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prostate cancer strength

Georgios Markozannes, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Dimitra Karli, Evangelos Evangelou, Evangelia Ntzani, Marc J Gunter, Teresa Norat, John P Ioannidis, Konstantinos K Tsilidis
The existing literature on the relationship between diet, body size, physical activity and prostate cancer risk was summarised by the World Cancer Research Fund Continuous Update Project (CUP). An evaluation of the robustness of this evidence is required to help inform public health policy. The robustness of this evidence was evaluated using several criteria addressing evidence strength and validity, including the statistical significance of the random effects summary estimate and of the largest study in a meta-analysis, number of prostate cancer cases, between-study heterogeneity, 95% prediction intervals, small-study effects bias, excess significance bias and sensitivity analyses with credibility ceilings...
November 3, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Jennifer Salerno, Antonio Finelli, Chris Morash, Scott C Morgan, Nicholas Power, Nichola Schieda, Masoom A Haider
INTRODUCTION: The utility of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the local staging of prostate cancer is controversial. Due to the success of multiparametric MRI in cancer localization, there is renewed interested in MRI (± functional sequences) for local staging. Guidance on pre-treatment local staging of prostate cancer by MRI was developed using systematic review methodology and expert consultation. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and other databases were searched to identify studies comparing: (1) MRI staging vs...
September 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Aoife Kilcoyne, Melissa C Price, Shaunagh McDermott, Mukesh G Harisinghani
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men and is the second highest cause of cancer death in men of all races. Accurate lymph node staging is essential to ensure adequate treatment of prostate cancer. Historically, conventional imaging methods have demonstrated limited sensitivity and specificity in the detection of lymph node metastases. There are many emerging PET tracers that have recently proven to be effective. In addition, the use of ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticle-enhanced MRI has demonstrated promising results...
October 27, 2016: Future Oncology
Elena Castro, Joaquin Mateo, David Olmos, Johann S de Bono
Several genomic studies have identified DNA repair gene defects in prostate cancer in the last 5 years. The mechanisms by which these DNA repair defects promote carcinogenesis and tumor progression in the prostate have not been fully elucidated, but their presence in at least 20-25% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs) provides an opportunity for a therapeutic strategy that turns a tumor strength into its weakness and may lead to arguably the first molecularly stratified treatment for this disease...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Roman Sosnowski, Marta Kulpa, Mariola Kosowicz, Fabrizio Presicce, Francesco Porpiglia, Andrea Tubaro, Cosimo De Nunzio, Tomasz Demkow
BACKGROUND: The evaluation of patients' expectations and quality of life in uro-oncology is considered an important outcome of treatment efficacy and satisfaction. Aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the most frequently adopted tools in uro-oncology to assess Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic literature search until October 2015 was performed on MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PubMed combining the following terms: "quality of life", "health related quality of life", "kidney cancer", "bladder cancer", "prostate cancer"...
September 28, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Zhiqiang Qin, Xiao Li, Jingyuan Tang, Xuping Jiang, Yajie Yu, Chengming Wang, Weizhang Xu, Yibo Hua, Bin Yu, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have investigated the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 polymorphism and prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility; however, the findings from those studies remain inconsistent. Hence, the aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a more reliable conclusion about such associations. METHODS: A meta-analysis based on twelve studies was conducted, and 8,341 PCa cases and 7,734 controls were included in this analysis...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Jesse K McKenney, Wei Wei, Sarah Hawley, Heidi Auman, Lisa F Newcomb, Hilary D Boyer, Ladan Fazli, Jeff Simko, Antonio Hurtado-Coll, Dean A Troyer, Maria S Tretiakova, Funda Vakar-Lopez, Peter R Carroll, Matthew R Cooperberg, Martin E Gleave, Raymond S Lance, Dan W Lin, Peter S Nelson, Ian M Thompson, Lawrence D True, Ziding Feng, James D Brooks
Histologic grading remains the gold standard for prognosis in prostate cancer, and assessment of Gleason score plays a critical role in active surveillance management. We sought to optimize the prognostic stratification of grading and developed a method of recording and studying individual architectural patterns by light microscopic evaluation that is independent of standard Gleason grade. Some of the evaluated patterns are not assessed by current Gleason grading (eg, reactive stromal response). Individual histologic patterns were correlated with recurrence-free survival in a retrospective postradical prostatectomy cohort of 1275 patients represented by the highest-grade foci of carcinoma in tissue microarrays...
