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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786601/heterogeneous-photocatalysis-and-its-potential-applications-in-water-and-wastewater-treatment-a-review
#1
Syed N Ahmed, Waseem Haider
There has been a considerable amount of research in the development of sustainable water treatment techniques capable of improving the quality of water. Unavailability of drinkable water is a crucial issue especially in regions where conventional drinking water treatment systems fail to eradicate aquatic pathogens, toxic metal ions and industrial waste. The research and development in this area have given rise to a new class of processes called Advanced Oxidation Processes, particularly in the form of heterogeneous photocatalysis, which converts photon energy into chemical energy...
May 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785484/challenges-in-malaria-management-and-a-glimpse-at-some-nanotechnological-approaches
#2
Adrian Najer, Cornelia G Palivan, Hans-Peter Beck, Wolfgang Meier
Malaria is a devastating infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes, affecting millions of people and killing about half a million children each year. Despite tremendous progress in the control and elimination of malaria within the past years, there are still considerable challenges to be solved. To name a few, drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and the difficulty to formulate a potent malaria vaccine need to be addressed with new strategies to achieve the final goal of malaria eradication...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785318/role-of-nanotechnology-in-cosmeceuticals-a-review-of-recent-advances
#3
REVIEW
Shreya Kaul, Neha Gulati, Deepali Verma, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Upendra Nagaich
Nanotechnology manifests the progression in the arena of research and development, by increasing the efficacy of the product through delivery of innovative solutions. To overcome certain drawbacks associated with the traditional products, application of nanotechnology is escalating in the area of cosmeceuticals. Cosmeceuticals are regarded as the fastest growing segment of the personal care industry and the use has risen drastically over the years. Nanocosmeceuticals used for skin, hair, nail, and lip care, for conditions like wrinkles, photoaging, hyperpigmentation, dandruff, and hair damage, have come into widespread use...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785202/opto-thermoelectric-nanotweezers
#4
Linhan Lin, Mingsong Wang, Xiaolei Peng, Emanuel N Lissek, Zhangming Mao, Leonardo Scarabelli, Emily Adkins, Sahin Coskun, Husnu Emrah Unalan, Brian A Korgel, Luis M Liz-Marzán, Ernst-Ludwig Florin, Yuebing Zheng
Optical manipulation of plasmonic nanoparticles provides opportunities for fundamental and technical innovation in nanophotonics. Optical heating arising from the photon-to-phonon conversion is considered as an intrinsic loss in metal nanoparticles, which limits their applications. We show here that this drawback can be turned into an advantage, by developing an extremely low-power optical tweezing technique, termed opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers (OTENT). Through optically heating a thermoplasmonic substrate, alight-directed thermoelectric field can be generated due to spatial separation of dissolved ions within the heating laser spot, which allows us to manipulate metal nanoparticles of a wide range of materials, sizes and shapes with single-particle resolution...
April 2018: Nature Photonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783654/recent-progress-in-upconversion-photodynamic-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Hailong Qiu, Meiling Tan, Tymish Y Ohulchanskyy, Jonathan F Lovell, Guanying Chen
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive cancer modality that combines a photosensitizer (PS), light, and oxygen. Introduction of new nanotechnologies holds potential to improve PDT performance. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) offer potentially advantageous benefits for PDT, attributed to their distinct photon upconverting feature. The ability to convert near-infrared (NIR) light into visible or even ultraviolet light via UCNPs allows for the activation of nearby PS agents to produce singlet oxygen, as most PS agents absorb visible and ultraviolet light...
May 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783081/recent-technological-advancements-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Shagun Gupta, Vipan Kakkar
Early diagnosis and on-time effective treatment are indispensable for Tuberculosis (TB) control - a life threatening infectious communicable disease. The conventional techniques for diagnosing TB normally take two to three weeks. This delay in diagnosis and further increase in detection complexity due to the emerging risks of XDR-TB (Extensively drug Resistant-TB) and MDR-TB (Multidrug Resistant-TB) are evoking interest of researchers in the field of developing rapid TB detection techniques such as biosensing and other point-of-care (POC) techniques...
May 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781024/the-owl-sensor-a-fragile-dna-nanostructure-for-the-analysis-of-single-nucleotide-variations
#7
Rebekah J Karadeema, Maria Stancescu, Tyler P Steidl, Sophia C Bertot, Dmitry M Kolpashchikov
Analysis of single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in DNA and RNA sequences is instrumental in healthcare for the detection of genetic and infectious diseases and drug-resistant pathogens. Here we took advantage of the developments in DNA nanotechnology to design a hybridization sensor, named the 'owl sensor', which produces a fluorescence signal only when it complexes with fully complementary DNA or RNA analytes. The novelty of the owl sensor operation is that the selectivity of analyte recognition is, at least in part, determined by the structural rigidity and stability of the entire DNA nanostructure rather than exclusively by the stability of the analyte-probe duplex, as is the case for conventional hybridization probes...
