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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403982/significance-of-anti-hbc-alone-serological-status-in-clinical-practice
#1
REVIEW
Qixia Wang, Paul Klenerman, Nasser Semmo
Serum samples identified as positive for total anti-HBc, but negative for both HBsAg and anti-HBs, are referred to as anti-HBc alone. This serological response is compatible with acute, resolved, and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection but might also signify occult HBV infection. Once the anti-HBc alone pattern is detected, false-positive reactivity should be ruled out and further analyses can resolve the clinical status of the donor. The identification of anti-HBc positivity in the absence of HBsAg in organ transplant donors and in candidate patients for chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy requires further investigation because of the risk of HBV reactivation...
February 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392428/modulation-of-experimental-arthritis-by-vagal-sensory-and-central-brain-stimulation
#2
Gabriel Shimizu Bassi, Daniel Penteado Martins Dias, Marcelo Franchin, Jhimmy Talbot, Daniel Gustavo Reis, Gustavo Batista Menezes, Jaci Airton Castania, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Leonardo Barbosa Moraes Resstel, Helio Cesar Salgado, Fernando Queiróz Cunha, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Luis Ulloa, Alexandre Kanashiro
Articular inflammation is a major clinical burden in multiple inflammatory diseases, especially in rheumatoid arthritis. Biological anti-rheumatic drug therapies are expensive and increase the risk of systemic immunosuppression, infections, and malignancies. Here, we report that vagus nerve stimulation controls arthritic joint inflammation by inducing local regulation of innate immune response. Most of the previous studies of neuromodulation focused on vagal regulation of inflammation via the efferent peripheral pathway toward the viscera...
April 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375195/risk-factors-for-late-deep-infection-after-total-hip-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Shinya Hayashi, Shingo Hashimoto, Koji Takayama, Tomoyuki Matsumoto, Ken Takebe, Yasuhiro Terashima, Ryosuke Kuroda, Yoshitada Sakai, Kazunari Ishida, Kotaro Nishida
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative infections, a serious complication of orthopedic surgery, occur 2-4 times more frequently in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without adjustment for medication. Some studies have demonstrated a similar risk of postoperative infection following orthopedic surgery regardless of whether patients underwent tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor therapy; however, other studies have reported a higher risk with TNF-α inhibitor use. However, few reports have focused on the correlation between TNF-α inhibitor use and postoperative late infection...
January 21, 2017: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250461/the-emerging-safety-profile-of-jak-inhibitors-in-rheumatic-disease
#4
REVIEW
Kevin L Winthrop
Tofacitinib is the first Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor commercially approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This compound and a number of other JAK inhibitors are currently being tested in phase II and III trials for the treatment of a variety of autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Whereas a characteristic safety profile is emerging for some JAK inhibitors, differences between individual agents might emerge on the basis of distinct potency against their molecular targets. Similarly to biological therapy, JAK inhibition can lead to serious and opportunistic infections, and viral infections seem to be particularly frequent...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179019/infective-endocarditis-following-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-antagonist-therapy-for-management-of-psoriatic-erythroderma-a-case-report
#5
Takuro Mizuno, Jun Kiyosawa, Akihiro Fukuda, Seiji Watanabe, Nozomu Kurose, Takayuki Nojima, Tsugiyasu Kanda
BACKGROUND: The introduction of biological agents, such as infliximab, which act against tumor necrosis factor-α was a major advance for the treatment of an increasing number of chronic diseases. Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists represent a major therapeutic advance for the management of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis. Previous studies have reported that the use of tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists increased the risk of opportunistic infections and reactivation of latent bacterial infections...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052685/occurrence-of-malignancies-after-kidney-transplantation-in-adults-slovak-multicenter-experience
#6
Z Zilinska, M Sersenova, M Chrastina, J Breza, L Bena, T Baltesova, A Jurcina, R Roland, E Lackova, M Cellar, L Laca, I Dedinska
Malignancies are one of the three major causes of renal recipient´s death with a functioning graft after cardiovascular diseases and infections. Among the variety of risk factors, including conventional and specific to transplant recipients, the duration of immunosuppressive therapy, the intensity of therapy, and the type of immunosuppressive agent all have an impact on development of post-transplant malignancy. The aim of our retrospective study was to document the incidence, the type of malignancies, the patient/graft survival in the group of kidney transplant recipients in Slovak Republic, and to identify the factors which influenced the outcome...
