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Peter Nissen Bjerring, Esben Jannik Bjerrum, Fin Stolze Larsen
BACKGROUND: Liver failure results in hyperammonaemia, impaired regulation of cerebral microcirculation, encephalopathy and death. However, the key mediator that alters cerebral microcirculation remains unidentified. In this study we show that topical ammonium significantly increases periarteriolar adenosine tone on the brain surface of healthy rats and is associated with a disturbed microcirculation. METHODS: Cranial windows were prepared in anaesthetized Wistar rats...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Yanxin Sun, Longfei Zhang, Wenhou Duan, Xin Meng, Chongqi Jia
BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown that famine in early life may influence T2D. The majority of studies on this topic have revealed an association between famine exposure in early life and T2D in adulthood. However, several studies on the Great Chinese Famine were not conducted nationwide. Because the severity of the Great Chinese Famine varied in different regions, the results of regional studies were usually limited. METHODS: We included 7262 participants who were born between October 1, 1949, and July 1, 1966 who were participants in baseline data collection for CHARLS in 2011...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Aline Frey, Benoît Lemaire, Laurent Vercueil, Anne Guérin-Dugué
We investigated how two different reading tasks, namely reading to memorize [Read & Memorize (RM)] and reading to decide whether a text was relevant to a given topic [Read & Decide (RD)], modulated both eye movements (EM) and brain activity. To this end, we set up an ecological paradigm using the eye fixation-related potentials (EFRP) technique, in which participants freely moved their eyes to process short paragraphs, while their electroencephalography (EEG) activity was recorded in synchronization with their EM...
February 15, 2018: Brain Topography
Dinesh Thapa, Elizabeth A Cairns, Anna-Maria Szczesniak, James T Toguri, Meggie D Caldwell, Melanie E M Kelly
Background and Purpose: Corneal injury can result in dysfunction of corneal nociceptive signaling and corneal sensitization. Activation of the endocannabinoid system has been reported to be analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids with reported actions at cannabinoid 1 (CB 1 R) and cannabinoid 2 (CB 2 R) receptors and/or noncannabinoid receptors in an experimental model of corneal hyperalgesia. Methods: Corneal hyperalgesia (increased pain response) was generated using chemical cauterization of the corneal epithelium in wild-type (WT) and CB 2 R knockout (CB 2 R -/- ) mice...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Guan-Rong Huang, David B Saakian, Chin-Kun Hu
Studying gene regulation networks in a single cell is an important, interesting, and hot research topic of molecular biology. Such process can be described by chemical master equations (CMEs). We propose a Hamilton-Jacobi equation method with finite-size corrections to solve such CMEs accurately at the intermediate region of switching, where switching rate is comparable to fast protein production rate. We applied this approach to a model of self-regulating proteins [H. Ge et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 078101 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Blake M Snyder, Jessica S Mounessa, Melissa Fazzari, Joseph V Caravaglio, Alexandra Kretowicz, Taylor Braunberger, Keith Wells, Cory A Dunnick, Robert P Dellavalle, Theodore Alkousakis
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies report a correlation between distance to diagnostic provider in an academic medical center and poorer prognosis ofdisease. Limited research on this topic exists with respect to melanoma. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of 1,463 adults (≥18 years) initially diagnosed with melanoma between 2006-2016. Associations between distance traveled and Breslow depth and presence of metastatic disease were assessed via cumulative and binary logistic regression models, adjusting for patient and tumor characteristics...
November 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Rachel A Smith, Youllee Kim, Xun Zhu, Dimi Théodore Doudou, Eleanore D Sternberg, Matthew B Thomas
This study documents an investigation into the adoption and diffusion of eave tubes, a novel mosquito vector control, during a large-scale scientific field trial in West Africa. The diffusion of innovations (DOI) and the integrated model of behavior (IMB) were integrated (i.e., innovation attributes with attitudes and social pressures with norms) to predict participants' (N = 329) diffusion intentions. The findings showed that positive attitudes about the innovation's attributes were a consistent positive predictor of diffusion intentions: adopting it, maintaining it, and talking with others about it...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Carla Tatone, Giovanna Di Emidio, Arcangelo Barbonetti, Gaspare Carta, Alberto M Luciano, Stefano Falone, Fernanda Amicarelli
BACKGROUND: Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they respond to metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic/oxidative stress, and are associated with aging and longevity. The role of Sirtuins in the regulation of fertility emerged in 2003 when a defective reproductive phenotype was observed in SIRT1-null mice. Although studies on Sirtuins in reproductive biology have been increasing in the last years, a recent comprehensive update on this issue is still lacking...
February 13, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Caiyun Wang, Jing Han
The interaction radius r plays an important role in the collective behavior of many multi-agent systems because it defines the interaction network among agents. For the topic of intervention on collective behavior of multi-agent systems, does r also affect the intervention performance? In this paper we study whether it is easier to change the convergent heading of the group by adding some special agents (called shills) into the Vicsek model when r is larger (or smaller). Two kinds of shills are considered: fixed-heading shills (like leaders that never change their headings) and evolvable-heading shills (like normal agents but with carefully designed initial headings)...
2018: PloS One
A Takamori, Y Yoshinaga, T Ukai, H Nakamura, Y Takamori, S Izumi, C Shiraishi, Y Hara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Attachment loss of the junctional epithelium and alveolar bone destruction are signs of periodontitis, which is mainly caused by an inflammatory response to dental plaque. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a component of the licorice herb, has been shown to have important anti-inflammatory activities; however, there are no previous reports on the ability of its inhibitory effects to prevent periodontal diseases. Hence, in this study, using our experimental periodontitis model, we attempted to evaluate whether GA had an effect on the prevention of attachment loss and alveolar bone loss...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Dinesh Jaishankar, Abraam M Yakoub, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Alex Agelidis, Neel Thakkar, Satvik Hadigal, Joshua Ames, Deepak Shukla
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes recurrent mucocutaneous lesions in the eye that may advance to corneal blindness. Nucleoside analogs exemplified by acyclovir (ACV) form the primary class of antiherpetic drugs, but this class suffers limitations due to the emergence of viral resistance and other side effects. While studying the molecular basis of ocular HSV-1 infection, we observed that BX795, a commonly used inhibitor of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), strongly suppressed infection by multiple strains of HSV-1 in transformed and primary human cells, cultured human and animal corneas, and a murine model of ocular infection...
