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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334647/time-resolved-decoding-of-planned-delayed-and-immediate-prehension-movements
#1
Giacomo Ariani, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Angelika Lingnau
Different contexts require us either to react immediately, or to delay (or suppress) a planned movement. Previous studies that aimed at decoding movement plans typically dissociated movement preparation and execution by means of delayed-movement paradigms. Here we asked whether these results can be generalized to the planning and execution of immediate movements. To directly compare delayed, non-delayed, and suppressed reaching and grasping movements, we used a slow event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design...
December 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332052/when-art-meets-gardens-does-it-enhance-the-benefits-the-nancy-hypothesis-of-care-for-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Thérèse Rivasseau Jonveaux, Reinhard Fescharek
The creation of healing gardens for persons with Alzheimer's disease and related diseases (ADRD) offers vast potential. They can play a role in the scaffolding of cognitive disorders, emotional stress, sensory processing, sense of harmony, and appeasement. These effects are achieved through a distributed interplay of psychological functions with the immediate environment and local culture on the one hand, and dialogue on the other. The garden, a natural canvas created by man, shares with art the ability to foster an esthetic sense for which the perception can be measured by functional neurological imaging exploration...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331450/mapping-stimulus-feature-selectivity-in-macaque-v1-by-two-photon-ca2-imaging-encoding-model-analysis-of-fluorescence-responses-to-natural-movies
#3
REVIEW
Koji Ikezoe, Mahya Amano, Shinji Nishimoto, Ichiro Fujita
In vivo calcium (Ca2+) imaging using two-photon microscopy allows activity to be monitored simultaneously from hundreds of individual neurons within a local population. While this allows us to gain important insights into how cortical neurons represent sensory information, factors such as photo-bleaching of the Ca2+ indicator limit imaging duration (and thus the numbers of stimuli that can be tested), which in turn hampers the full characterization of neuronal response properties. Here, we demonstrate that using an encoding model combined with presentation of natural movies results in detailed characterization of receptive field (RF) properties despite the relatively short time for data collection...
January 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330226/mitotane-treatment-in-patients-with-metastatic-testicular-leydig-cell-tutor-associated-with-severe-androgen-excess
#4
Vasileios Chortis, Nicholas J Johal, Irina Bancos, Matthew Evans, Kassiani Skordilis, Peter Guest, Michael H Cullen, Emilio Porfiri, Wiebke Arlt
Mitotane (o,p'DDD) is established in the adjuvant and advanced stage treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma and counteracts both tumour growth and tumour-related steroid production. Both the adrenal glands and the gonads are steroidogenically active organs and share a common embryogenic origin. Here we describe the effects of mitotane in two patients with metastatic Leydig cell tumour (LCT) of the testes and associated severe androgen excess (serum testosterone 93 and 88 nmol/l, respectively; male reference range 7-27 nmol/L)...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330070/neutropenia-as-a-complication-of-tumefactive-demyelinating-disease-a-case-report
#5
Kali Webb, Marisa Osorio
Tumefactive demyelination is an aggressive, localized, generally solitary area of demyelination that often mimics a neoplasm. We present a case of a 13-year-old female who presented with sudden onset, progressive hemiplegia and hemianopsia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed tumefactive demyelination with partial rim of enhancement. During inpatient rehabilitation, she developed myalgias, rash, abdominal and mouth pain with evidence for severe neutropenia. The neutropenia was determined to be a secondary complication of the tumefactive disease process...
