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higher-order aberrations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324117/accommodation-responds-to-optical-vergence-and-not-defocus-blur-alone
#1
Antonio J Del Águila-Carrasco, Iván Marín-Franch, Paula Bernal-Molina, José J Esteve-Taboada, Philip B Kruger, Robert Montés-Micó, Norberto López-Gil
Purpose: To determine whether changes in wavefront spherical curvature (optical vergence) are a directional cue for accommodation. Methods: Nine subjects participated in this experiment. The accommodation response to a monochromatic target was measured continuously with a custom-made adaptive optics system while astigmatism and higher-order aberrations were corrected in real time. There were two experimental open-loop conditions: vergence-driven condition, where the deformable mirror provided sinusoidal changes in defocus at the retina between -1 and +1 diopters (D) at 0...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317683/new-technique-for-femtosecond-laser-creation-of-clear-corneal-incisions-for-cataract-surgery
#2
Sebastiano Serrao, Daniela Giannini, Domenico Schiano-Lomoriello, Giuseppe Lombardo, Marco Lombardo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in corneal topography and corneal higher-order wavefront aberrations with the use of a new technique in which clear corneal incisions (CCIs) for cataract surgery are created with a femtosecond laser. SETTING: IRCCS Fondazione G.B. Bietti, Rome, Italy. DESIGN: Prospective randomized case series. METHODS: Cataract surgery patients were randomized into 2 groups. In the study group, a 3-plane CCI was created with a femtosecond laser...
January 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317678/quality-of-vision-after-wavefront-guided-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis-or-photorefractive-keratectomy-contralateral-eye-evaluation
#3
Michele D Lee, Edward E Manche
PURPOSE: To compare quality of vision between laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). SETTING: Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA. DESIGN: Prospective randomized case series. METHODS: Patients had refractive surgery, with 1 eye treated with LASIK and the other with PRK. Eyes were randomized for dominance. The patients completed a questionnaire assessing quality of vision in each eye at the initial visit and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively...
January 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304377/establishment-of-a-novel-cellular-model-for-myxofibrosarcoma-heterogeneity
#4
Birgit Lohberger, Nicole Stuendl, Andreas Leithner, Beate Rinner, Stefan Sauer, Karl Kashofer, Bernadette Liegl-Atzwanger
Human cancers frequently display substantial intra-tumoural heterogeneity in virtually all distinguishable phenotypic features, such as cellular morphology, gene expression, and metastatic potential. In order to investigate tumour heterogeneity in myxofibrosarcoma, we established a novel myxofibrosarcoma cell line with two well defined sub-clones named MUG-Myx2a and MUG-Myx2b. The parental tumour tissue and both MUG-Myx2 cell lines showed the same STR profile. The fact that MUG-Myx2a showed higher proliferation activity, faster migration and enhanced tumourigenicity was of particular interest...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302562/dysregulated-expression-of-microrna-150-in-human-papillomavirus-induced-lesions-of-k14-hpv16-transgenic-mice
#5
Joana M O Santos, Mara Fernandes, Rita Araújo, Hugo Sousa, Joana Ribeiro, Margarida M S M Bastos, Paula A Oliveira, Diogo Carmo, Fátima Casaca, Sandra Silva, Ana L Teixeira, Rui M Gil da Costa, Rui Medeiros
AIMS: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the major causes of infection-related cancers worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), whose dysregulated levels may cause an aberrant expression of genes involved in oncogenic pathways and consequently lead to cancer development. This is the case of the miRNA-150 (miR-150), whose expression in HPV-induced lesions remains unclear and the present work aims to clarify it. We employed K14-HPV16 mice, which express the early genes of HPV16 in basal keratinocytes, leading to the development of hyperplastic and dysplastic skin lesions and squamous cell carcinomas, and are a representative model of HPV-induced cancers...
March 13, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286312/aberrant-ganglioside-composition-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-and-peritumoral-tissue-a-mass-spectrometry-characterization
#6
Dragana Fabris, Marko Rožman, Tomislav Sajko, Željka Vukelić
Tumor cells are characterized by aberrant glycosylation of the cell surface glycoconjugates. Gangliosides are sialylated glycosphingolipids highly abundant in neural tissue and considered as tumor markers and therapeutic targets. In this study, a detailed characterization of native ganglioside mixtures from glioblastoma multiforme, corresponding peritumoral tissue and healthy human brain was performed using mass spectrometry and high performance thin layer chromatography in order to elucidate their roles as tumor-associated antigens...
