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Drug induced paroxysmal movement disorders

Umberto Raucci, Pasquale Parisi, Nicola Vanacore, Giacomo Garone, Claudia Bondone, Antonella Palmieri, Lucia Calistri, Agnese Suppiej, Raffaele Falsaperla, Alessandro Capuano, Valentina Ferro, Antonio Francesco Urbino, Ramona Tallone, Alessandra Montemaggi, Stefano Sartori, Piero Pavone, Margherita Mancardi, Federico Melani, Lucrezia Ilvento, Maria Federica Pelizza, Antonino Reale
INTRODUCTION: Limited data exist on epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of acute hyperkinetic movement disorders (AHMD) in paediatric emergency departments (pED). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed a case series of 256 children (aged 2 months to 17 years) presenting with AHMD to the pEDs of six Italian tertiary care hospitals over a 2-year period (January 2012 to December 2013). RESULTS: The most common type of AHMD was tics (44...
March 8, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Bernhard Schmitt
Sleep and epilepsy have a close relationship. About 20% of patients suffer seizures only during the night, approximately 40% only during the day and approximately 35% during the day and night. In certain epilepsy syndromes, the occurrence of seizures is strongly related to sleep or awakening. Infantile spasms appear predominately on awakening, and hypsarrhythmia is sometimes visible only in sleep. Children with Panayiotopoulos syndrome or benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) have seizures mostly when asleep, and in both syndromes interictal spike waves are markedly accentuated in slow wave sleep...
June 2015: Neuropediatrics
Aysu Sen, Dilek Atakli, Bahar Guresci, Baki Arpaci
Paroxysmal dyskinesias are rare, heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by recurrent attacks of involuntary movements. The four classic categories of paroxysmal dyskinesias are kinesigenic, nonkinesigenic, exercise-induced and hypnogenic. There are some patients that do not fit in these four groups of paroxysmal dyskinesia and are termed as "mixed type". We describe a 13-year-old girl who had features of both paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia that was misdiagnosed as refractory epilepsy...
November 30, 2014: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Shuli Liang, Xiaoman Yu, Shaohui Zhang, Junli Tai
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal dyskinesia is a rare neurological disorder characterized by paroxysmal movement disorders. Paroxysmal movement disorders include kinesigenic choreoathetosis, nonkinesigenic choreoathetosis or dyskinesia (PNKD), exercise-induced choreoathetosis, and hypnogenic paroxysmal dystonia. There have been some sporadic reports of PNKD occurrences in Chinese Mainland, but none has been reported on familial PNKD. Proband and methods A 32 years old male admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China in 2009 with recurrent limb involuntary movements spanning over 30 years was diagnosed with PNKD...
January 21, 2015: Brain Research
Kursat Bora Carman, Tugba Belgemen, Uluc Yis
Seizures and epilepsy are a common problem in childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events are conditions that can mimic seizure and frequent in early childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events can be due to physiological or exaggerated physiological responses, parasomnias, movement disorders, behavioral or psychiatric disturbances, or to hemodynamic, respiratory, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression, involuntary movements, and anemia...
November 2013: Pediatric Emergency Care
Guoping Peng, Kang Wang, Yuan Yuan, Xuning Zheng, Benyan Luo
This study was aimed to analyze the clinical features of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and extend the understanding of this disease. From August, 2008 to October, 2010, 9 patients were diagnosed with PKD in the Department of Neurology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, China. The data involving clinical demographic characteristics, somatosensory evoked potentials, results of electromyography, video electroencephalography (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) were collected...
December 2012: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Yasmine E M Dreissen, Marina A J Tijssen
Startle syndromes are paroxysmal and show stimulus sensitivity, placing them in the differential diagnosis of epileptic seizures. Startle syndromes form a heterogeneous group of disorders with three categories: hyperekplexia (HPX), stimulus-induced disorders, and neuropsychiatric syndromes. HPX is characterized by an exaggerated motor startle reflex combined with stiffness and is caused by mutations in different parts of the inhibitory glycine receptor, leading to brainstem pathology. The preserved consciousness distinguishes it from epileptic seizures...