November 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Randeep Kumar Kulshrestha, Sobhan Vinjamuri, Andrew England, Julie Nightingale, Peter Hogg
We describe the role of (18)F-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF) PET/CT bone scanning in the staging of breast and prostate cancer. (18)F-NaF PET was initially utilized as a bone scanning agent in the 1960s and early 1970s, however, its use was restricted by the then-available γ-cameras. The advent of hybrid PET/CT cameras in the late 1990s has shown a resurgence of interest in its use and role. After a brief introduction, this paper describes the radiopharmaceutical properties, dosimetry, pharmacokinetics, and mechanism of uptake of (18)F-NaF...
December 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Jianzhong Zhang, Li Xiao, Zhiqiang Qin, Aiming Xu, Kai Zhao, Chao Liang, Chenkui Miao, Jundong Zhu, Wei Chen, Yibo Hua, Yiyang Liu, Chao Zhang, Yajie Yu, Shifeng Su, Zengjun Wang
Germline HOXB13 G84E mutation (rs138213197) has been described associated with prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility but results of different studies are inconsistent. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the specific role of this mutation. Relevant available studies were identified by searching the databases Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to measure the strength of the association. Subgroup analysis were performed to evaluate the specific role of rs138213197 in disease aggressiveness, diagnostic age and family history...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Gali Cohen, Ilan Levy, Yuval, Jeremy D Kark, Noam Levin, David M Broday, David M Steinberg, Yariv Gerber
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested a carcinogenic effect of exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Recently, higher rates of cancer incidence were observed among myocardial infarction survivors compared with the general population. We examined the association between chronic exposure to nitrogen oxides, a proxy measure for traffic-related air pollution, and cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of myocardial infarction patients. METHODS: Patients aged ≤65 years admitted to hospital in central Israel with a first myocardial infarction in 1992-1993 were followed to 2013 for cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
T Dellavedova, M Boetto, J Olmedo, J P Sarria, R Nóbile, R Ponzano, L Quinteros, E Malizia Reynoso, F Minuzzi
OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer (PCa) is an androgen-dependent disease. In some cases, the tumor progresses despite castration levels of serum testosterone, turning into the lethal phenotype of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), still driven by androgens and requiring the androgen receptor as a driver and responsible for progression. Enzalutamide, an androgen receptor inhibitor, is indicated for the treatment of metastatic CRPC, asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic, after failure of androgen deprivation...
September 2016: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Chunliu Pan, Shalini Singh, Deepak M Sahasrabudhe, Joe V Chakkalakal, John J Krolewski, Kent L Nastiuk
First line treatment for recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Use of ADT has been increasing in frequency and duration, such that side effects increasingly impact patient quality of life. One of the most significant side effects of ADT is sarcopenia, which leads to a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, resulting in a clinical disability syndrome known as obese frailty. Utilizing aged mice, we developed a mouse model of ADT-induced sarcopenia that closely resembles the phenotype seen in patients, including loss of skeletal muscle strength, a reduced lean muscle mass, and increased adipose tissue...
September 9, 2016: Endocrinology
Favil Singh, Robert U Newton, Michael K Baker, Nigel A Spry, Dennis R Taaffe, Jeffery Thavaseelan, Daniel A Galvão
BACKGROUND: Prostatectomy is associated with short- and long-term morbidity, which includes attenuation of muscle function and deterioration of lean body mass. Physical function is a known predictor of morbidity and mortality, with initial evidence indicating that presurgical exercise is associated with fewer postsurgical complications and shorter hospitalization. The aim was to determine the feasibility of a supervised presurgical exercise program for prostate cancer (PCa) patients scheduled for prostatectomy...