March 9, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285388/effect-of-iris-registration-on-visual-outcome-in-wavefront-guided-lasek-for-myopic-astigmatism
#7
Jong Joo Lee, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of iris registration (IR) on visual outcomes in wavefront-guided LASEK for myopic astigmatism. METHODS: The retrospective chart review was performed for wavefront-guided LASEK using VISX Star S4 in patients with myopic astigmatism (cylinder ≥ 1.00 diopter[D]). Eyes were divided into IR group (LASEK with IR at the time of surgery) and Non-IR group (LASEK without IR system + failed-IR engagement during LASEK)...
March 11, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258874/ondrej-krivanek-s-early-scientific-research
#8
John C H Spence
In 1806, Humphrey Davey said that "nothing promotes the advancement of science so much as a new instrument". This paper reviews some of the lesser-known achievements of Ondrej's early career, and reminds us of the level of performance of instruments in those days, in order to appreciate how great has been the progress in instrumentation, much of it due to Ondrej and his leadership, since then. Some new results in the field of EELS are described, including extraction of the time-dependence of the dielectric response (with better time resolution than an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL)) from Nion EELS data...
February 3, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251169/the-impact-of-dysfunctional-tear-films-and-optical-aberrations-on-chronic-migraine
#9
Rohit Shetty, Kalyani Deshpande, Chaitra Jayadev, Kareeshma Wadia, Pooja Mehta, Rushad Shroff, Harsha L Rao
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a multifactorial disorder with complex neuronal and vascular mechanisms that encompasses a wide clinical spectrum of symptoms, including ocular manifestations. Dry eye disease and dysfunction of ocular somatosensory pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The current study investigates the association between a dysfunctional tear film and ocular aberrations with migraine. METHODS: Sixty eyes of 30 patients with migraine and 60 eyes of 30 controls were studied...
2017: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251090/comparative-analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-astigmatic-correction-after-wavefront-guided-and-wavefront-optimized-lasik-in-low-and-moderate-myopic-eyes
#10
Mounir A Khalifa, Mahmoud F Alsahn, Mohamed Shafik Shaheen, David P Pinero
AIM: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of the astigmatic correction achieved with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in eyes with myopic astigmatism using wavefront-guided (WFG) and wavefront-optimized (WFO) ablation profiles. METHODS: Prospective study included 221 eyes undergoing LASIK: 99 and 122 eyes with low and moderate myopic astigmatism (low and moderate myopia groups). Two subgroups were differentiated in each group according to the ablation profile: WFG subgroup, 109 eyes (45/64, low/moderate myopia groups) treated using the Advanced CustomVue platform (Abbott Medical Optics Inc...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251079/corneal-biomechanical-data-and-biometric-parameters-measured-with-scheimpflug-based-devices-on-normal-corneas
#11
Gabor Nemeth, Eszter Szalai, Ziad Hassan, Agnes Lipecz, Zsuzsa Flasko, Laszlo Modis
AIM: To analyze the correlations between ocular biomechanical and biometric data of the eye, measured by Scheimpflug-based devices on healthy subjects. METHODS: Three consecutive measurements were carried out using the corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST) device on healthy eyes and the 10 device-specific parameters were recorded. Pentacam HR-derived parameters (corneal curvature radii on the anterior and posterior surfaces; apical pachymetry; corneal volume; corneal aberration data; depth, volume and angle of the anterior chamber) and axial length (AL) from IOLMaster were correlated with the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211176/peripheral-aberrations-in-adult-hyperopes-emmetropes-and-myopes
#12
Uchechukwu L Osuagwu, Marwan Suheimat, David A Atchison
PURPOSE: To determine differences in peripheral aberrations in hyperopic, emmetropic and myopic groups. METHODS: Cycloplegic peripheral aberrations for 5 mm pupils were measured at 39 locations across 42° × 32° of right eye visual fields with a COAS-HD Hartmann-Shack aberrometer in nine hyperopes (mean age 29 ± 5 years, spherical equivalent refraction M + 1.47 ± 0.58 D), 20 emmetropes (28 ± 7 years, +0.06 ± 0.36 D) and 20 myopes (27 ± 6 years, -2...
March 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211160/optical-characteristics-of-alvarez-variable-power-spectacles
#13
Hema Radhakrishnan, W Neil Charman
PURPOSE: To establish the optical performance of currently available Alvarez variable-power spectacles in relation to their possible utility for ametropes and presbyopes. METHODS: Two commercial designs of variable-power (variable-focus) spectacles were studied: FocusSpecs and Adlens Adjustables. Using focimetry, power and prism at three different power settings were measured across the aperture of the lenses of each design and local optical quality was explored in more detail using interferometry...
