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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644999/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-cingulum-bundle-and-corpus-callosum-in-schizophrenia-vs-bipolar-disorder
#1
Igor Nenadić, Anna Hoof, Maren Dietzek, Kerstin Langbein, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Heinrich Sauer, Daniel Güllmar
Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show abnormalities of white matter, as seen in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses of major brain fibre bundles. While studies in each of the two conditions have indicated possible overlap in anatomical location, there are few direct comparisons between the disorders. Also, it is unclear whether phenotypically similar subgroups (e.g. patients with bipolar disorder and psychotic features) might share white matter pathologies or be rather similar. Using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T, we analysed fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the corpus callosum and cingulum bundle in 33 schizophrenia patients, 17 euthymic (previously psychotic) bipolar disorder patients, and 36 healthy controls...
May 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644815/landmark-image-retrieval-by-jointing-feature-refinement-and-multimodal-classifier-learning
#2
Xiaoming Zhang, Senzhang Wang, Zhoujun Li, Shuai Ma
Landmark retrieval is to return a set of images with their landmarks similar to those of the query images. Existing studies on landmark retrieval focus on exploiting the geometries of landmarks for visual similarity matches. However, the visual content of social images is of large diversity in many landmarks, and also some images share common patterns over different landmarks. On the other side, it has been observed that social images usually contain multimodal contents, i.e., visual content and text tags, and each landmark has the unique characteristic of both visual content and text content...
June 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643035/clinical-and-imaging-presentation-of-a%C3%A2-patient-with-beta-propeller-protein-associated-neurodegeneration-a%C3%A2-rare-and-sporadic-form-of-neurodegeneration-with-brain-iron-accumulation-nbia
#3
Elke Hattingen, Nikolaus Handke, Kirsten Cremer, Sabine Hoffjan, Guido Matthias Kukuk
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a heterogeneous group of inherited neurologic disorders with iron accumulation in the basal ganglia, which share magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, histopathologic and clinical features. According to the affected basal nuclei, clinical features include extrapyramidal movement disorders and varying degrees of intellectual disability status. The most common NBIA subtype is caused by pathogenic variants in PANK2. The hallmark of MR imaging in patients with PANK2 mutations is an eye-of-the-tiger sign in the globus pallidus...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642079/common-and-distinct-brain-networks-underlying-panic-and-social-anxiety-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Yong-Ku Kim, Ho-Kyoung Yoon
Although panic disorder (PD) and phobic disorders are independent anxiety disorders with distinct sets of diagnostic criteria, there is a high level of overlap between them in terms of pathogenesis and neural underpinnings. Functional connectivity research using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) shows great potential in identifying the similarities and differences between PD and phobias. Understanding common and distinct networks between PD and phobic disorders is critical for identifying both specific and general neural characteristics of these disorders...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639247/p2y1-receptors-properties-and-functional-activities
#5
Jolanta Barańska, Rafał Czajkowski, Paweł Pomorski
In this chapter we try to show a comprehensive image of current knowledge of structure, activity and physiological role of the P2Y1 purinergic receptor. The structure, distribution and changes in the expression of this receptor are summarized, as well as the mechanism of its signaling activity by the intracellular calcium mobilization. We try to show the connection between the components of its G protein activation and cellular or physiological effects, starting from changes in protein phosphorylation patterns and ending with such remote effects as receptor-mediated apoptosis...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#6
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634042/routine-ultrasound-quality-assurance-in-a-multi-unit-radiology-department-a-retrospective-evaluation-of-transducer-failures
#7
Anne-Mari Vitikainen, Juha I Peltonen, Eija Vartiainen
The importance of quality assurance (QA) in medical ultrasound (US) has been widely recognized and recommendations concerning technical QA have been published over the years. However, the demonstrated impact of a properly working QA protocol on clinical routine has been scarce. We investigated the transducer write-off causes for a 5-y period in a multi-unit radiology department with an annual average of 230 transducers in demanding diagnostic use. The transducer faults and the initial observers of the faults leading to transducer write-offs were traced and categorized...