2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013116/low-risk-of-pneumonia-from-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infection-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-receiving-immune-suppression
#7
Thomas G Cotter, Nicola Gathaiya, Jelena Catania, Edward V Loftus, William J Tremaine, Larry M Baddour, W Scott Harmsen, Alan R Zinsmeister, William J Sandborn, Andrew H Limper, Darrell S Pardi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Use of immunosuppressants and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may increase the risk of pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJP). We assessed the risk of PJP in a population-based cohort of patients with IBD treated with corticosteroids, immune-suppressive medications, and biologics. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, diagnosed with Crohn's disease (n = 427) or ulcerative colitis (n = 510) from 1970 through 2011...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011082/-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-review-of-the-current-guidelines
#8
E Saliba, T Debillon, S Auvin, O Baud, V Biran, J-L Chabernaud, S Chabrier, F Cneude, A-G Cordier, V Darmency-Stamboul, J-F Diependaele, T Debillon, M Dinomais, C Durand, A Ego, G Favrais, Y Gruel, L Hertz-Pannier, B Husson, S Marret, S N'Guyen The Tich, T Perez, E Saliba, J-B Valentin, C Vuillerot
Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) is a rare event that occurs in approximately one in 5000 term or close-to-term infants. Most affected infants will present with seizures. Although a well-recognized clinical entity, many questions remain regarding diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, and follow-up modalities. In the absence of a known pathophysiological mechanism and lack of evidence-based guidelines, only supportive care is currently provided. To address these issues, a French national committee set up by the French Neonatal Society (Société française de néonatologie) and the national referral center (Centre national de référence) for arterial ischemic stroke in children drew up guidelines based on an HAS (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]; French national authority for health) methodology...
February 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009947/root-replacement-for-graft-infection-using-an-all-biologic-xenopericardial-conduit
#9
Sabina PW Guenther, Angela Reichelt, Sven Peterss, Maximilian Luehr, Erik Bagaev, Christian Hagl, Maximilian A Pichlmaier, Nawid Khaladj
BACKGROUND: The management of graft infection following ascending aortic replacement (AAR) and/or aortic valve replacement (AVR) with destruction of the root remains a challenge. Besides technical issues, the choice of graft material is controversial. The study aim was to investigate the initial results of aortic root replacement (ARR) as redo-surgery for infection using the xenopericardial all-biologic conduit (BioIntegral) as an alternative to a homograft or prosthetic material. METHODS: Between February 2013 and January 2015, a total of 18 consecutive patients (16 males, two females; mean age 61 ± 14 years) were reoperated on for infection at a mean of 55 ± 61 months (range: 3 to 219 months) following previous AVR (n = 6), supracoronary aortic replacement (SAR, n = 2), AVR + SAR (n = 1), root replacement (n = 7), and root reconstruction (n = 2)...
