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higher-order aberrations

Daniela Neuhofer, Peter Kalivas
In light of the current worldwide addiction epidemic, the need for successful therapies is more urgent than ever. Although we made substantial progress in our basic understanding of addiction, reliable therapies are lacking. Since 40-60% of patients treated for substance use disorder return to active substance use within a year following treatment discharge, alleviating the vulnerability to relapse is regarded as the most promising avenue for addiction therapy. Preclinical addiction research often focuses on maladaptive synaptic plasticity within the reward pathway...
February 8, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Dan Z Reinstein, Timothy J Archer, Glenn I Carp, Alastair J Stuart, Elizabeth L Rowe, Andrew Nesbit, Tara Moore
PURPOSE: To report the incidence, visual and refractive outcomes, optical zone enlargement, and recentration using topography-guided CRS-Master TOSCA II software with the MEL 80 excimer laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) after primary myopic laser refractive surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 73 eyes (40 patients) with complaints of night vision disturbances due to either a decentration or small optical zone following a primary myopic laser refractive surgery procedure using the MEL 80 laser...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Paolo Vinciguerra, Fabrizio I Camesasca, Emanuela Morenghi, Claudio Azzolini, Luca Pagano, Silvia Trazza, Riccardo Vinciguerra
PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term results of sequential customized therapeutic keratectomy (SCTK) in highly aberrated corneas with apical scars consequent to hyperopic excimer laser refractive surgery. METHODS: Fifteen eyes of 12 patients treated with SCTK for a corneal apical scar after hyperopic excimer laser refractive surgery were retrospectively evaluated. SCTK is a sequence of custom therapeutic excimer laser keratectomies where the results are monitored step-by-step by intraoperative corneal topography...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Uchechukwu L Osuagwu, Pavan Verkicharla, Marwan Suheimat, David A Atchison
SIGNIFICANCE: Myopia prevalence rates differ between racial groups. If the growth of the eye is sensitive to differences in optical input, the difference in spherical aberration between East Asian and Caucasian eyes found in this study may be important in understanding myopia development. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine differences in peripheral wavefront aberrations between two racial groups. METHODS: Wavefront aberrations were measured using a COAS-HD aberrometer across the 42 × 32° central visual field on 37 right eyes of young adults (18 Caucasians, 19 East Asians; mean age 21...
February 5, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Yanglin Jiang, Yan Wang, Jiamei Zhang, Xiaoqin Chen, Lihua Li, Haoxin Zhao, Rui Wang, Yun Dai
This study investigated the instantaneous changes of higher-order aberrations (HOAs) following lower-order aberrations (LOAs) correction with a closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) system in myopic and emmetropic eyes. Data were analyzed using generalized additive mixed models. Time-related changes in HOAs were modeled with two-piecewise linear regressions and were compared between myopic and emmetropic eyes. Both vertical coma and spherical aberrations shifted to the positive direction immediately after LOA correction...
January 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Hassan Hashemi, Amin Nabavi, Reza Bayat, Masoumeh Mohebbi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome of additional KeraRing (Mediphacos, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) implantation in patients with keratoconus with previously implanted INTACS (Addition Technology Inc, Fremont, CA) segments. METHODS: The KeraRing was implanted in 5 eyes of 3 patients with keratoconus without removal of previous intrastromal corneal ring segments. Tunnels were created manually. Snellen uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity, refractive and keratometric values, and higher-order aberrations were recorded before and after KeraRing implantation...
January 30, 2018: Cornea
Miguel Faria-Ribeiro, Ana Amorim-de-Sousa, José M González-Méijome
PURPOSE: To investigate the separated and combined influences of inner zone (IZ) diameter and effective add power of dual-focus contact lenses (CL) in the image quality at distance and near viewing, in a functional accommodating model eye. METHODS: Computational wave-optics methods were used to define zonal bifocal pupil functions, representing the optic zones of nine dual-focus centre-distance CLs. The dual-focus pupil functions were defined having IZ diameters of 2...
January 31, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Kata Miháltz, Eva Maria Faschinger, Pia Veronika Vécsei-Marlovits
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of lipid- versus sodium hyaluronate-based eye drops on optical quality and ocular surface parameters. METHODS: Sixty eyes of 30 patients with mild-to-moderate dry eye disease were included in a prospective randomized study. Each patient received either lipid- or sodium hyaluronate-based eye drops. Ocular symptom scores, breakup time, Schirmer test, fluorescein staining, noncontact meibography, and aberrometry were evaluated before and after 3 months of therapy...
January 25, 2018: Cornea
Zequan Xu, Yanjun Hua, Wei Qiu, Guoqiang Li, Qiang Wu
BACKGROUND: To assess the precision and agreement of measurements of higher order aberrations (HOAs) obtained with a ray tracing aberrometer (iTrace) and a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (Topcon KR-1 W). METHODS: Prospective evaluation of the diagnostic test. Data from the right eyes of 92 normal subjects obtained using the two devices were included in this study. Two observers performed 3 consecutive scans to determine the intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility...