December 2012: Epilepsia
F J Kirkham, P Haywood, P Kashyape, J Borbone, A Lording, K Pryde, M Cox, J Keslake, M Smith, L Cuthbertson, V Murugan, S Mackie, N H Thomas, A Whitney, K M Forrest, A Parker, R Forsyth, C M Kipps
The literature on paediatric acute-onset movement disorders is scattered. In a prospective cohort of 52 children (21 male; age range 2mo-15y), the commonest were chorea, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, and Parkinsonism in descending order of frequency. In this series of mainly previously well children with cryptogenic acute movement disorders, three groups were recognised: (1) Psychogenic disorders (n = 12), typically >10 years of age, more likely to be female and to have tremor and myoclonus (2) Inflammatory or autoimmune disorders (n = 22), including N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus, Sydenham chorea, systemic lupus erythematosus, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (which may be autosomal dominant), and other encephalitides and (3) Non-inflammatory disorders (n = 18), including drug-induced movement disorder, post-pump chorea, metabolic, e...
September 2011: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Shyamal H Mehta, John C Morgan, Kapil D Sethi
Paroxysmal dyskinesias are a rare group of movement disorders affecting both adults and children. Based on the events that precipitate the abnormal movements, they are subdivided into paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), precipitated by sudden voluntary movements; paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD), which occurs at rest; paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia (PED), occurring after prolonged exercise; and paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia (PHD), which occurs in sleep. Paroxysmal dyskinesias can be sporadic, familial (autosomal dominant inheritance), or secondary to other disorders...
May 2009: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Sulayman D Dib-Hajj, Mark Estacion, Brian W Jarecki, Lynda Tyrrell, Tanya Z Fischer, Mark Lawden, Theodore R Cummins, Stephen G Waxman
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD) is an autosomal dominant painful neuropathy with many, but not all, cases linked to gain-of-function mutations in SCN9A which encodes voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7. Severe pain episodes and skin flushing start in infancy and are induced by perianal probing or bowl movement, and pain progresses to ocular and mandibular areas with age. Carbamazepine has been effective in relieving symptoms, while other drugs including other anti-epileptics are less effective...
2008: Molecular Pain
A Straube
Advances made in understanding the pathophysiology of eye movement disorders have only recently with the publication of the first well-planned studies been translated into better treatment strategies. The following chapter summarizes the pharmacological treatment options for a variety of oculomotor syndromes. Cortisone is useful, for example, for acute vestibular neuritis to improve the restitution of the labyrinthine function. For the widespread benign paroxysmal positioning nystagmus, a series of liberating movements that free the semicircular canal from the causative otoconia is now a well-established therapy...
2007: Developments in Ophthalmology
Brandy E Fureman, Ellen J Hess
Episodic neurological dysfunction often results from ion channel gene mutations. Despite knowledge of the mutations, the factors that precipitate attacks in channelopathies are not clear. In humans, mutations of the calcium channel gene CACNA1A are associated with attacks of neurological dysfunction in familial hemiplegic migraine and episodic ataxia type-2. In tottering mice, a mutation in the same gene causes attacks resembling paroxysmal dyskinesia. Stress, a trigger associated with human episodic disorders, reliably elicits attacks in tottering mice...
November 2005: Neurobiology of Disease
D Dressler, R Benecke
Most movement disorders, reflecting degenerative disorders, develop in a slowly progressive fashion. Some movement disorders, however, manifest with an acute onset. We wish to give an overview of the management and therapy of those acute-onset movement disorders.Drug-induced movement disorders are mainly caused by dopamine-receptor blockers (DRB) as used as antipsychotics (neuroleptics) and antiemetics. Acute dystonic reactions usually occur within the first four days of treatment. Typically, cranial pharyngeal and cervical muscles are affected...
