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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817630/pet-snakes-illegally-marketed-in-brazil-climatic-viability-and-establishment-risk
#1
Érica Fonseca, Mirco Solé, Dennis Rödder, Paulo de Marco
Invasive species are one among many threats to biodiversity. Brazil has been spared, generically, of several destructive invasive species. Reports of invasive snakes' populations are nonexistent, but the illegal pet trade might change this scenario. Despite the Brazilian laws forbid to import most animals, illegal trade is frequently observed and propagules are found in the wild. The high species richness within Brazilian biomes and accelerated fragmentation of natural reserves are a critical factors facilitating successful invasion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817232/crystal-structure-of-the-melampsora-lini-effector-avrp-reveals-insights-into-a-possible-nuclear-function-and-recognition-by-the-flax-disease-resistance-protein-p
#2
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Nadya Farah, Laura Rolston, Daniel J Ericsson, Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Maud Bernoux, Thomas Ve, Katerina Bendak, Chunhong Chen, Joel P Mackay, Gregory J Lawrence, Adrienne Hardham, Jeffrey G Ellis, Simon J Williams, Peter N Dodds, David A Jones, Bostjan Kobe
The effector protein AvrP is secreted by the flax rust fungal pathogen (Melampsora lini) and recognized specifically by the flax (Linum usitatissimum) P disease resistance protein, leading to effector-triggered immunity. To investigate the biological function of this effector and mechanisms of specific recognition by the P resistance protein, we determined the crystal structure of AvrP. The structure reveals an elongated zinc-finger-like structure with a novel interleaved zinc-binding topology. The residues responsible for zinc binding are conserved in AvrP effector variants and mutations of these motifs result in loss of P-mediated recognition...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816960/successful-open-reduction-and-internal-fixation-for-displaced-femoral-fracture-in-a-patient-with-osteopetrosis-case-report-and-lessons-learned
#3
Jiangfa Huang, Jianke Pan, Mingtao Xu, Shuchai Xu
RATIONALE: Osteopetrosis is a rare disease that predominantly occurs in descendants of inbreeding families. In the case of fractures happen in patients with osteopetrosis, the choice between operative or conservative treatment is still controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a conventional treatment for fractures, and it possesses more applicability than conservative treatment. During this surgical treatment, ensure that bone union in the right way is pivotal to success and simultaneously prevents refracture and displacement after the operation...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815417/cellular-interactome-analysis-of-vaccinia-virus-k7-protein-identifies-three-transport-machineries-as-binding-partners-for-k7
#4
Ye Li, Youyang Ke, Leiliang Zhang
Identification of viral-host interacting proteins will contribute to understanding of how poxvirus exploits the host cellular machinery. The vaccinia virus gene K7R encodes a conserved protein K7 in most orthopoxviruses. To gain insight into the biology of K7, we investigated the cellular interactome of K7 by GST pulldown coupled with mass spectrometry. The top categories of identified proteins contained components of trafficking machineries. We selected key components of three transport machineries including coatomer, retromer, and CHEVI to further confirm their binding abilities to K7...