June 17, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#8
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632986/atom-probe-tomography-unveils-formation-mechanisms-of-wear-protective-tribofilms-by-zddp-ionic-liquid-and-their-combination
#9
Wei Guo, Yan Zhou, Xiahan Sang, Donovan N Leonard, Jun Qu, Jonathan D Poplawsky
The development of advanced lubricant additives has been a critical component for in paving the way for increasing energy efficiency and durability for numerous industry applications. However, the formation mechanisms of additive-induced protective tribofilms are not yet fully understood due to the complex chemomechanical interactions at the contact interface and the limited spatial resolution of many characterizing techniques currently used. Here, the tribofilms on a grey cast iron surface formed by three antiwear additives are systematically studied; a phosphonium-phosphate ionic liquid (IL), a zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), and an IL+ZDDP combination...
June 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630786/ophthoselfie-detailed-self-imaging-of-cornea-and-anterior-segment-by-smartphone
#10
Abdullah Kaya
OBJECTIVES: To describe the ophthoselfie, a method by which everyone can take detailed self-images of the cornea and anterior segment with a smartphone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 90-diopter non-contact double aspheric lens was attached to posterior camera of the smartphone by clear tape. Images of one eye on the screen of the smartphone could be seen with the other eye in the mirror and images were taken. RESULTS: Accurate and detailed images of the cornea and anterior segment of the eye could be taken...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629810/spindle-cell-lesions-of-the-breast-an-approach-to-diagnosis
#11
REVIEW
Timothy Kwang Yong Tay, Puay Hoon Tan
Spindle cell lesions of the breast are among the less common entities encountered in breast pathology. They encompass a whole spectrum of benign reactive lesions to high grade malignant neoplasms. An accurate diagnosis is important to ensure that the patient receives the appropriate management. While this group of conditions broadly share the same basic morphology of a lesion composed of spindle cells, there are often recognizable differences on histology, which coupled with ancillary studies and correlation with the clinical and imaging findings, can help one to arrive at a specific diagnosis...
May 27, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624756/fat-is-fashionable-and-fit-a-comparative-content-analysis-of-fatspiration-and-health-at-every-size-%C3%A2-instagram-images
#12
Jennifer B Webb, Erin R Vinoski, Adrienne S Bonar, Alexandria E Davies, Lena Etzel
In step with the proliferation of Thinspiration and Fitspiration content disseminated in popular web-based media, the fat acceptance movement has garnered heightened visibility within mainstream culture via the burgeoning Fatosphere weblog community. The present study extended previous Fatosphere research by comparing the shared and distinct strategies used to represent and motivate a fat-accepting lifestyle among 400 images sourced from Fatspiration- and Health at Every Size(®)-themed hashtags on Instagram...
June 15, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624239/functional-outcome-and-healing-of-large-and-massive-rotator-cuff-tears-repaired-with-a-load-sharing-rip-stop-construct
#13
Matthew P Noyes, Alexandre Ladermann, Patrick J Denard
PURPOSE: To prospectively review functional outcomes and healing rates of large and massive rotator cuff tears repaired with a load-sharing rip-stop (LSRS) technique. METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with an LSRS construct between January and December 2014. Seventeen patients with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were included. Four patients did not complete clinical evaluations and functional outcome scores at a minimum of 2 years' follow-up and were lost to follow-up...
June 14, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622412/textural-analysis-of-early-phase-spatiotemporal-changes-in-contrast-enhancement-of-breast-lesions-imaged-with-an-ultrafast-dce-mri-protocol
#14
Jana Milenković, Mehmet Ufuk Dalmış, Janez Žgajnar, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: New ultrafast view-sharing sequences have enabled breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to be performed at high spatial and temporal resolution. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of textural features that quantify the spatiotemporal changes of the contrast-agent uptake in computer-aided diagnosis of malignant and benign breast lesions imaged with high spatial and temporal resolution DCE-MRI. METHOD: The proposed approach is based on the textural analysis quantifying the spatial variation of six dynamic features of the early-phase contrast-agent uptake of a lesion's largest cross-sectional area...
