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biological conservation

Marc Macias-Fauria, Eric Post
The rapid decline in Arctic sea ice (ASI) extent, area and volume during recent decades is occurring before we can understand many of the mechanisms through which ASI interacts with biological processes both at sea and on land. As a consequence, our ability to predict and manage the effects of this enormous environmental change is limited, making this a crisis discipline Here, we propose a framework to study these effects, defining direct effects as those acting on life-history events of Arctic biota, and indirect effects , where ASI acts upon biological systems through chains of events, normally involving other components of the physical system and/or biotic interactions...
March 2018: Biology Letters
Beata Ujvari, Marcel Klaassen, Nynke Raven, Tracey Russell, Marion Vittecoq, Rodrigo Hamede, Frédéric Thomas, Thomas Madsen
Genetic diversity is essential for adaptive capacities, providing organisms with the potential of successfully responding to intrinsic and extrinsic challenges. Although a clear reciprocal link between genetic diversity and resistance to parasites and pathogens has been established across taxa, the impact of loss of genetic diversity by inbreeding on the emergence and progression of non-communicable diseases, such as cancer, has been overlooked. Here we provide an overview of such associations and show that low genetic diversity and inbreeding associate with an increased risk of cancer in both humans and animals...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ruud P M Dings, Michelle C Miller, Robert J Griffin, Kevin H Mayo
Galectins are a family of small, highly conserved, molecular effectors that mediate various biological processes, including chemotaxis and angiogenesis, and that function by interacting with various cell surface glycoconjugates, usually targeting β-galactoside epitopes. Because of their significant involvement in various biological functions and pathologies, galectins have become a focus of therapeutic discovery for clinical intervention against cancer, among other pathological disorders. In this review, we focus on understanding galectin structure-function relationships, their mechanisms of action on the molecular level, and targeting them for therapeutic intervention against cancer...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Songzhen He, Xiaoling Tong, Minjin Han, Yanmin Bai, Fangyin Dai
The tyrosine kinases (TKs) are important parts of metazoan signaling pathways and play significant roles in cell growth, development, apoptosis and disease. Genome-wide characterization of TKs has been conducted in many metazoans, however, systematic information about this family in Lepidoptera is still lacking. We retrieved 33 TK-encoding genes in silkworm and classified them into 25 subfamilies by sequence analysis, without members in AXL, FRK, PDGFR, STYK1 and TIE subfamilies. Although domain sequences in each subfamily are conserved, TKs in vertebrates tend to be remarkably conserved and stable...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pradipta Ray, Andrew Torck, Lilyana Quigley, Andi Wangzhou, Matthew Neiman, Chandranshu Rao, Tiffany Lam, Ji-Young Kim, Tae Hoon Kim, Michael Q Zhang, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price
Molecular neurobiological insight into human nervous tissues is needed to generate next generation therapeutics for neurological disorders like chronic pain. We obtained human Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) samples from organ donors and performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to study the human DRG (hDRG) transcriptional landscape, systematically comparing it with publicly available data from a variety of human and orthologous mouse tissues, including mouse DRG (mDRG). We characterized the hDRG transcriptional profile in terms of tissue-restricted gene co-expression patterns and putative transcriptional regulators, and formulated an information-theoretic framework to quantify DRG enrichment...
