The dressings were first subjected to ex vivo skin penetration studies and were later evaluated for thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia using second degree burn injury rodent model...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Zih-Chan Lin, Pei-Wen Hsieh, Tsong-Long Hwang, Chi-Yuan Chen, Calvin T Sung, Jia-You Fang
Psoriasis is an inflammatory autoimmune skin disorder possessing a complex etiology related to genetic and environmental triggers. Keratinocytes show a potential role for the origin of psoriasis. In this study, we estimated the efficiency of 2 anthranilate derivatives-(E)-4-(N-{2-[1-(hydroxyimino)ethyl]phenyl}sulfamoyl)phenyl pivalate (HFP031) and butyl 2-[2-(2-fluorophenyl)acetamido]benzoate (HFP034)-on psoriasis amelioration in a mouse model. The results showed that topical treatment with both compounds could attenuate epidermal thickness and scaling in an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis mouse model via decreased expression of cytokines and chemokines [C-X-C chemokine ligand (CXCL)1 and CXCL2], leading to the reduction of neutrophilic abscess in the skin...
June 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Carlo Modonesi, Enrico Oddone, Celestino Panizza, Marcello Imbriani
OBJECTIVES: The primary role played by the 'ecological context' in clarifying the causes and dynamics of human health and disease is the topic of this article. It emphasizes that the challenging incidence of cancer and other diseases can be charged primarily to the effects of the worldwide dominant economic model. METHODS: Human culture may act as a powerful force affecting the environment, biology and health of humans and other species. Human culture can be viewed as a special and extreme case of 'niche construction', where human-specific traits, technologies and beliefs act together...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Pietro Apostoli, Jacopo Fostinelli
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to review the steps that the Italian Society Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) has undertaken over the past two decades in the context of a process of integration with quality systems, resulting in several initiatives including the production of different tools for the updating and professional qualification of the Occupational Health Physician (OHP). METHODS: The choice of focusing on a propositional-formative model such as the guidelines (GL) and the choice of the topics to be dealt with, was based on the need to provide the OHP with appropriate tools in order to face the complexity, specificity and rapidity of knowledge evolution which characterize our discipline...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Sergio Salerno, Chiara Tudisca, Flavia Di Liberto, Domenica Matranga, Giuseppe La Tona, Giuseppe Lo Re, Antonio Lo Casto
OBJECTIVES: Burnout syndrome is a condition that may occur not only for staff in human service sectors/jobs, involving intensive interactions with others, but also people that are engaged in activities psychologically similar to work, such as students. Radiographers in training suffer double stress, first linked to the status of being a university student and secondly as early career workers who have relations with the public of the health system. Aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among radiographers in training in an University Hospital...
December 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Fan Feng, Luhua Lai, Jianfeng Pei
With the idea of retrosynthetic analysis, which was raised in the 1960s, chemical synthesis analysis and pathway design have been transformed from a complex problem to a regular process of structural simplification. This review aims to summarize the developments of computer-assisted synthetic analysis and design in recent years, and how machine-learning algorithms contributed to them. LHASA system started the pioneering work of designing semi-empirical reaction modes in computers, with its following rule-based and network-searching work not only expanding the databases, but also building new approaches to indicating reaction rules...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
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