February 17, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198450/identification-of-methylation-driven-differentially-expressed-stxbp6-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#14
Govinda Lenka, Mong-Hsun Tsai, Hsin-Chieh Lin, Jen-Hao Hsiao, Yi-Ching Lee, Tzu-Pin Lu, Jang-Ming Lee, Chung-Ping Hsu, Liang-Chuan Lai, Eric Y Chuang
DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic marker associated with the silencing of gene expression. Although various genome-wide studies revealed aberrantly methylated gene targets as molecular biomarkers for early detection, the survival rate of lung cancer patients is still poor. In order to identify methylation-driven biomarkers, genome-wide changes in DNA methylation and differential expression in 32 pairs of lung adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal lung tissue in non-smoking women were examined. This concurrent analysis identified 21 negatively correlated probes (r ≤ -0...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168049/photorefractive-keratectomy-for-residual-myopia-after-myopic-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis
#15
Kamal A M Solaiman, Sameh M Fouda, Ashraf Bor'i, Haitham Y Al-Nashar
Purpose. To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and predictability of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on the corneal flap for correction of residual myopia following myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Patients and Methods. A retrospective study on eyes retreated by PRK on the corneal flap for residual myopia after LASIK. All eyes had no enough stroma after LASIK sufficient for LASIK enhancement. Data included spherical equivalent (SE), uncorrected and best corrected visual acuity (UCVA and BCVA), central pachymetry, corneal higher order aberrations (HOAs), corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), and corneal haze...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156453/frequency-predictors-and-outcomes-of-urine-drug-test-among-patients-with-advanced-cancer-on-chronic-opioid-therapy-at-an-outpatient-supportive-care-clinic
#16
Tonya Edwards, David Hui, Jessica Marie Waletich-Flemming, Suresh K Reddy, Diane D Liu, Jimin Wu, Eduardo Bruera
94 Background: Data on the utilization and outcomes of urine drug tests (UDT) among advanced cancer patients is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with UDT ordering and results in advanced cancer outpatients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 1058 patients seen from March 2014 to November 2015 at an outpatient supportive care clinic was conducted. Sixty-one patients on chronic opioid therapy who underwent UDT were identified. A control group of 120 patients who did not undergo UDT was selected for comparison of information on demographic and clinical characteristics...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152553/the-effect-of-aberrations-on-objectively-assessed-image-quality-and-depth-of-focus
#17
Antonio J Del Águila-Carrasco, Scott A Read, Robert Montés-Micó, D Robert Iskander
The effects of aberrations on image quality and the objectively assessed depth of focus (DoF) were studied. Aberrometry data from 80 young subjects with a range of refractive errors was used for computing the visual Strehl ratio based on the optical transfer function (VSOTF), and then, through-focus simulations were performed in order to calculate the objective DoF (using two different relative thresholds of 50% and 80%; and two different pupil diameters) and the image quality (the peak VSOTF). Both lower order astigmatism and higher order aberration (HOA) terms up to the fifth radial order were considered...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150433/impaired-maternal-hemodynamics-in-morbidly-obese-women-a-case-control-study
#18
D Vinayagam, J Gutierrez, J Binder, E Mantovani, B Thilaganathan, A Khalil
AIM: Maternal obesity is associated with significant pregnancy complications and is a risk factor for the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy as well as other adverse outcomes. There are few data regarding the hemodynamic aberrations observed in maternal obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal hemodynamics in morbidly obese pregnant women. METHODS: This was a prospective, case-control study of morbidly obese women (BMI >40 kg/m(2) ) and controls (BMI 20-29...
February 2, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138309/polymorphisms-in-microrna-binding-sites-predict-colorectal-cancer-survival
#19
Ying-Pi Yang, Wen-Chien Ting, Lu-Min Chen, Te-Ling Lu, Bo-Ying Bao
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate negative regulation of target genes through base pairing, and aberrant miRNA expression has been described in cancers. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within miRNA target sites might influence clinical outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: Sixteen common SNPs within miRNA target sites were identified, and the association between these SNPs and overall survival was assessed in colorectal cancer patients using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox regression model, and survival tree analysis...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133542/corneal-topographic-and-aberrometric-measurements-obtained-with-a-multidiagnostic-device-in-healthy-eyes-intrasession-repeatability
#20
David P Piñero, Alberto López-Navarro, Inmaculada Cabezos, Dolores de Fez, María T Caballero, Vicent J Camps
Purpose. To evaluate the intrasession repeatability of corneal curvature, eccentricity, and aberrometric measurements obtained with a multidiagnostic device in healthy eyes. Methods. This study enrolled 107 eyes of 107 patients ranging in age from 23 to 65 years. All of them underwent a complete anterior segment examination with the VX120 system (Visionix-Luneau Technologies, Chartres, France). Three consecutive measurements were obtained. The within-subject standard deviation (Sw ), intrasubject precision (1...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
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