2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959419/antimicrobial-resistance-development-following-surgical-site-infections
#10
Daniela Călina, Anca Oana Docea, Lucica Rosu, Ovidiu Zlatian, Alexandra Floriana Rosu, Florin Anghelina, Otilia Rogoveanu, Andreea Letiția Arsene, Alina Crenguța Nicolae, Cristina Manuela Drăgoi, John Tsiaoussis, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Eliza Gofita
Surgical site infections (SSIs) determine an increase in hospitalization time and antibiotic therapy costs. The aim of this study was to identify the germs involved in SSIs in patients from the Clinical Emergency County Hospital of Craiova (SCJUC) and to assess their resistance to antimicrobials, with comparisons between surgical wards and the intensive care unit (ICU). The biological samples were subjected to classical bacteriological diagnostics. Antibiotic resistance was tested by disc diffusion. We used hierarchical clustering as a method to group the isolates based upon the antibiotic resistance profile...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917631/-15-years-experience-with-biological-therapy-of-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases-in-czech-national-register-attra
#11
Karel Pavelka, Liliana Šedová, Karel Hejduk, Ladislav Dušek
The publication is summarizing application of biological DMARDs in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases.Up to now conventional therapy, which for example in rheumatoid arthritis was application of methotrexate (MTx) in combination with glucocorticoids, was effective, but the remission as a target was achieved in small proportion of patients and also there was little effect on structural progression of diseases. Biological therapy was great advance because response was achieved in ¾ patients who failed MTx...
2016: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894239/do-the-biologic-agents-increase-the-risk-of-infection-in-patients-undergoing-lower-limb-arthroplasty-surgery
#12
N A Sandiford
BACKGROUND: Biologic agents have contributed significantly to the management of patients with in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A significant proportion of patients with RA still require arthroplasty procedures however. It is unclear whether these agents increase the risk of post operative infection after lower limb arthroplasty . The aim of this review is to review the contemporary literature about this topic along with the recommendations from specialist societies. METHOD: A literature search was performed for articles published over the last 10 years in the English language examining the association between anti-tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and the incidence of post operative infection in patients with RA undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty procedures...
November 27, 2016: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887644/copenhagen-comorbidity-in-hiv-infection-cocomo-study-a-study-protocol-for-a-longitudinal-non-interventional-assessment-of-non-aids-comorbidity-in-hiv-infection-in-denmark
#13
Andreas Ronit, Judith Haissman, Ditte Marie Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Thomas Skårup Kristensen, Anne-Mette Lebech, Thomas Benfield, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Lars Køber, Andreas Kjær, Klaus Kofoed, Jørgen Vestbo, Børge Nordestgaard, Jens Lundgren, Susanne Dam Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Non-AIDS comorbidities have replaced opportunistic infections as leading causes of mortality and morbidity, and are becoming a key health concern as this population continues to age. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence and incidence of non-AIDS comorbidity among PLWHIV in Denmark in the cART era and to determine risk factors contributing to the pathogenesis...
November 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783237/biologic-therapies-and-infections-in-the-daily-practice-of-three-italian-rheumatologic-units-a-prospective-observational-study
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Paola Cipriani, Onorina Berardicurti, Francesco Masedu, Francesca D'Onofrio, Luca Navarini, Piero Ruscitti, Nicola Maruotti, Domenico Paolo Emanuele Margiotta, Vasiliki Liakouli, Paola Di Benedetto, Francesco Carubbi, Marco Valenti, Francesco Paolo Cantatore, Antonella Afeltra, Roberto Giacomelli
Since the introduction of biologics, many concerns about the increased risk of infections have been reported and, to date, the real impact of infections on the daily practice in the rheumatologic centers is still largely unknown. In this work, we evaluated the infection rates associated with the use of biologics in a large cohort of patients. A prospective study, between January 2010 and December 2013, enrolling 731 rheumatic patients, was performed. Demographic and disease characteristics, therapies, comorbidities, and infectious events were recorded and statistically analyzed by multivariate analysis...
February 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771122/-vaccination-status-in-psoriasis-patients-on-immunosuppressant-therapy-including-biologics
#15
A Bonhomme, E Fréling, M Reigneau, C Poreaux, A Valois, F Truchetet, A Barbaud, J-L Schmutz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the vaccine coverage of psoriasis patients prior to initiating or changing immunosuppressant therapy, and to verify that the prescribed vaccines have been administered. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a bi-centre, observational, cross-sectional study over 9 months. Psoriasis patients in whom immunosuppressant therapy (comprising cyclosporine, methotrexate, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab or ustekinumab) was indicated were included. Medical history, previous treatments, vaccination status, viral serology results (for hepatitis B, measles, and chickenpox), and reasons for non-vaccination were assessed via questionnaire...
