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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914235/hyaluronan-as-a-promising-excipient-for-ocular-drug-delivery
#1
REVIEW
Michaela Guter, Miriam Breunig
Hyaluronan (HA) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide and well known for its exceptional properties such as high biocompatibility and biodegradability, along with a low immunogenicity. Besides its use for various biomedical applications it recently came into focus as a favorable excipient for the formulation of various ocular therapeutics. This review article summarizes the ocular distribution of HA and its most heavily investigated binding protein "cluster of differentiation 44" (CD44) which is the rationale for the clinical use of HA, primarily as an additive in ocular applications ranging from eye drops to contact lenses...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914045/achievements-and-challenges-in-computational-protein-design
#2
Ilan Samish
Computational protein design (CPD), a yet evolving field, includes computer-aided engineering for partial or full de novo designs of proteins of interest. Designs are defined by a requested structure, function, or working environment. This chapter describes the birth and maturation of the field by presenting 101 CPD examples in a chronological order emphasizing achievements and pending challenges. Integrating these aspects presents the plethora of CPD approaches with the hope of providing a "CPD 101". These reflect on the broader structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics field and include: (1) integration of knowledge-based and energy-based methods, (2) hierarchical designated approach towards local, regional, and global motifs and the integration of high- and low-resolution design schemes that fit each such region, (3) systematic differential approaches towards different protein regions, (4) identification of key hot-spot residues and the relative effect of remote regions, (5) assessment of shape-complementarity, electrostatics and solvation effects, (6) integration of thermal plasticity and functional dynamics, (7) negative design, (8) systematic integration of experimental approaches, (9) objective cross-assessment of methods, and (10) successful ranking of potential designs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914044/the-framework-of-computational-protein-design
#3
Ilan Samish
Computational protein design (CPD) has established itself as a leading field in basic and applied science with a strong coupling between the two. Proteins are computationally designed from the level of amino acids to the level of a functional protein complex. Design targets range from increased thermo- (or other) stability to specific requested reactions such as protein-protein binding, enzymatic reactions, or nanotechnology applications. The design scheme may encompass small regions of the proteins or the entire protein...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913190/synthesis-and-label-free-characterization-of-a-bimolecular-pna-homo-quadruplex
#4
Brunella Pinto, Giulia Rusciano, Stefano D'Errico, Nicola Borbone, Antonio Sasso, Vincenzo Piccialli, Luciano Mayol, Giorgia Oliviero, Gennaro Piccialli
BACKGROUND: G-quadruplex DNA is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Both clinical and experimental studies on DNA G-quadruplexes are slowed down by their enzymatic instability. In this frame, more stable chemically modified analogs are needed. METHODS: The bis-end-linked-(gggt)2 PNA molecule (BEL-PNA) was synthesized using in solution and solid phase synthetic approaches. Quadruplex formation was assessed by circular dichroism (CD) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913162/intranasal-delivery-of-antipsychotic-drugs
#5
REVIEW
Yogesh K Katare, Justin E Piazza, Jayant Bhandari, Ritesh P Daya, Kosalan Akilan, Madeline J Simpson, Todd Hoare, Ram K Mishra
Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat psychotic disorders that afflict millions globally and cause tremendous emotional, economic and healthcare burdens. However, the potential of intranasal delivery to improve brain-specific targeting remains unrealized. In this article, we review the mechanisms and methods used for brain targeting via the intranasal (IN) route as well as the potential advantages of improving this type of delivery. We extensively review experimental studies relevant to intranasal delivery of therapeutic agents for the treatment of psychosis and mental illnesses...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912846/new-insights-and-evolving-role-of-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-in-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Alberto A Gabizon, Yogita Patil, Ninh M La-Beck
We herein review various pharmacological and clinical aspects of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), the first nanomedicine to be approved for cancer therapy, and discuss the gap between its potent antitumor activity in preclinical studies and its comparatively modest achievements in clinical studies and limited use in clinical practice. PLD is a complex formulation of doxorubicin based on pharmaceutical nanotechnology with unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Its long circulation time with stable retention of the payload and its accumulation in tumors with high vascular permeability both result in important advantages over conventional chemotherapy...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911389/testing-of-nanoparticle-release-from-a-composite-containing-nanomaterial-using-a-chamber-system
#7
Gun Ho Lee, Kang-Ho Ahn, Il Je Yu