August 16, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814726/nitric-oxide-regulates-mouth-development-in-amphioxus
#5
Giovanni Annona, Filomena Caccavale, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani, Pasquale De Luca, Anna Palumbo, Salvatore D'Aniello
The development of the mouth in animals has fascinated researchers for decades, and a recent study proposed the modern view of recurrent evolution of protostomy and deuterostomy. Here we expanded our knowledge about conserved traits of mouth formation in chordates, testing the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) is a potential regulator of this process. In the present work we show for the first time that NO is an essential cell signaling molecule for cephalochordate mouth formation, as previously shown for vertebrates, indicating its conserved ancestral role in chordates...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814505/the-molecular-architecture-of-the-yeast-spindle-pole-body-core-determined-by-bayesian-integrative-modeling
#6
Shruthi Viswanath, Massimiliano Bonomi, Seung Joong Kim, Vadim A Klenchin, Keenan C Taylor, King C Yabut, Neil T Umbreit, Heather A Van Epps, Janet Meehl, Michele H Jones, Daniel Russel, Javier A Velazquez-Muriel, Mark Winey, Ivan Rayment, Trisha N Davis, Andrej Sali, Eric G Muller
Microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) form, anchor and stabilize the polarized network of microtubules in a cell. The central MTOC is the centrosome that duplicates during the cell cycle and during mitosis assembles a bipolar spindle to capture and segregate sister chromatids. Yet, despite their importance in cell biology, the physical structure of MTOCs is poorly understood. Here we determine the molecular architecture of the core of the yeast spindle pole body (SPB) by Bayesian integrative structure modeling based on in vivo FRET, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy and two-hybrid analysis...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814299/biological-function-in-the-twilight-zone-of-sequence-conservation
#7
REVIEW
Chris P Ponting
Strong DNA conservation among divergent species is an indicator of enduring functionality. With weaker sequence conservation we enter a vast 'twilight zone' in which sequence subject to transient or lower constraint cannot be distinguished easily from neutrally evolving, non-functional sequence. Twilight zone functional sequence is illuminated instead by principles of selective constraint and positive selection using genomic data acquired from within a species' population. Application of these principles reveals that despite being biochemically active, most twilight zone sequence is not functional...
August 16, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814236/neuroglial-cell-cryopreservation-in-appropriate-inductive-conditions
#8
Rosa M Gomez, Maria Andrea Dominguez-Sanchez, Magdy M Sanchez, George E Barreto
An ability to store cells (if they cannot be used fresh) reduces cell wastage, thereby increasing the supply of transplantable material. Cell storage is also valuable in scientific research, allowing material to be archived and experiments to be repeated from the same tissue source and facilitating research collaboration by allowing stored samples to be distributed. Cryopreservation is currently considered the most promising and successful, long-term biological conservation method. Its use has led to optimizing survival, improving protocols and stem cell and neuroglia viability, thereby assuring its future use in neuroregeneration and restoration regarding cell therapy...
August 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813004/lactose-binding-induces-opposing-dynamics-changes-in-human-galectins-revealed-by-nmr-based-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange
#9
Chih-Ta Henry Chien, Meng-Ru Ho, Chung-Hung Lin, Shang-Te Danny Hsu
Galectins are β-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in a myriad of biological functions. Despite their highly conserved carbohydrate binding motifs with essentially identical structures, their affinities for lactose, a common galectin inhibitor, vary significantly. Here, we aimed to examine the molecular basis of differential lactose affinities amongst galectins using solution-based techniques. Consistent dissociation constants of lactose binding were derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry and bio-layer interferometry for human galectin-1 (hGal1), galectin-7 (hGal7), and the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of galectin-8 (hGal8(NTD) and hGal8(CTD), respectively)...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812685/scallop-genome-provides-insights-into-evolution-of-bilaterian-karyotype-and-development
#10