March 20, 2018: Pain
Inuk Jung, Hyejin Kang, Jang Uk Kim, Hyeonsook Chang, Sun Kim, Woosuk Jung
BACKGROUND: Ginseng is a popular traditional herbal medicine in north-eastern Asia. It has been used for human health for over thousands of years. With the rise in global temperature, the production of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer) in Korea have migrated from mid to northern parts of the Korean peninsula to escape from the various higher temperature related stresses. Under the high ambient temperature, vegetative growth was accelerated, which resulted in early flowering. This precocious phase change led to yield loss...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Feiyi Huang, Tongkun Liu, Xilin Hou
MADS-box genes form a large gene family in plants and are involved in multiple biological processes, such as flowering. However, the regulation mechanism of MADS-box genes in flowering remains unresolved, especially under short-term cold conditions. In the present study, we isolated BcMAF1 , a Pak-choi ( Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis ) MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING ( MAF ), as a floral repressor and functionally characterized BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis and Pak-choi. Subcellular localization and sequence analysis indicated that BcMAF1 was a nuclear protein and contained a conserved MADS-box domain...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jason W Shapiro, Catherine Putonti
Bacteriophages are the most abundant and diverse biological entities on the planet, and new phage genomes are being discovered at a rapid pace. As more phage genomes are published, new methods are needed for placing these genomes in an ecological and evolutionary context. Phages are difficult to study by phylogenetic methods, because they exchange genes regularly, and no single gene is conserved across all phages. Here, we demonstrate how gene-level networks can provide a high-resolution view of phage genetic diversity and offer a novel perspective on virus ecology...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Tereza Leonhardt, Jan Sácký, Pavel Kotrba
A search of R. atropurpurea transcriptome for sequences encoding the transporters of the Zrt-, Irt-like Protein (ZIP) family, which are in eukaryotes integral to Zn supply into cytoplasm, allowed the identification of RaZIP1 cDNA with a predicted product belonging to ZIP I subfamily; it was subjected to functional studies in mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The expression of RaZIP1, but not RaZIP1H208A or RaZIP1H232A mutants lacking conserved-among-ZIPs transmembrane histidyls, complemented Zn uptake deficiency in zrt1Δzrt2Δ yeasts...
March 19, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Nemanja Kuzmanović, Joanna Puławska, Lingyun Hao, Thomas J Burr
Agrobacterium vitis is the primary causal agent of grapevine crown gall worldwide. Symptoms of grapevine crown gall disease include tumor formation on the aerial plant parts, whereas both tumorigenic and nontumorigenic strains of A. vitis cause root necrosis. Genetic and genomic analyses indicated that A. vitis is distinguishable from the members of the Agrobacterium genus and its transfer to the genus Allorhizobium was suggested. A. vitis is genetically diverse, with respect to both chromosomal and plasmid DNA...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Radhey S Gupta, Sahil Sawnani, Mobolaji Adeolu, Seema Alnajar, Aharon Oren
The genus Mycoplasma, including species earlier classified in the genera Eperythrozoon and Haemobartonella, contains ~ 120 species and constitutes an extensively polyphyletic assemblage of bacteria within the phylum Tenericutes. Due to their small genome sizes and lack of unique characteristics, the relationships among the mycoplasmas/Tenericutes are not reliably discerned. Using genome sequences for 140 Tenericutes, their evolutionary relationships were examined using multiple independent approaches. Phylogenomic trees were constructed for 63 conserved proteins, 45 ribosomal proteins, three main subunits of RNA polymerase and 16S rRNA gene sequences...
March 20, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Siddhant Bhoir, Althaf Shaik, Vijay Thiruvenkatam, Sivapriya Kirubakaran
Human Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) are highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases responsible for cell proliferation, DNA repair, and genome surveillance. Their possible involvement in cancer via efficient DNA repair mechanisms have made them clinically relevant molecular targets for anticancer therapy. Innovative approaches in chemical biology have played a key role in validating the importance of kinases as molecular targets. However, the detailed understanding of the protein structure and the mechanisms of protein-drug interaction through biochemical and biophysical techniques demands a method for the production of an active protein of exceptional stability and purity on a large scale...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Erica C Dresselhaus, Matthew C H Boersma, Mollie K Meffert
Long-term forms of brain plasticity share a requirement for changes in gene expression induced by neuronal activity. Mechanisms that determine how the distinct and overlapping functions of multiple activity-responsive transcription factors, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), give rise to stimulus-appropriate neuronal responses remain unclear. We report that the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB confers subcellular enrichment at neuronal dendritic spines and engineer a p65 mutant that lacks spine-enrichment (ΔSEp65) but retains inherent transcriptional activity equivalent to wild-type p65...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zacharenia Nikitaki, Marcela Holá, Mattia Donà, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Ioannis Michalopoulos, Karel J Angelis, Alexandros G Georgakilas, Anca Macovei, Alma Balestrazzi
Eukaryotic genome surveillance is dependent on the multiple, highly coordinated network functions of the DNA damage response (DDR). Highlighted conserved features of DDR in plants and animals represent a challenging opportunity to develop novel interdisciplinary investigations aimed at expanding the sets of DNA damage biomarkers currently available for radiation exposure monitoring (REM) in environmental and biomedical applications. In this review, common and divergent features of the most relevant DDR players in animals and plants are described, including the intriguing example of the plant and animal kingdom-specific master regulators SOG1 (suppressor of gamma response) and p53...