February 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Giuseppe M J Barca, Andrew T B Gilbert, Peter M W Gill
We present a single-determinant approach to three challenging topics in the chemistry of excited states: double excitations, charge-transfer states and conical intersections. The results are obtained by using the Initial Maximum Overlap Method (IMOM) which is a modified version of the Maximum Overlap Method (MOM). The new algorithm converges better than the original, especially for these difficult problems. By considering several case studies, we show that a single-determinant framework provides a simple and accurate alternative for modelling excited states in cases where other low-cost methods, such as CIS and TD-DFT, either perform poorly or fail completely...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Elwira Smolińska, Marta Moskot, Joanna Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Grzegorz Węgrzyn, Bogdan Banecki, Aneta Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Dorota Purzycka-Bohdan, Magdalena Gabig-Cimińska
Due to its strong proliferation-reducing effects on keratinocytes, and also anti-inflammatory properties, the isoflavone genistein has already been proposed as a possible antipsoriatic compound. As there is still no detailed information on this topic, we examined the effects of genistein by using an in vitro model of both, normal and "psoriasis-like" keratinocytes at this stage of our work exhaustively testing the selected flavonoid in a mono-treated experimental design. Gene expression studies revealed transcriptional changes that confirms known disease-associated pathways and highlights many psoriasis-related genes...
2018: PloS One
İsmail K Sağlam, Jason Baumsteiger, Matt J Smith, Javier Linares-Casenave, Andrew L Nichols, Sean M O'Rourke, Michael R Miller
The age of DHP and how pupfish colonized Devils Hole has always been a topic of interest. Recently, two different publications (Martin et al. 2016 & Sağlam et al. 2016) tackled this issue using genomic data sets and demographic models but came to widely different conclusions. In their comment, Martin & Höhna (2017) argue that our results (Sağlam et al. 2016) were misleading because we used inappropriate calibration information and biased a priori assumptions. They then re-analyzed our data using a "biologically informed" mutation rate prior and concluded that our data supports a much younger age of DHP (12...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Christoffer Lilja Terjesen, Julia Kovaleva, Lars Ehlers
BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopic procedures are common in the clinical setting, with estimates indicating 500,000 are undertaken per year in the USA alone. These procedures are generally regarded as safe. Unfortunately, a risk of cross-contamination between patients, with possible subsequent infection, is associated with the re-usable technology typically used in these procedures. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to conduct an early cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of single-use flexible video bronchoscope technology compared with the current reusable technology in a US hospital intensive care setting...
June 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Andjela T Drincic, Padmaja Akkireddy, Jon T Knezevich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes affects about a third of all hospitalized patients and up to 50% of inpatients go on to experience hyperglycemia. Despite strong evidence supporting the importance of adequate glycemic control, as well detailed guidelines from major national organizations, many patients continue to have hypo- and hyperglycemia during their hospital stay. While this may be partially related to provider and patient-specific factors, system-based barriers continue to pose a major obstacle...
February 14, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
S Scalia, M R Zampino, V Trotta, A Bianchi
Lipid microparticles (LMs) loaded with the antioxidant polyphenol, trans-resveratrol were developed in order to enhance its photostability in topical formulations. The LMs were prepared by the melt emulsification technique, using tristearin as the lipidic material and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine as the surfactant. The obtained microparticles were characterized by optical microscopy and release studies. The trans-resveratrol loading was 10.8% (w/w). Free or microencapsulated trans-resveratrol was introduced in model topical formulations (cream and hydrogel) and irradiated with a solar simulator...
April 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Josiane M da Silva, Jéssica L M Conegundes, Nícolas C C Pinto, Renata F Mendes, Maria Christina M N Castañon, Elita Scio
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the chronic topical anti-inflammatory activity of the pharmaceutical formulation ProHLP containing the hexane fraction of Lacistema pubescens (HLP). It was also investigated the possible cutaneous and systemic adverse effects of HLP and ProHLP in mice when compared to dexamethasone. METHODS: The chronic topical anti-inflammatory activity was determined by croton oil multiple application-induced mouse ear oedema model. Histopathological analyses of ear tissue samples sensitized with croton oil were performed...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Gökhan Karaca, Faruk Pehlivanli, Oktay Aydin, Canan Altunkaya, Hafize Uzun, Mehmet Niyaz, Hüseyin Özden, Huri Bulut
Purpose: Intra-abdominal adhesions (IAA) are among the most frequently seen pathologies in general surgery practice with an increased morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the effect of locally applied mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on IAA. Methods: Twenty-four Wistar Albino rats were used in the study. The rats were divided into three groups including: Sham, control, and MSCs group. On day 0, cecum was reached under anesthesia in all groups, except the Sham group...
February 2018: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
Kathleen A Jeffery, Nancy Pelaez, Trevor R Anderson
To keep biochemistry instruction current and relevant, it is crucial to expose students to cutting-edge scientific research and how experts reason about processes governed by thermodynamics and kinetics such as protein folding and dynamics. This study focuses on how experts explain their research into this topic with the intention of informing instruction. Previous research has modeled how expert biologists incorporate research methods, social or biological context, and analogies when they talk about their research on mechanisms...
2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
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