Shi Wang, Jinbo Zhang, Wenqian Jiao, Ji Li, Xiaogang Xun, Yan Sun, Ximing Guo, Pin Huan, Bo Dong, Lingling Zhang, Xiaoli Hu, Xiaoqing Sun, Jing Wang, Chengtian Zhao, Yangfan Wang, Dawei Wang, Xiaoting Huang, Ruijia Wang, Jia Lv, Yuli Li, Zhifeng Zhang, Baozhong Liu, Wei Lu, Yuanyuan Hui, Jun Liang, Zunchun Zhou, Rui Hou, Xue Li, Yunchao Liu, Hengde Li, Xianhui Ning, Yu Lin, Liang Zhao, Qiang Xing, Jinzhuang Dou, Yangping Li, Junxia Mao, Haobing Guo, Huaiqian Dou, Tianqi Li, Chuang Mu, Wenkai Jiang, Qiang Fu, Xiaoteng Fu, Yan Miao, Jian Liu, Qian Yu, Ruojiao Li, Huan Liao, Xuan Li, Yifan Kong, Zhi Jiang, Daniel Chourrout, Ruiqiang Li, Zhenmin Bao
Reconstructing the genomes of bilaterian ancestors is central to our understanding of animal evolution, where knowledge from ancient and/or slow-evolving bilaterian lineages is critical. Here we report a high-quality, chromosome-anchored reference genome for the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, a bivalve mollusc that has a slow-evolving genome with many ancestral features. Chromosome-based macrosynteny analysis reveals a striking correspondence between the 19 scallop chromosomes and the 17 presumed ancestral bilaterian linkage groups at a level of conservation previously unseen, suggesting that the scallop may have a karyotype close to that of the bilaterian ancestor...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812673/craniofacial-diversification-in-the-domestic-pigeon-and-the-evolution-of-the-avian-skull
#11
Nathan M Young, Marta Linde-Medina, John W Fondon, Benedikt Hallgrímsson, Ralph S Marcucio
A central question in evolutionary developmental biology is how highly conserved developmental systems can generate the remarkable phenotypic diversity observed among distantly related species. In part, this paradox reflects our limited knowledge about the potential for species to both respond to selection and generate novel variation. Consequently, the developmental links between small-scale microevolutionary variations within populations to larger macroevolutionary patterns among species remain unbridged...
March 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812606/global-marine-protected-areas-to-prevent-extinctions
#12
Lindsay N K Davidson, Nicholas K Dulvy
One goal of global marine protected areas (MPAs) is to ensure they represent a breadth of taxonomic biodiversity. Ensuring representation of species in MPAs, however, would require protecting vast areas of the global oceans and does not explicitly prioritize species of conservation concern. When threatened species are considered, a recent study found that only a small fraction of their geographic ranges are within the global MPA network. Which global marine areas, and what conservation actions beyond MPAs could be prioritized to prevent marine extinctions (Convention on Biological Diversity Aichi Target 12), remains unknown...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811863/long-noncoding-rnas-and-rna-binding-proteins-in-oxidative-stress-cellular-senescence-and-age-related-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Chongtae Kim, Donghee Kang, Eun Kyung Lee, Jae-Seon Lee
Cellular senescence is a complex biological process that leads to irreversible cell-cycle arrest. Various extrinsic and intrinsic insults are associated with the onset of cellular senescence and frequently accompany genomic or epigenomic alterations. Cellular senescence is believed to contribute to tumor suppression, immune response, and tissue repair as well as aging and age-related diseases. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are >200 nucleotides long, poorly conserved, and transcribed in a manner similar to that of mRNAs...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811507/global-mapping-of-mirna-target-interactions-in-cattle-bos-taurus
#14
Troels K H Scheel, Michael J Moore, Joseph M Luna, Eiko Nishiuchi, John Fak, Robert B Darnell, Charles M Rice
With roles in development, cell proliferation and disease, micro-RNA (miRNA) biology is of great importance and a potential therapeutic target. Here we used cross-linking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and ligation of miRNA-target chimeras on the Argonaute (AGO) protein to globally map miRNA interactions in the cow. The interactome is the deepest reported to date. miRNA targeting principles are consistent with observations in other species, but with expanded pairing rules. Experimental mapping robustly predicted functional miR-17 regulatory sites...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810863/multiple-essential-functions-of-plasmodium-falciparum-actin-1-during-malaria-blood-stage-development
#15
Sujaan Das, Leandro Lemgruber, Chwen L Tay, Jake Baum, Markus Meissner
BACKGROUND: The phylum Apicomplexa includes intracellular parasites causing immense global disease burden, the deadliest of them being the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which invades and replicates within erythrocytes. The cytoskeletal protein actin is well conserved within apicomplexans but divergent from mammalian actins, and was primarily reported to function during host cell invasion. However, novel invasion mechanisms have been described for several apicomplexans, and specific functions of the acto-myosin system are being reinvestigated...