January 27, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Belinda P P Lay, R Frederick Westbrook, David L Glanzman, Nathan M Holmes
Consolidation of newly formed fear memories requires a series of molecular events within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). Once consolidated, new information can be assimilated into these established associative networks to form higher-order associations. Much is known about the molecular events involved in consolidating newly acquired fear memories but little is known about the events that consolidate a secondary fear memory. Here, we show that, within the male rat BLA, DNA methylation and gene transcription are crucial for consolidating both the primary and secondary fear memories...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yan Jia, Chen Zhang, Mingqiang Hua, Min Wang, Ping Chen, Daoxin Ma
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy in which the immune response serves a pivotal role in progression. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is involved in the modulation of the immune system, particularly in the differentiation of T-helper cell (Th) subsets. Although the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated as essential in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, the role it serves in the development of AML remains unknown. Therefore, in order to identify and describe the possible roles of AHR, as well as NLRP3 inflammasome, in the pathogenesis of AML and their relationship with Th subsets (Th1 Th22), the present study investigated the mRNA expression levels of AHR and NLRP3 inflammasome molecules in the peripheral blood and bone marrow...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
Hidenaga Kobashi, Kazutaka Kamiya, Kimiya Shimizu
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship of forward and backward scattering and corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) with corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). METHODS: This retrospective study comprised 25 eyes of 25 consecutive patients who underwent PK using the VisuMax femtosecond laser system and age-matched 25 eyes of 25 healthy subjects. We quantitatively assessed objective scattering index (OSI) using the double-pass instrument (OQAS II, Visiometrics), corneal densitometry (CD) and corneal HOAs with the Scheimpflug rotating camera (Pentacam HR, Oculus) 1 year postoperatively...
January 16, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Amir Faramarzi, Majid Moshirfar, Farid Karimian, Siamak Delfazayebaher, Bahareh Kheiri
PURPOSE: To compare the refractive and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) outcomes after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in patients with significant astigmatism using aspheric versus wavefront-guided aspheric profiles. SETTING: Ophthalmic Research Center and Department of Ophthalmology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Negah Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. DESIGN: Prospective randomized case series. METHODS: One eye of each patient with a refractive astigmatism more than 2...
December 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Juan A Durán, Elisa Gutiérrez, Rebeca Atienza, David P Piñero
PURPOSE: To assess the ocular optical quality results as well as the astigmatic changes after wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in eyes with myopic astigmatism. SETTING: Instituto Clínico-Quirúrgico Oftalmológico, Bilbao, Vizcaya, Spain. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Thirty-three eyes having wavefront-guided LASIK with the Star S4IR excimer laser combined with the iDesign system were enrolled in the study...
December 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
L Jones, A Varambhia, H Sawada, P D Nellist
In the scanning transmission electron microscope, an accurate knowledge of detector collection angles is paramount in order to quantify signals on an absolute scale. Here we present an optical configuration designed for the accurate measurement of collection angles for both image-detectors and energy-loss spectrometers. By deflecting a parallel electron beam, carefully calibrated using a diffraction pattern from a known material, we can directly observe the projection-distortion in the post-specimen lenses of probe-corrected instruments, the 3-fold caustic when an image-corrector is fitted, and any misalignment of imaging detectors or spectrometer apertures...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Hun Lee, David Sung Yong Kang, Byoung Jin Ha, Jin Young Choi, Eung Kweon Kim, Kyoung Yul Seo, Tae-Im Kim
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of combined corneal wavefront-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK) and accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) after intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation in patients with moderate keratoconus. METHODS: Medical records of 23 eyes of 23 patients undergoing combined tPRK and CXL after ICRS implantation were retrospectively analyzed. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), corneal indices based on Scheimpflug tomography, higher-order aberrations (HOAs), and corneal biomechanical properties were evaluated before and after ICRS implantation, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after combined tPRK and CXL...
December 29, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
Hassan Hashemi, Mohammad Miraftab, Soheila Asgari
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine 2-year changes in mesopic higher-order aberrations (HOAs) and contrast sensitivity (CS) after accelerated corneal cross-linking (CXL) in keratoconus patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this before-after interventional case series, patients with progressive keratoconus were subjected to accelerated CXL (18 mW/cm2, 5 min). Patients were examined with the OPD-Scan III and CVS-1000 grating charts under mesopic conditions at baseline and at 12 and 24 months after CXL...
July 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
Fereshteh Abolbashari, Asieh Ehsaei, Ramin Daneshvar, Nasrin Moghaddas Sharif, Ahmad Gholami, Naeemeh Monfared, Seyed Mahdi Ahmadi Hosseini
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of trabeculectomy on corneal topography, corneal sensitivity and aberrations. METHODS: Twenty-four eyes of 24 subjects with open-angle glaucoma who required glaucoma filtration surgery were assessed. The evaluation of corneal topography, corneal sensitivity and aberrations were done before the trabeculectomy procedure, 1 week and 1 month after the trabeculectomy. RESULTS: There were significant differences in cylindrical power (P = 0...
December 22, 2017: International Ophthalmology
Seong Ho Jo, Je Hyun Seo
PURPOSE: To investigate the changes in ocular higher-order aberrations (HOA) after trabeculectomy using mitomycin-C (MMC). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data for 63 eyes from 63 glaucoma patients who had undergone MMC augmented trabeculectomy. We measured intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive errors, anterior chamber depth (ACD), and HOA before surgery and 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of preoperative lens status: phakic and pseudophakic group...
December 22, 2017: International Ophthalmology
Achim Fieß, Alexander K Schuster, Ruth Kölb-Keerl, Markus Knuf, Bernd Kirchhof, Philipp S Muether, Jacqueline Bauer
Purpose: To compare corneal aberrations in former preterm infants to that of full-term infants. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out measuring the corneal shape with Scheimpflug imaging in former preterm infants of gestational age (GA) ≤32 weeks and full-term infants with GA ≥37 weeks now being aged between 4 to 10 years. The main outcome measures were corneal aberrations including astigmatism (Zernike: Z2-2; Z22), coma (Z3-1; Z31), trefoil (Z3-3; Z33), spherical aberration (Z40) and root-mean square of higher-order aberrations (RMS HOA)...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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