February 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765025/staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-with-iliac-artery-endarteritis-in-a-patient-receiving-ustekinumab
#16
Insa Joost, Johannes Steinfurt, Philipp T Meyer, Winfried V Kern, Siegbert Rieg
BACKGROUND: Ustekinumab (Stelara®), a human monoclonal antibody targeting the p40-subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, is indicated for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. In large multicenter, prospective trials assessing efficacy and safety of ustekinumab increased rates of severe infections have not been observed so far. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 64-year old woman presenting with chills, pain and swelling of her right foot with dark maculae at the sole, and elevated inflammatory markers...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733707/systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-biological-therapy-for-inflammatory-conditions-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#17
D L Fink, L Hedley, R F Miller
Biologic therapies are injectable immunomodulatory agents directed against specific immune cell or chemical targets. They have transformed the lives of HIV-uninfected individuals with severe inflammatory conditions including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. The perceived increased infection risk associated with these agents means that HIV-infected individuals have not been included in randomised control trials of these drugs. The literature for use of biologic therapies in HIV-infected populations is limited to case reports and case series...
February 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699578/re-initiation-of-biologics-after-the-development-of-tuberculosis-under-anti-tnf-therapy
#18
Yesim Ozguler, Gulen Hatemi, Serdal Ugurlu, Emire Seyahi, Melike Melikoglu, Sermin Borekci, Ersan Atahan, Gul Ongen, Vedat Hamuryudan
The use of anti-TNF agents is associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) and anti-TNF agents are stopped when active TB develops. However, discontinuation of treatment can result in flare of the underlying disease. The charts of 22 patients who developed active TB among a cohort of 2754 patients using anti-TNF agents between 2001 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients restarting biologics during further follow-up were identified. One patient with miliary TB died within 1 month. A biologic agent was restarted in 16 of the remaining 21 patients (76 %)...
December 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680031/management-of-infections-in-rheumatic-patients-receiving-biological-therapies-the-portuguese-society-of-rheumatology-recommendations
#19
Lídia Teixeira, Ana Rita Fonseca, Gisela Eugénio, Marília Rodrigues, Nikita Khmelinskii, Sílvia Fernandes, Sofia Serra, Tiago Costa, Maria José Santos
INTRODUCTION: Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases and the management of infectious complications in patients under biological therapies deserves particular attention. OBJECTIVE: Develop evidence-based recommendations for the management of infections in rheumatic patients receiving biological therapies. METHODS: A search in PubMed (until 10 November 2014) and EMBASE (until 20 December 2014) databases was performed...
October 2016: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677836/infections-in-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-patients-treated-with-biological-drugs-compared-to-classic-systemic-drugs-findings-from-the-biobadaderm-registry
#20
Paula Dávila-Seijo, Esteban Dauden, M A Descalzo, Gregorio Carretero, José-Manuel Carrascosa, Francisco Vanaclocha, Francisco-José Gómez-García, Pablo De la Cueva-Dobao, Enrique Herrera-Ceballos, Isabel Belinchón, José-Luis López-Estebaranz, Merce Alsina, José-Luis Sánchez-Carazo, Marta Ferrán, Rosa Torrado, Carlos Ferrandiz, Raquel Rivera, Mar Llamas, Rafael Jiménez-Puya, Ignacio García-Doval
Information regarding the safety of biological drugs prescribed to psoriasis patients on daily and long-term bases is insufficient. We used data from the BIOBADADERM registry (Spanish Registry of Adverse Events for Biological Therapy in Dermatological Diseases) to generate crude rates of infection during therapy with systemic drugs, including biological drugs (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, and ustekinumab) and nonbiological drugs (acitretin, cyclosporine, and methotrexate). We also calculated unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs) (with propensity score adjustment) of infection, serious infections, and recurrent infections of systemic therapies compared with methotrexate, using Poisson regression...
February 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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