November 2005: Journal of Neurology
Akihisa Okumura, Toru Kato, Fumio Hayakawa, Kazuyoshi Watanabe
We reported an otherwise healthy infant with non-epileptic pedaling-like movement induced by triclofos. For the purpose of sedation for head computed tomography, 80 mg/kg of triclofos was administered. Fifteen minutes after the use of triclofos, the infant exhibited pedaling-like movement accompanied by slight upper eye deviations. This movement could be arrested by manual restraint. The pedaling-like movement lasted for about 2 h intermittently. Electroencephalography during this movement revealed physiological activities with semirhythmic theta waves without paroxysmal activities...
October 2004: Brain & Development
Brandy E Fureman, H A Jinnah, Ellen J Hess
Mutations in ion channels, or channelopathies, often lead to neurological disorders in which normal behavior is interrupted by attacks of debilitating symptoms such as pain, weakness or abnormal motor control. Attacks are often precipitated by similar stimuli, including stress, caffeine, ethanol, exercise or fatigue. The tottering mouse inherits a mutation in P/Q-type calcium channels and reliably exhibits attacks of abnormal movements, or dyskinesia. To determine if this mouse mutant is an appropriate model to study episodic neurological disorders, tottering mice were exposed to different environmental conditions or drugs known to precipitate attacks in humans...
October 2002: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Y Saito, H Oguni, Y Awaya, K Hayashi, M Osawa
We describe three patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SME) who suffer from choreoathetosis due to the adverse effect of phenytoin. Choreoathetosis appeared when these patients were 8, 19, and 21 years old, 2 days to 6 months after increasing the phenytoin dosage. Choreoathetosis disappeared when the phenytoin dosage was decreased. The two elder patients experienced episodic and rather paroxysmal onset of long-lasting choreoathetosis, requiring the differential diagnosis from degenerative disease...
October 2001: Neuropediatrics
S Lindemann, A Lessenich, U Ebert, W Löscher
Circling, turning, rotating, spinning, wheeling, and cursive hyperkinesia are all synonymous terms used to describe the active movement of an animal in a circular direction. Circling behavior can be evoked by unilateral electrical and chemical stimulation or lesions of various brain sites, but can also occur after systemic drug administration or spontaneously in normal animals or mutant rodents. In humans, stereotypic body rotation can occur as a distinctive entity of generalized and focal epilepsy, and may be due to involvement of the striatum...
December 2001: Experimental Neurology
K P Bhatia
The clinical, pathophysiological and genetic features of some of the familial (idiopathic) paroxysmal movement disorders are reviewed. The paroxysmal dyskinesias share features and therefore may have the same pathophysiological mechanisms as other episodic neurological disorders which are known to be channelopathies. Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis/dyskinesias (PKC/PKD) is a condition in which brief and frequent dyskinetic attacks are provoked by sudden movement. Antiepileptics particularly carbamazepine are very helpful for this condition...
2001: Seminars in Neurology
K P Bhatia
The clinical, pathophysiological and genetic features of some of the paroxysmal movement disorders are reviewed. Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis/dyskinesias (PKC/PKD) is a condition in which brief and frequent dyskinetic attacks are provoked by sudden movement. PKC is more common in men and can be idiopathic (commonly familial) or due to a variety of causes. The pathophysiology of PKC is uncertain but it could be an ion-channel disorder. Antiepileptic drugs particularly carbamazepine are very helpful in a large proportion of cases...
March 1999: Journal of Neurology
J M López-Terradas Covisa
OBJECTIVE: In this paper we review and bring up to date non-epileptic paroxystic motor disorders, since knowledge of these is necessary to avoid confusion with epileptic crises. DEVELOPMENT: Particular attention has been paid to the etiopathogenesis, classification and treatment of tics, including Tourette syndrome. Familial paroxystic choreoathetosis and alterations of movement induced by drugs are considered in the light of new etiopathogenic concepts, such as hyperekplexy, spasmus nutans and Sandifer syndrome...
January 1, 1999: Revista de Neurologia
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