May 21, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780557/pd-nanosheets-with-their-surface-coordinated-by-radioactive-iodide-as-a-high-performance-theranostic-nanoagent-for-orthotopic-hepatocellular-carcinoma-imaging-and-cancer-therapy
#8
Mei Chen, Zhide Guo, Qinghua Chen, Jingping Wei, Jingchao Li, Changrong Shi, Duo Xu, Dawang Zhou, Xianzhong Zhang, Nanfeng Zheng
Radiolabeled nanoparticles (NPs), taking advantage of nanotechnology and nuclear medicine, have shown attractive potential for cancer diagnosis and therapy. However, the high background signal in the liver and long-term toxic effects of radioisotopes caused by the nonselective accumulation of radiolabeled nanoparticles in organs have become the major challenges. Here, we report a pH-sensitive multifunctional theranostic platform with radiolabeled Pd nanosheets through a simple mixture of ultra-small Pd nanosheets and radioisotopes utilizing the strong adsorption of 131 I and 125 I on their surfaces (denoted as 131 I-Pd-PEG or 125 I-Pd-PEG)...
May 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779477/exposure-of-aggregation-prone-segments-is-the-requirement-for-amyloid-fibril-formation
#9
Shreya Pramanik, Basir Ahmad
Arranging into well-organized fibrillar aggregate, commonly known as amyloid fibril is an inherent property of any polypeptide chain. Amyloid fibrils are associated with a number of severe human pathologies like the Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type2 diabetes and many more. Recent studies suggest that most of the fibrils are inert and extremely stable, thus could be used for the bio-nanotechnological applications. As the native state is protected by evolution from aggregation under physiological condition, understanding the structure of aggregation precursor state (APS) will be of extreme importance to decode mechanism of its formation and prevention...
May 20, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778902/perspectives-on-the-past-present-and-future-of-cancer-nanomedicine
#10
Yu Seok Youn, You Han Bae
The justification of cancer nanomedicine relies on enhanced permeation (EP) and retention (R) effect and the capability of intracellular targeting due primarily to size after internalization (endocytosis) into the individual target cells. The EPR effect implies improved efficacy. Affinity targeting for solid tumors only occur after delivery to individual cells, which help internalization and/or retention. The design principles have been supported by animal results in numerous publications, but hardly translated...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778557/nanotechnological-foundations-of-a-%C3%A2-new%C3%A2-nephrology
#11
M Laura Sorian, Alberto Rodríguez-Benot, Miguel Valcárcel
After contextualising the generic frameworks of nanotechnology and nanomedicine, the 2disciplines are discussed in the field of Nephrology. The potential downside to nanonephrology is the renal clearance of nanoparticles, the use of which is ever-increasing both for nanomedicinal purposes and in nanofoods. The positive impact of nanotechnology in Nephrology is centred on the development of renal nanodiagnostics for basic renal function studies, the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury, reliable and simple follow-up of chronic kidney disease and the improvement of magnetic resonance imaging...
May 16, 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776150/determination-of-prestress-and-elastic-properties-of-virus-capsids
#12
Ankush Aggarwal
Virus capsids are protein shells that protect the virus genome, and determination of their mechanical properties has been a topic of interest because of their potential use in nanotechnology and therapeutics. It has been demonstrated that stresses exist in virus capsids, even in their equilibrium state, due to their construction. These stresses, termed "prestresses" in this study, closely affect the capsid's mechanical behavior. Three methods-shape-based metric, atomic force microscope indentation, and molecular dynamics-have been proposed to determine the capsid elastic properties without fully accounting for prestresses...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773873/therapeutic-nanoparticles-penetrate-leaves-and-deliver-nutrients-to-agricultural-crops
#13
Avishai Karny, Assaf Zinger, Ashima Kajal, Janna Shainsky-Roitman, Avi Schroeder
As the world population grows, there is a need for efficient agricultural technologies to provide global food requirements and reduce environmental toll. In medicine, nanoscale drug delivery systems grant improved therapeutic precision by overcoming biological barriers and enhancing drug targeting to diseased tissues. Here, we loaded nanoscale drug-delivery systems with agricultural nutrients, and applied them to the leaves of tomato plants. We show that the nanoparticles - liposomes composed of plant-derived lipids, penetrate the leaf and translocate in a bidirectional manner, distributing to other leaves and to the roots...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772963/simplifying-skin-disease-diagnosis-with-topical-nanotechnology
#14
David C Yeo, Chenjie Xu
A new study published in the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering1 documents a novel diagnostic technology that exploits topically applied nanotechnology to detect skin tissue biomarkers for diagnosis. This concept is demonstrated by noninvasively imaging connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA in abnormal scar cells, whole tissue, and animal models. In this commentary, we highlight the main findings and discuss their implications. Successful implementation in the clinic could give rise to self-applied, biopsy-free diagnostic technology and significantly reduce healthcare burden...
