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Lan Anh Trinh, Mikael Ekström, Baran Cürüklü
Recent industrial developments in autonomous systems, or agents, which assume that humans and the agents share the same space or even work in close proximity, open for new challenges in robotics, especially in motion planning and control. In these settings, the control system should be able to provide these agents a reliable path following control when they are working in a group or in collaboration with one or several humans in complex and dynamic environments. In such scenarios, these agents are not only moving to reach their goals, i...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Larry J Kricka
Predictions about the future of laboratory medicine have had a mixed success, and in some instances they have been overambitious and incorrectly assessed the future impact of emerging technologies. Current predictions suggest a more highly automated and connected future for diagnostic testing. The central laboratory of the future may be dominated by more robotics and more connectivity in order to take advantage of the benefits of the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence (AI)-based systems (e.g. decision support software and imaging analytics)...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Riccardo Bertolo, Juan Garisto, Julien Dagenais, Jose Agudelo, Sherif Armanyous, Michael Lioudis, Jihad Kaouk
OBJECTIVES: To compare functional outcomes of warm ischemia RPN (wRPN) to cold ischemia RPN (cRPN) in "at risk" patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of Institutional database queried for all patients who underwent cRPN/wRPN (January 2007 - December 2016). For the study purpose, patients with solitary kidney and/or history of partial nephrectomy and/or multiple tumors and/or preoperative eGFR <60 ml/min were extracted. To reduce inherent biases, groups were matched on key variables related to renal function via a greedy matching algorithm with no replacement...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Endourology
Chen Xie, Xiaofeng Tang, Marvin Berlinghof, Stefan Langner, Shi Chen, Andreas Späth, Ning Li, Rainer H Fink, Tobias Unruh, Christoph J Brabec
Development of high-quality organic nanoparticle inks is a significant scientific challenge for the industrial production of solution-processed organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with eco-friendly processing methods. In this work, we demonstrate a novel, robot-based, high-throughput procedure performing automatic poly(3-hexylthio- phene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) nanoparticle ink synthesis in non-toxic alcohols. A novel methodology to prepare particle dispersions for fully functional OPVs by manipulating the particle size and solvent system was studied in detail...
June 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mohammed Ghunaim, Constance Laroye, Francois Pattou, Robert Caiazzo
The video shows, step-by-step, the hybrid laparoscopic conversion of vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) with a robotic-assisted hand-sewn technique (HST) for gastrojejunal anastomosis (GJA).
June 20, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Marek Wartenberg, Joseph Schornak, Katie Gandomi, Paulo Carvalho, Chris Nycz, Niravkumar Patel, Iulian Iordachita, Clare Tempany, Nobuhiko Hata, Junichi Tokuda, Gregory S Fischer
Intra-operative imaging is sometimes available to assist needle biopsy, but typical open-loop insertion does not account for unmodeled needle deflection or target shift. Closed-loop image-guided compensation for deviation from an initial straight-line trajectory through rotational control of an asymmetric tip can reduce targeting error. Incorporating robotic closed-loop control often reduces physician interaction with the patient, but by pairing closed-loop trajectory compensation with hands-on cooperatively controlled insertion, a physician's control of the procedure can be maintained while incorporating benefits of robotic accuracy...
June 20, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Mohammad Nasser Saadatzi, Robert C Pennington, Karla C Welch, James H Graham
The authors combined virtual reality technology and social robotics to develop a tutoring system that resembled a small-group arrangement. This tutoring system featured a virtual teacher instructing sight words, and included a humanoid robot emulating a peer. The authors used a multiple-probe design across word sets to evaluate the effects of the instructional package on the explicit acquisition and vicarious learning of sight words instructed to three children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the robot peer...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Yu Song, Shuxiang Guo, Xuanchun Yin, Linshuai Zhang, Hideyuki Hirata, Hidenori Ishihara, Takashi Tamiya
In this paper, a novel robot-assisted catheter operating system (RCOS) has been proposed as a method to reduce physical stress and X-ray exposure time to physicians during endovascular procedures. The unique design of this system allows the physician to apply conventional bedside catheterization skills (advance, retreat and rotate) to an input catheter, which is placed at the master side to control another patient catheter placed at the slave side. For this purpose, a magnetorheological (MR) fluids-based master haptic interface has been developed to measure the axial and radial motions of an input catheter, as well as to provide the haptic feedback to the physician during the operation...
June 20, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Sofoklis Panteleimonitis, Sotirios Popeskou, Mohamed Aradaib, Mick Harper, Jamil Ahmed, Mukhtar Ahmad, Tahseen Qureshi, Nuno Figueiredo, Amjad Parvaiz
PURPOSE: A structured training programme is essential for the safe adoption of robotic rectal cancer surgery. The aim of this study is to describe the training pathway and short-term surgical outcomes of three surgeons in two centres (UK and Portugal) undertaking single-docking robotic rectal surgery with the da Vinci Xi and integrated table motion (ITM). METHODS: Prospectively, collected data for consecutive patients who underwent robotic rectal cancer resections with the da Vinci Xi and ITM between November 2015 and September 2017 was analysed...