January 9, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329905/consensus-recommendations-for-evaluation-interpretation-and%C3%A2-utilization-of-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-enterography-in-patients-with-small-bowel-crohn-s%C3%A2-disease
#6
David H Bruining, Ellen M Zimmermann, Edward V Loftus, William J Sandborn, Cary G Sauer, Scott A Strong
Computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography have become routine small bowel imaging tests to evaluate patients with established or suspected Crohn's disease, but the interpretation and use of these imaging modalities can vary widely. A shared understanding of imaging findings, nomenclature, and utilization will improve the utility of these imaging techniques to guide treatment options, as well as assess for treatment response and complications. Representatives from the Society of Abdominal Radiology Crohn's Disease-Focused Panel, the Society of Pediatric Radiology, the American Gastroenterological Association, and other experts, systematically evaluated evidence for imaging findings associated with small bowel Crohn's disease enteric inflammation and established recommendations for the evaluation, interpretation, and use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography in small bowel Crohn's disease...
December 30, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329621/first-parasitological-histopathological-and-molecular-characterization-of-echinococcus-vogeli-rausch-and-bernstein-1972-from-cuniculus-paca-linnaeus-1766-in-the-cerrado-biome-mato-grosso-do-sul-brazil
#7
Fernanda Bittencourt-Oliveira, Paulo Teixeira, Alba Alencar, Rodrigo Menezes, Christiane Corrêa, Leandro Neves, Fernanda Almeida, Daniel Daipert-Garcia, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Rosângela Rodrigues-Silva
Polycystic echinococcosis (PE) is caused by Echinococcus vogeli metacestodes (larval stage) in Neotropical countries. E. vogeli is trophically-transmitted between predators bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) and prey pacas (Cuniculus paca). In Brazil, reported PE cases are restricted to the Amazon biome. In this study, metacestodes from a paca hunted in Mato Grosso do Sul state (Cerrado biome) were identified morphological and histopathological techniques and further confirmed by molecular testing (sequencing of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene) for the first time...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327140/children-s-experiences-of-congenital-heart-disease-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-studies
#8
REVIEW
Lauren S H Chong, Dominic A Fitzgerald, Jonathan C Craig, Karine E Manera, Camilla S Hanson, David Celermajer, Julian Ayer, Nadine A Kasparian, Allison Tong
We aimed to describe the experiences of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Electronic databases were searched until August 2016. Qualitative studies of children's perspectives on CHD were included. Data was extracted using thematic synthesis. From 44 studies from 12 countries involving 995 children, we identified 6 themes: disrupting normality (denying the diagnosis, oscillating between sickness and health, destabilizing the family dynamic), powerlessness in deteriorating health (preoccupation with impending mortality, vulnerability to catastrophic complications, exhaustion from medical testing), enduring medical ordeals (traumatized by invasive procedures, disappointed by treatment failure, displaced by transition, valuing empathy and continuity in care, overcoming uncertainty with information), warring with the body (losing stamina, distressing inability to participate in sport, distorted body image, testing the limits), hampering potential and goals (feeling disabled, unfair judgment and exclusion, difficulties with academic achievement, limiting attainment and maintenance of life milestones), and establishing one's own pace (demarcating disease from life, determination to survive, taking limitations in their stride, embracing the positives, finding personal enrichment, relying on social or spiritual support)...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326160/hypoxia-inducible-lipid-droplet-associated-protein-inhibits-adipose-triglyceride-lipase
#9
Krishna M Padmanabha Das, Lisa Wechselberger, Márton Liziczai, Montserrat De la Rosa Rodriguez, Gernot F Grabner, Christoph Heier, Roland Viertlmayr, Claudia Radler, Joerg Lichtenegger, Robert Zimmermann, Jan Willem Borst, Rudolf Zechner, Sander Kersten, Monika Oberer
Elaborate control mechanisms of intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) breakdown are critically involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Hypoxia inducible lipid droplet associated protein (HILPDA)/Hypoxia inducible gene-2 (Hig-2) has been shown to affect intracellular TAG levels, yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that HILPDA inhibits adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the enzyme catalyzing the first step of intracellular TAG hydrolysis. HILPDA shares structural similarity with G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2), an established inhibitor of ATGL...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325883/a-functional-neuroimaging-study-of-expectancy-effects-on-pain-response-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#10