May 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772748/drug-delivery-strategies-for-antivirals-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#15
REVIEW
Latavia Singh, Sunaina Indermun, Mershen Govender, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a significant health challenge due to associated morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer that eventually results in the breakdown of liver functionality. Nanotechnology has the potential to play a pivotal role in reducing viral load levels and drug-resistant HBV through drug targeting, thus reducing the rate of evolution of the disease. Apart from tissue targeting, intracellular delivery of a wide range of drugs is necessary to exert a therapeutic action in the affected organelles...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771531/exosomes-as-a-drug-delivery-system-in-cancer-therapy-potential-and-challenges
#16
Golam Kibria, Erika Kathryn Ramos, David R Gius, Yong Wan, Huiping Liu
Exosomes play a pivotal role in mediating intercellular communications and package delivery. They have recently been discovered to serve as diagnostic biomarkers as well as a possible drug delivery vehicle based on their nanometer size range and capability to transfer biological materials to recipient cells. Their unique biocompatibility, high stability, preferred tumor homing, and adjustable targeting efficiency can make exosomes an attractive and potentially effective tool of drug delivery in cancer therapy...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768880/tio%C3%A2-nps-induce-dna-damage-in-lymphocytes-from-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-respiratory-diseases-an-ex-vivo-in-vitro-study
#17
Ilham F Osman, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Vyom Sharma, Ritesh K Shukla, B K Jacob, Alok Dhawan, D Anderson
Little is known of the effects of nanoparticles in human systems, let alone in diseased individuals and nanotechnology has preceded nanotoxicology. Therefore, the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with respiratory diseases [lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma] were compared with those in healthy Individuals, to determine differences in sensitivity to nanochemical insult. The Comet assay was performed according to recommended guidelines...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768240/green-synthesis-and-characterisation-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-effects-on-antimicrobial-efficacy-and-biochemical-profiling-in-citrus-reticulata
#18
Mubashir Hussain, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Zia-Ur-Rehman Mashwani, Farah Naz, Muhammad Iqbal, Sumaira Aslam
The synthesis of nanoparticles by utilising plant extract has revolutionised the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, AgNPs were synthesised by utilising the leaves of Moringa oleifera as reducing and stabilising agent. UV-visible spectroscopy showed characteristic surface plasmon band in the range of 413-420 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) elucidated rectangular segments fused together. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of AgNPs and presence of metallic silver ions was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767981/optical-activity-of-semiconductor-gammadions-beyond-the-planar-chirality
#19
Nikita V Tepliakov, Ilia A Vovk, Anvar S Baimuratov, Mikhail Yu Leonov, Alexander V Baranov, Anatoly V Fedorov, Ivan D Rukhlenko
We present a rigorous analysis of optical activity of chiral semiconductor gammadions whose chirality in three dimensions is caused by the nonuniformity of thickness in the transverse plane. It is shown that such gammadions not only distinguish between the two circular polarisations upon scattering and reflection of light, like all two-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures with planar chirality do, but also exhibit circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence. Chiral semiconductor gammadions whose charge carriers are mostly confined to the arms are found to feature both high dissymmetry of optical response and a constant-sign circular dichroism signal over a wide frequency range...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766753/toxicity-of-pristine-and-paint-embedded-tio-2-nanomaterials
#20
A T Saber, A Mortensen, J Szarek, N R Jacobsen, M Levin, I K Koponen, K A Jensen, U Vogel, H Wallin
Little is known on the toxicity of nanomaterials in the user phase. Inclusion of nanomaterials in paints is a common nanotechnology application. This study focuses on the toxicity of dusts from sanding of paints containing nanomaterials. We compared the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanomaterials (TiO2 NMs) and dusts generated by sanding boards coated with paints with different amounts of two different types of uncoated TiO2 NMs (diameters:10.5 nm and 38 nm). Mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose of 18, 54 and 162 µg of TiO2 NMs or 54, 162 and 486 µg of sanding dusts...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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