June 20, 2018: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Andrew J Hung, Jian Chen, Inderbir S Gill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Yisong Xie, Zhengqiang Li, Li Li, Richard Wagener, Ihab Abboud, Kaitao Li, Donghui Li, Ying Zhang, Xingfeng Chen, Hua Xu
Columnar mass concentrations of aerosol components over the Arctic are estimated using microphysical parameters derived from direct sun extinction and sky radiance measurements of Aerosol Robotic Network. Aerosol optical, microphysical, chemical and radiative properties show that Arctic aerosols are dominated by fine mode particles, especially for high aerosol load cases. The average aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the selected Arctic sites in the sampling period is approximately 0.08, with 75% composed of fine mode particles...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jihion Yu, Jun Hyuk Hong, Jun-Young Park, Jai-Hyun Hwang, Seong-Sik Cho, Young-Kug Kim
BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) requires pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg position to optimize surgical exposure, which can increase intracranial pressure (ICP). Anesthetic agents also influence ICP. We compared the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) as a surrogate for ICP in prostate cancer patients who underwent RALP. METHODS: Thirty-six patients were randomly allocated to groups receiving propofol (propofol group, n = 18) or sevoflurane (sevoflurane group, n = 18) anesthesia...
June 20, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
George Garas, Asit Arora
The first application of robotic technology in surgery was described in 1985 when a robot was used to define the trajectory for a stereotactic brain biopsy. Following its successful application in a variety of surgical operations, the da Vinci® robot, the most widely used surgical robot at present, made its clinical debut in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery in 2005 when the first transoral robotic surgery (TORS) resections of base of tongue neoplasms were reported. Subsequently, the indications for TORS rapidly expanded, and they now include tumours of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, parapharyngeal space, and supraglottic larynx, as well as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)...
June 20, 2018: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
Kwanghyun Han, Nam-Ho Kim, Dongjun Shin
There is a growing interest in soft actuators for human-friendly robotic applications. However, it is very challenging for conventional soft actuators to achieve both a large working distance and high force. To address this problem, we present a high-contraction ratio pneumatic artificial muscle (HCRPAM), which has a novel actuation concept. The HCRPAM can contract substantially while generating a large force suitable for a wide range of robotic applications. Our proposed prototyping method allows for an easy and quick fabrication, considering various design variables...
June 20, 2018: Soft Robotics
Amir Ali Amiri Moghadam, Seyedhamidreza Alaie, Suborna Deb Nath, Mahdie Aghasizade Shaarbaf, James K Min, Simon Dunham, Bobak Mosadegh
Pneumatically actuated soft robots address many challenges with interfacing with delicate objects, but these actuators/robots are still bulky and require many hours to fabricate, limiting their widespread use. This article reports a novel design and manufacturing method for ultrathin soft robots and actuators (∼70 μm) using a laser-cutting machine that cuts/welds sheets of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) from a 2D CAD drawing. Using this method, five different soft actuators (e.g., bending, rotating, contracting) are designed, fabricated, and characterized with both planar and nonplanar motions...
June 20, 2018: Soft Robotics
Yunquan Li, Yonghua Chen, Tao Ren, Yingtian Li, Shiu Hong Choi
The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in soft robotics. Unlike most pneumatic-based methods, we present a new approach to soft robot design based on precharged pneumatics (PCP). We propose a PCP soft bending actuator, which is actuated by precharged air pressure and retracted by inextensible tendons. By pulling or releasing the tendons, the air pressure in the soft actuator is modulated, and hence, its bending angle. The tendons serve in a way similar to pressure-regulating valves that are used in typical pneumatic systems...
June 20, 2018: Soft Robotics
Devin R Halleran, Richard J Wood, Alejandra Vilanova-Sanchez, Rebecca M Rentea, Christopher Brown, Molly Fuchs, Venkata R Jayanthi, Christina Ching, Hira Ahmad, Alessandra C Gasior, Marc P Michalsky, Marc A Levitt, Daniel DaJusta
INTRODUCTION: Patients with neurogenic bladder frequently also have bowel dysfunction and a simultaneous urologic and colorectal reconstruction is possible. We present our experience with combined reconstructive procedures using robot-assisted laparoscopy, and demonstrate the utility of a minimally invasive approach that considers both the bowel and bladder management of these patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent combined bowel and urologic reconstruction at our institution since the start of our multidisciplinary robotic program...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Torur Dalsgaard, Morten D Jensen, Dorthe Hartwell, Berit J Mosgaard, Annemette Jørgensen, Bente R Jensen
OBJECTIVE: To study musculoskeletal workload in experienced surgeons during laparoscopic surgery (LS) compared with robotic assisted laparoscopy (RALS). BACKGROUND: 70-90% of surgeons who regularly perform LS report musculoskeletal symptoms, mainly in neck and shoulders. Data regarding the potential ergonomic benefits of RALS in a clinical setting is very limited. METHODS: Twelve surgeons with advanced experience in both LS and RALS each performed 2 hysterectomies on the same day...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Surgery
P Ursi, A Santoro, A Gemini, A Arezzo, D Pironi, C Renzi, R Cirocchi, F M Di Matteo, A Maturo, V D'Andrea, J Sagar
BACKGROUND: Low Rectal Anterior Resection (LAR) is challenging when anal canal mucosa and/or internal sphincter are involved by very low tumors. In these cases, Intersphincteric resection (ISR) with the removal of the internal sphincter is designed to increase the distal margin of resection, thus preserving the external sphincter and pubo-rectalis muscle complex. Aim is to compare results after ISR with those of LAR, including subgroup analysis of open, laparoscopic and robotic ISR. METHODS: Studies published from January 1991 to January 2017 describing ISR and comparing results with LAR in adults were included irrespective of the technique...
May 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
D T Friedrich, V Modes, T K Hoffmann, J Greve, P J Schuler, J Burgner-Kahrs
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that transoral robot-assisted surgery is becoming increasingly common, yet current systems are incapable of sufficiently reaching the glottis or subglottic areas. This paper presents a teleoperated tubular continuum robot prototype for laryngeal surgery in a feasibility study. METHODS: A tubular continuum robot prototype is used to perform basic surgical examination in five ex vivo porcine laryngeal specimens. Standard imaging and tooling were integrated and evaluated to improve the system for future application in humans...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
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