Randy L Gollub, Irving Kirsch, Nasim Maleki, Ajay D Wasan, Robert R Edwards, Yiheng Tu, Ted J Kaptchuk, Jian Kong
Placebo treatments and healing rituals share much in common, such as the effects of expectancy, and have been used since the beginning of human history to treat pain. Previous mechanistic neuroimaging studies investigating the effects of expectancy on placebo analgesia have used young, healthy volunteers. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms by which expectancy evokes analgesia in older adults living with a chronic pain disorder and determine whether there are interactions with active treatment...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325579/the-return-of-the-iberian-lynx-to-portugal-local-voices
#11
Margarida Lopes-Fernandes, Clara Espírito-Santo, Amélia Frazão-Moreira
BACKGROUND: Ethnographic research can help to establish dialog between conservationists and local people in reintroduction areas. Considering that predator reintroductions may cause local resistance, we assessed attitudes of different key actor profiles to the return of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to Portugal before reintroduction started in 2015. We aimed to characterize a social context from an ethnoecological perspective, including factors such as local knowledge, perceptions, emotions, and opinions...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324532/low-expression-of-protocadherin-8-promotes-the-progression-of-ovarian-cancer
#12
Yuan Cao, Yan Yu, Xiaolong Chen, Fang Ren, Ruitao Zhang, Yanyan Jia, Zhigang Ren, Ranran Sun, Juan Li, Huirong Shi
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most lethal gynecological cancer among women throughout the world. Protocadherin-8 (PCDH8) could function as a candidate tumor suppressor. However, the link between PCDH8 and OC development is poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 68 OC patients were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical information was collected and cancer tissues were used for tissue microarray. The PCDH8 expression was determined on tissue microarray by immunohistochemical staining, and PCDH8 protein was detected in cancer tissues and adjacent tissue by western blotting...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322305/construction-of-mammographic-examination-process-ontology-using-bottom-up-hierarchical-task-analysis
#13
Ayako Yagahara, Yuki Yokooka, Guoqian Jiang, Shintarou Tsuji, Akihisa Fukuda, Naoki Nishimoto, Kunio Kurowarabi, Katsuhiko Ogasawara
Describing complex mammography examination processes is important for improving the quality of mammograms. It is often difficult for experienced radiologic technologists to explain the process because their techniques depend on their experience and intuition. In our previous study, we analyzed the process using a new bottom-up hierarchical task analysis and identified key components of the process. Leveraging the results of the previous study, the purpose of this study was to construct a mammographic examination process ontology to formally describe the relationships between the process and image evaluation criteria to improve the quality of mammograms...
January 10, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320684/label-free-imaging-and-bending-analysis-of-microtubules-by-rocs-microscopy-and-optical-trapping
#14
Matthias D Koch, Alexander Rohrbach
Mechanical manipulation of single cytoskeleton filaments and their monitoring over long times is difficult because of fluorescence bleaching or phototoxic protein degradation. The integration of label-free microscopy techniques, capable of imaging freely diffusing, weak scatterers such as microtubules (MTs) in real-time, and independent of their orientation, with optical trapping and tracking systems, would allow many new applications. Here, we show that rotating-coherent-scattering microscopy (ROCS) in dark-field mode can also provide strong contrast for structures far from the coverslip such as arrangements of isolated MTs and networks...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319556/gadolinium-accumulation-in-the-deep-cerebellar-nuclei-and-globus-pallidus-after-exposure-to-linear-but-not-macrocyclic-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-in-a-retrospective-pig-study-with-high-similarity-to-clinical-conditions
#15
Janina Boyken, Thomas Frenzel, Jessica Lohrke, Gregor Jost, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the gadolinium (Gd) concentration in different brain areas in a pig cohort that received repeated administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) at standard doses over several years, comparable with a clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Brain tissue was collected from 13 Göttingen mini pigs that had received repeated intravenous injections of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA; Magnevist) and/or gadobutrol (Gadovist)...