June 16, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617993/rigid-body-motion-correction-of-the-liver-in-image-reconstruction-for-golden-angle-stack-of-stars-dce-mri
#15
Adam Johansson, James Balter, Yue Cao
PURPOSE: Respiratory motion can affect pharmacokinetic perfusion parameters quantified from liver dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Image registration can be used to align dynamic images after reconstruction. However, intra-image motion blur remains after alignment and can alter the shape of contrast-agent uptake curves. We introduce a method to correct for inter- and intra-image motion during image reconstruction. METHODS: Sixteen liver dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations of nine subjects were performed using a golden-angle stack-of-stars sequence...
June 15, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617242/a-subset-of-iprgcs-regulates-both-maturation-of-the-circadian-clock-and-segregation-of-retinogeniculate-projections-in-mice
#16
Kylie S Chew, Jordan M Renna, David S McNeill, Diego Carlos Fernandez, William Thomas Keenan, Michael B Thomsen, Jennifer L Ecker, Gideon S Loevinsohn, Cassandra VanDunk, Daniel C Vicarel, Adele Tufford, Shijun Weng, Paul A Gray, Michel Cayouette, Erik D Herzog, Haiqing Zhao, David M Berson, Samer Hattar
The visual system consists of two major subsystems, image-forming circuits that drive conscious vision and non-image-forming circuits for behaviors such as circadian photoentrainment. While historically considered non-overlapping, recent evidence has uncovered crosstalk between these subsystems. Here we investigated shared developmental mechanisms. We revealed an unprecedented role for light in the maturation of the circadian clock and discovered that intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are critical for this refinement process...
June 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615355/reducing-unnecessary-imaging-for-patients-with-constipation-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#17
Catherine Craun Ferguson, Matthew P Gray, Melissa Diaz, Kevin P Boyd
OBJECTIVES: Constipation is a common diagnosis in the pediatric emergency department (ED). Children diagnosed with constipation may undergo an abdominal radiograph (AXR) as part of their diagnostic workup despite studies that suggest that an AXR in a patient suspected of being constipated is unnecessary and potentially misleading. We aimed to decrease the percentage of low-acuity patients aged between 6 months and 18 years diagnosed with constipation who undergo an AXR in our pediatric ED from 60% to 20% over 12 months...
June 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615210/a-conserved-leucine-zipper-motif-in-gammaherpesvirus-orf52-is-critical-for-distinct-microtubule-rearrangements
#18
Matthew S Loftus, Nancy Verville, Dean H Kedes
Productive viral infection often depends on manipulation of the cytoskeleton. Herpesviruses, including Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) and its close homolog the oncogenic human gammaherpesvirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), exploit microtubule-based retrograde transport to deliver their genomes to the nucleus. Subsequently, during the lytic phase of the life cycle, the maturing viral particles undergo orchestrated translocation to specialized regions within the cytoplasm, leading to tegumentation, secondary envelopment, and then egress...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615153/-click-for-closer-care-a-content-analysis-of-community-pharmacy-websites-in-four-countries
#19
Sandra Zwier
BACKGROUND: Combinations of professional and commercial communication are typically very controversial, particularly in health care communication on the Internet. Websites of licensed community pharmacies on the other hand tend to raise remarkably little controversy, although they typically contain controversial combinations of clinical and commercial services previously unprecedented in professional health care communication. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to fill the void of knowledge about the combination of clinical and commercial services presented on the websites of licensed community pharmacies...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613356/outpatient-wide-field-digital-imaging-of-infants-with-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#20
Robert W Arnold, Robin L Grendahl, R Kevin Winkle, Jack Jacob
Eight infants were closely monitored for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); two required laser therapy. After discharge from the NICU, they had outpatient examination with dilated, scleral depressed ROP staging, and each had digital widefield retinal imaging (Optos, Dunfermline, United Kingdom) without lid speculum, or with lid speculum if not cooperative. Images were shared remotely using ROP-Check software (Glacier Medical Software, Anchorage, AK), from which ophthalmologists made clinical impressions...
June 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
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