August 15, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810832/genome-wide-analysis-of-basic-helix-loop-helix-bhlh-transcription-factors-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#16
Xin Niu, Yuxiang Guan, Shoukun Chen, Haifeng Li
BACKGROUND: As a superfamily of transcription factors (TFs), the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins have been characterized functionally in many plants with a vital role in the regulation of diverse biological processes including growth, development, response to various stresses, and so on. However, no systemic analysis of the bHLH TFs has been reported in Brachypodium distachyon, an emerging model plant in Poaceae. RESULTS: A total of 146 bHLH TFs were identified in the Brachypodium distachyon genome and classified into 24 subfamilies...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809988/methods-for-imputing-missing-efficacy-data-in-clinical-trials-of-biologic-psoriasis-therapies-implications-for-interpretations-of-trial-results
#17
Richard G B Langley, Kristian Reich, Charis Papavassilis, Todd Fox, Yankun Gong, Achim Gu Ttner
<p>BACKGROUND: An issue in long-term clinical trials of biologics in psoriasis is how to handle missing efficacy data. This methodological challenge may not be understood by clinicians, yet can have a significant effect on the interpretation of clinical trials.</p> <p>OBJECTIVE Evaluate the effects of different data imputation methods on apparent secukinumab response rates.</p> <p>METHODS: Post hoc analyses were conducted on efficacy data from 2 phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trials (FIXTURE and ERASURE) of secukinumab in moderate to severe plaque psoriasis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809950/characterization-of-the-complete-chloroplast-genome-of-arabis-stellari-and-comparisons-with-related-species
#18
Gurusamy Raman, Veronica Park, Myounghai Kwak, Byoungyoon Lee, SeonJoo Park
Arabis stellari var. japonica is an ornamental plant of the Brassicaceae family, and is widely distributed in South Korea. However, no information is available about its molecular biology and no genomic study has been performed on A. stellari. In this paper, the authors report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of A. stellari. The plastome of A. stellari was 153,683 bp in length with 36.4% GC and included a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,423 bp that separated a large single-copy (LSC) region of 82,807 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,030 bp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809552/characterization-of-2-oxindole-forming-heme-enzyme-mare-expanding-the-functional-diversity-of-the-tryptophan-dioxygenase-superfamily
#19
Yuyang Zhang, Yi Zou, Nelson L Brock, Tingting Huang, Yingxia Lan, Xiaozheng Wang, Zixin Deng, Yi Tang, Shuangjun Lin
3-Substituted 2-oxindoles are important structural motifs found in many biologically active natural products and pharmaceutical lead compounds. Here, we report an enzymatic formation of the 3-substituted 2-oxindoles catalyzed by MarE in the maremycin biosynthetic pathway in Streptomyces sp. B9173. MarE is a homologue of Fe(II)/heme-dependent tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (TDOs). Typical TDOs usually catalyze the insertion of two oxygen atoms from O2 into an indole ring to generate N-formylkynurenine (NFK)-like products...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808785/conserved-dna-methylation-combined-with-differential-frontal-cortex-and-cerebellar-expression-distinguishes-c9orf72-associated-and-sporadic-als-and-implicates-serpina1-in-disease
#20
Mark T W Ebbert, Christian A Ross, Luc J Pregent, Rebecca J Lank, Cheng Zhang, Rebecca B Katzman, Karen Jansen-West, Yuping Song, Edroaldo Lummertz da Rocha, Carla Palmucci, Pamela Desaro, Amelia E Robertson, Ana M Caputo, Dennis W Dickson, Kevin B Boylan, Rosa Rademakers, Tamas Ordog, Hu Li, Veronique V Belzil
We previously found C9orf72-associated (c9ALS) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) brain transcriptomes comprise thousands of defects, among which, some are likely key contributors to ALS pathogenesis. We have now generated complementary methylome data and combine these two data sets to perform a comprehensive "multi-omic" analysis to clarify the molecular mechanisms initiating RNA misregulation in ALS. We found that c9ALS and sALS patients have generally distinct but overlapping methylome profiles, and that the c9ALS- and sALS-affected genes and pathways have similar biological functions, indicating conserved pathobiology in disease...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
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