January 9, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319414/consensus-recommendations-for-evaluation-interpretation-and-utilization-of-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-enterography-in-patients-with-small-bowel-crohn-s-disease
#16
David H Bruining, Ellen M Zimmermann, Edward V Loftus, William J Sandborn, Cary G Sauer, Scott A Strong
Computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography have become routine small bowel imaging tests to evaluate patients with established or suspected Crohn's disease, but the interpretation and use of these imaging modalities can vary widely. A shared understanding of imaging findings, nomenclature, and utilization will improve the utility of these imaging techniques to guide treatment options, as well as assess for treatment response and complications. Representatives from the Society of Abdominal Radiology Crohn's Disease-Focused Panel, the Society of Pediatric Radiology, the American Gastroenterological Association, and other experts, systematically evaluated evidence for imaging findings associated with small bowel Crohn's disease enteric inflammation and established recommendations for the evaluation, interpretation, and use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography in small bowel Crohn's disease...
January 10, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318817/-application-of-image-recognition-technology-in-census-of-national-traditional-chinese-medicine-resources
#17
Xiao-Bo Zhang, Xiao-Guang Ge, Yan Jin, Ting-Ting Shi, Hui Wang, Meng Li, Zhi-Xian Jing, Lan-Ping Guo, Lu-Qi Huang
With the development of computer and image processing technology, image recognition technology has been applied to the national medicine resources census work at all stages.Among them: ①In the preparatory work, in order to establish a unified library of traditional Chinese medicine resources, using text recognition technology based on paper materials, be the assistant in the digitalization of various categories related to Chinese medicine resources; to determine the representative area and plots of the survey from each census team, based on the satellite remote sensing image and vegetation map and other basic data, using remote sensing image classification and other technical methods to assist in determining the key investigation area...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318509/friend-versus-foe-neural-correlates-of-prosocial-decisions-for-liked-and-disliked-peers
#18
Elisabeth Schreuders, Eduard T Klapwijk, Geert-Jan Will, Berna Güroğlu
Although the majority of our social interactions are with people we know, few studies have investigated the neural correlates of sharing valuable resources with familiar others. Using an ecologically valid research paradigm, this functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of prosocial and selfish behavior in interactions with real-life friends and disliked peers in young adults. Participants (N = 27) distributed coins between themselves and another person, where they could make selfish choices that maximized their own gains or prosocial choices that maximized outcomes of the other...
January 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317597/preliminary-evidence-for-genetic-overlap-between-body-mass-index-and-striatal-reward-response
#19
T M Lancaster, I Ihssen, L M Brindley, D E Linden
The reward-processing network is implicated in the aetiology of obesity. Several lines of evidence suggest obesity-linked genetic risk loci (such as DRD2 and FTO) may influence individual variation in body mass index (BMI) through neuropsychological processes reflected in alterations in activation of the striatum during reward processing. However, no study has tested the broader hypotheses that (a) the relationship between BMI and reward-related brain activation (measured through the blood oxygenation-dependent (BOLD) signal) may be observed in a large population study and (b) the overall genetic architecture of these phenotypes overlap, an assumption critical for the progression of imaging genetic studies in obesity research...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315951/four-way-multimodal-fusion-of-7%C3%A2-t-imaging-data-using-an-mcca-jica-model-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#20
Kristin K Lottman, David M White, Nina V Kraguljac, Meredith A Reid, Vince D Calhoun, Fabio Catao, Adrienne C Lahti
Acquisition of multimodal brain imaging data for the same subject has become more common leading to a growing interest in determining the intermodal relationships between imaging modalities to further elucidate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Multimodal data have previously been individually analyzed and subsequently integrated; however, these analysis techniques lack the ability to examine true modality inter-relationships. The utilization of a multiset canonical correlation and joint independent component analysis (mCCA + jICA) model for data fusion allows shared or distinct abnormalities between modalities to be examined...
January 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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