With the rapid development of nanotechnology as one of the most important technologies in the 21(st) century, interest in the safety of consumer products containing nanomaterials is also increasing. Evaluating the nanomaterial release from products containing nanomaterials is a crucial step in assessing the safety of these products, and has resulted in several international efforts to develop consistent and reliable technologies for standardizing the evaluation of nanomaterial release. In this study, the release of nanomaterials from products containing nanomaterials is evaluated using a chamber system that includes a condensation particle counter, optical particle counter, and sampling ports to collect filter samples for electron microscopy analysis...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910914/in-vivo-stepwise-immunomodulation-using-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-a-platform-nanotechnology-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
Hee Dong Han, Yeongseon Byeon, Jong-Hwa Jang, Hat Nim Jeon, Ga Hee Kim, Min Gi Kim, Chan-Gi Pack, Tae Heung Kang, In Duk Jung, Yong Taik Lim, Young Joo Lee, Jeong-Won Lee, Byung Cheol Shin, Hyung Jun Ahn, Anil K Sood, Yeong-Min Park
Dentritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy faces challenges in both efficacy and practicality. However, DC-based vaccination requires multiple injections and elaborates ex vivo manipulation, which substantially limits their use. Therefore, we sought to develop a chitosan nanoparticle (CH-NP)-based platform for the next generation of vaccines to bypass the ex vivo manipulation and induce immune responses via active delivery of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid sodium salt (poly I:C) to target Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in endosomes...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910740/oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-current-treatment-strategies-and-nanotechnology-based-approaches-for-prevention-and-therapy
#9
Sankalp A Gharat, Munira Momin, Chintan Bhavsar
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer; it involves damage to oral epithelial cells due to accumulation of multiple genetic mutations in the cells. OSCC remains major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancers. Tobacco, smoking, alcohol consumption alone or with chewing tobacco, and betel quid are potential carcinogens contributing to the high occurrence of OSCC. Current treatment modalities for OSCC like chemoradiotherapy, surgery, EGFR inhibitors and COX-2 inhibitors, and photodynamic therapy have led to the major problems related to non-specific cell death...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908256/a-review-on-nano-antimicrobials-metal-nanoparticles-methods-and-mechanisms
#10
Edris Hoseinzadeh, Pouran Makhdoumi, Parisa Taha, John Stelling, Hooshyar Hossini, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology is a scientific and engineering technology conducted at the Nano-scale, such as in the fields of compound fabric manufacturing, food processing, agricultural processing, and engineering, as well as in medical and medicinal application. In recent decade, nanomaterial applications for antimicrobial works have been interested by many researchers. Available reports show that some of the metal oxide Nanoparticles including; Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, In2O3, MgO, SiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3, CoO, and Nickel oxide have toxicity toward several microorganisms and they could successfully kill numerous bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906135/seed-germination-and-biochemical-profile-of-silybum-marianum-exposed-to-monometallic-and-bimetallic-alloy-nanoparticles
#11
Muhammad Salman Khan, Mehreen Zaka, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Latifur- Rahman, Afzal Shah
In recent years nanotechnology has become increasingly important in almost every field. The new and improved physical, chemical and biological properties of material at nanoscale have far reaching implications in the fields of science and technology. Nanoparticles' effect on various plant species must be investigated to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. The current study strives to evaluate the effects of nine types of metal nanoparticles including monometallic and bimetallic alloy nanoparticles [Ag, Au, Cu, AgCu (1:3), AgCu (3:1), AuCu (1:3), AuCu (3:1), AgAu (1:3), AgAu (3:1)] on seed germination, root and shoot growth and biochemical profile of Silybum marianum plant...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905946/chemically-and-thermally-stable-silica-nanowires-with-a-%C3%AE-sheet-peptide-core-for-bionanotechnology
#12
Zahraa S Al-Garawi, George E Kostakis, Louise C Serpell
BACKGROUND: A series of amyloidogenic peptides based on the sequence KFFEAAAKKFFE template the silica precursor, tetraethyl orthosilicate to form silica-nanowires containing a cross-β peptide core. RESULTS: Investigation of the stability of these fibres reveals that the silica layers protect the silica-nanowires allowing them to maintain their shape and physical and chemical properties after incubation with organic solvents such as 2-propanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile, as well as in a strong acidic solution at pH 1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905611/surface-tension-driven-self-alignment
#13
REVIEW
Massimo Mastrangeli, Quan Zhou, Veikko Sariola, Pierre Lambert
Surface tension-driven self-alignment is a passive and highly-accurate positioning mechanism that can significantly simplify and enhance the construction of advanced microsystems. After years of research, demonstrations and developments, the surface engineering and manufacturing technology enabling capillary self-alignment has achieved a degree of maturity conducive to a successful transfer to industrial practice. In view of this transition, a broad and accessible review of the physics, material science and applications of capillary self-alignment is presented...