September 1, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Jiehui Li, Robert M Brackbill, Tim S Liao, Baozhen Qiao, James E Cone, Mark R Farfel, James L Hadler, Amy R Kahn, Kevin J Konty, Leslie T Stayner, Steven D Stellman
BACKGROUND: Cancer incidence in exposed rescue/recovery workers (RRWs) and civilians (non-RRWs) was previously reported through 2008. METHODS: We studied occurrence of first primary cancer among World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees through 2011 using adjusted standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and the WTC-exposure-cancer association, using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: All-cancer SIR was 1.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1...
September 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Ryan Lewis, Brad Hornberger
Since prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing was approved in 1994, the incidence of metastasis and mortality from prostate cancer have significantly decreased. However, PSA screening for prostate cancer has limitations and few large randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine the mortality benefit of PSA screening. Two studies that have been conducted are the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC)...
September 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Hiram Shaish, Stella K Kang, Andrew B Rosenkrantz
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to perform a meta-analysis of studies investigating the diagnostic performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in separating high-risk from low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched in December 2015 for studies reporting diagnostic performance of ADC values for discriminating high-risk from low-risk PCa and providing sufficient data to construct 2 × 2 contingency tables...
August 25, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Yuting Ling, Chunhui Li, Kairui Feng, Scott Palmer, Paul L Appleton, Stephen Lang, David McGloin, Zhihong Huang, Ghulam Nabi
Prostate cancer is a multifocal disease with characteristic heterogeneity and foci that can range from low grade indolent to aggressive disease. The latter is characterised by the well-established histopathological Gleason grading system used in the current clinical care. Nevertheless, a large discrepancy exists on initial biopsy and after the final radical prostatectomy. Moreover, there is no reliable imaging modality to study these foci, in particular at the level of the cells and surrounding matrix. Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is significant in cancer progression with collagen as the dominant structural component providing mechanical strength and flexibility of tissue...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Robert J MacInnis, Daniel F Schmidt, Enes Makalic, Gianluca Severi, Liesel M FitzGerald, Matthias Reumann, Miroslaw K Kapuscinski, Adam Kowalczyk, Zeyu Zhou, Benjamin Goudey, Guoqi Qian, Quang M Bui, Daniel J Park, Adam Freeman, Melissa C Southey, Ali Amin Al Olama, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Rosalind A Eeles, John L Hopper, Graham G Giles
BACKGROUND: We have developed a genome-wide association study analysis method called DEPTH (DEPendency of association on the number of Top Hits) to identify genomic regions potentially associated with disease by considering overlapping groups of contiguous markers (e.g., SNPs) across the genome. DEPTH is a machine learning algorithm for feature ranking of ultra-high dimensional datasets, built from well-established statistical tools such as bootstrapping, penalized regression, and decision trees...
December 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Samuel Borofsky, Shawn Haji-Momenian, Sheil Shah, Myles Taffel
With recent technological advancements, multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) has evolved into an important tool in the detection, localization and staging of prostate cancer. Optimization of image quality is paramount to mpMRI technique. While PI-RADS version 2 established guidelines for minimum technical parameters, there is no uniformity in mpMRI protocols across institutions. This review will discuss the key sequences that comprise a mpMRI exam. Technical factors that affect image quality, such as pre-exam patient preparation, magnet field strength, endorectal coil utilization and sequence parameters will also be examined...
November 2016: Future Oncology
Dot Brown, John Oetzel, Alison Henderson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to identify the factors that shape the communication networks of men who face a potential diagnosis of prostate cancer, and how these factors relate to their disclosure about their changing health status. BACKGROUND: Men facing a potential diagnosis of prostate cancer are in a challenging situation; the support benefits of disclosing their changing health status to others in their communication networks is set against a backdrop of the potential stigma and uncertainty of the diagnosis...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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