January 2018: Mutation Research
Guang Yang, Jing Xu, Xiu-Lian Chi, Chun-Xin Zang, Ling Que
The three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of benefit sarising from the utilization of genetic resources.The Nagoya Protocol significantly advances the CBD's third objective by providing a strong basis for greater legal certainty and transparency for both providers and users of genetic resources.In June 2016, the Chinese government approved the accession to the Nagoya Protocol...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
A Leoni Swart, Christopher F Harrison, Ludwig Eichinger, Michael Steinert, Hubert Hilbi
Environmental bacteria of the genus Legionella naturally parasitize free-living amoebae. Upon inhalation of bacteria-laden aerosols, the opportunistic pathogens grow intracellularly in alveolar macrophages and can cause a life-threatening pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Intracellular replication in amoebae and macrophages takes place in a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV). LCV formation requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which translocates literally hundreds of "effector" proteins into host cells, where they modulate crucial cellular processes for the pathogen's benefit...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Fangfang Tao, Xinxin Tian, Zhiqian Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be of great importance in the formation and progression of a wide range of human carcinomas including prostate cancer (PCa). Among them, PCAT3 and PCAT9 have been identified as two prostate tissue-specific lncRNAs and are up-regulated in PCa. However, their roles in the biological characteristics of PCa have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, our data revealed that knockdown of PCAT3 and PCAT9 suppressed cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis and stemness in androgen-dependent LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Eliécer E Gutiérrez, Guilherme S T Garbino
A recently proposed taxonomic classification of extant ungulates sparked a series of publications that criticize the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC) claiming it to be a particularly poor species concept. These opinions reiteratively stated that (1) the two fundamental elements of the "PSC", i.e., monophyly and diagnosability, do not offer objective criteria as to where the line between species should be drawn; and (2) that extirpation of populations can lead to artificial diagnosability and spurious recognitions of species...
March 8, 2018: Zoological Research
Paul A Garber
Over the past few decades, field studies conducted by Chinese primatologists have contributed significant new theoretical and empirical insights into the behavior, ecology, biology, genetics, and conservation of lorises, macaques, langurs, snub-nosed monkeys, and gibbons. With the recent establishment and inaugural meeting of the China Primatological Society in 2017, China has emerged as a leading nation in primate research. Several research teams have conducted long-term studies despite the difficult challenges of habituating and observing wild primates inhabiting mountainous temperate forests, and the fact that some 80% of China's 25-27 primate species are considered vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered and are distributed in small isolated subpopulations...
January 24, 2018: Zoological Research
Ping Jin, Caiyun Lv, Shuangli Peng, Lu Cai, Jiu Zhu, Fei Ma
The COMMD (COpper Metabolism gene MURR1 Domain) gene family with ten members participates in various biological processes, such as the regulation of copper and sodium transport, NF-κB activity and cell cycle progression. However, studies on the COMMD gene family in amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) are yet largely unknown. In this study, we have identified and characterized the ten COMMD family members from amphioxus (designated as AmphiCOMMDs). Firstly, we clone the full length of AmphiCOMMDs, and all AmphiCOMMD proteins contain the conserved COMM domain with two NES (Nuclear Export Signal) motifs...
March 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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