December 1, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904081/development-of-a-novel-milling-system-using-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-for-improvement-of-dissolution-characteristics-of-water-poorly-soluble-drugs
#14
Jennifer Chia Wee Fern, Hideya Nakamura, Satoru Watano
The aim of this study is to develop a novel milling system using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) for the improvement of dissolution characteristics of water-poorly soluble drugs. SC-CO2 possesses high potential in the application of nanotechnology, due to the attractive properties of SC-CO2 fluid such as cheap, inert and non-polluting. In addition, SC-CO2 has density comparable to a liquid, viscosity similar to a gas, and high diffusion capacity. Most of all, carbon dioxide exists as gas in room temperature and pressure, which enables the removal of fluid instantaneously...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899918/mechanistic-basis-of-antimicrobial-actions-of-silver-nanoparticles
#15
REVIEW
Tikam Chand Dakal, Anu Kumar, Rita S Majumdar, Vinod Yadav
Multidrug resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms to the antimicrobial drugs has become a major impediment toward successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Recent advancements in nanotechnology-based medicines have opened new horizons for combating multidrug resistance in microorganisms. In particular, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent antibacterial agent has received much attention. The most critical physico-chemical parameters that affect the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs include size, shape, surface charge, concentration and colloidal state...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899122/endocytosed-nanoparticles-hold-endosomes-and-stimulate-binucleated-cells-formation
#16
Lin Xia, Weihong Gu, Mingyi Zhang, Ya-Nan Chang, Kui Chen, Xue Bai, Lai Yu, Juan Li, Shan Li, Gengmei Xing
BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology developed rapidly in cellular diagnosis and treatment, the endocytic system was an important pathway for targeting cell. In the research of developing macrophages as drug carriers or important therapeutic targets, an interesting phenomenon, internalized nanoparticles induced to form binucleated macrophages, was found although the particles dose did not cause obvious cytotoxicity. RESULTS: Under 25 μg/ml, internalized 30 nm polystyrene beads(30 nm Ps nanoparticles) induced the formation of binucleated macrophages when they entered into endosomes via the endocytic pathway...
November 29, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897039/use-of-nanotechnology-for-improved-pharmacokinetics-and-activity-of-immunogenic-cell-death-inducers-used-in-cancer-chemotherapy
#17
Martyna Janicka, Jerzy Gubernator
Immunogenic cell death inducers (ICD inducers) are a diverse group of therapeutic molecules capable of eliciting an adaptive immune response against the antigens present on the surface of dying cancer cells. Most of these molecules suffer from low bioavailability, high toxicity and poor pharmacokinetics which limit their application. It is believed that nanotechnology, in particular nano-sized nanocarriers, can address most of the issues that limit the use of ICD inducers. Area covered: The mechanism of action of ICD inducers and their limitations is discussed...
November 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896863/one-step-synthesis-of-boron-nitride-quantum-dots-simple-chemistry-meets-delicate-nanotechnology
#18
Bingping Liu, Shihai Yan, Zhongqian Song, Mengli Liu, Xuqiang Ji, Wenrong Yang, Jingquan Liu
Herein, a conceptually new and straightforward aqueous route is described for the synthesis of hydroxyl- and amino-functionalized boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs) with quantum yields (QY) as high as 18.3 % by using a facile bottom-up approach, in which a mixture of boric acid and ammonia solution was hydrothermally treated in one pot at 200 °C for 12 h. The functionalized BNQDs, with excellent photoluminescence properties, could be easily dispersed in an aqueous medium and applied as fluorescent probes for the detection of ferrous (Fe(2+) ) and ferric (Fe(3+) ) ions with excellent selectivity and low detection limits...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894512/probabilistic-approach-for-assessing-infants-health-risks-due-to-ingestion-of-nanoscale-silver-released-from-consumer-products
#19
Chengfang Pang, Danail Hristozov, Alex Zabeo, Lisa Pizzol, Michael P Tsang, Phil Sayre, Antonio Marcomini
Silver nanoparticles (n-Ag) are widely used in consumer products and many medical applications because of their unique antibacterial properties. Their use is raising concern about potential human exposures and health effects. Therefore, it is informative to assess the potential human health risks of n-Ag in order to ensure that nanotechnology-based consumer products are deployed in a safe and sustainable way. Even though toxicity studies clearly show the potential hazard of n-Ag, there have been few attempts to integrate hazard and exposure assessments to evaluate risks...
November 25, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894314/self-assembly-of-hexahistidine-tagged-tobacco-etch-virus-capsid-protein-into-microfilaments-that-induce-igg2-specific-response-against-a-soluble-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-chimeric-protein
#20
Carlos Alberto Manuel-Cabrera, Alba Adriana Vallejo-Cardona, Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Rodolfo Hernández-Gutiérrez, Sara Elisa Herrera-Rodríguez, Abel Gutiérrez-Ortega
BACKGROUND: Assembly of recombinant capsid proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs) still represents an interesting challenge in virus-based nanotechnologies. The structure of VLPs has gained importance for the development and design of new adjuvants and antigen carriers. The potential of Tobacco etch virus capsid protein (TEV CP) as adjuvant has not been evaluated to date. FINDINGS: Two constructs for TEV CP expression in Escherichia coli were generated: a wild-type version (TEV-CP) and a C-terminal hexahistidine (His)-tagged version (His-TEV-CP)...
November 29, 2016: Virology Journal
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