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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147975/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-and-the-risk-of-a-second-amphibian-pandemic
#1
REVIEW
Tiffany A Yap, Natalie T Nguyen, Megan Serr, Alexander Shepack, Vance T Vredenburg
Amphibians are experiencing devastating population declines globally. A major driver is chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Bd was described in 1999 and has been linked with declines since the 1970s, while Bsal is a more recently discovered pathogen that was described in 2013. It is hypothesized that Bsal originated in Asia and spread via international trade to Europe, where it has been linked to salamander die-offs...
November 16, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119317/prodigiosin-violacein-and-volatile-organic-compounds-produced-by-widespread-cutaneous-bacteria-of-amphibians-can-inhibit-two-batrachochytrium-fungal-pathogens
#2
Douglas C Woodhams, Brandon C LaBumbard, Kelly L Barnhart, Matthew H Becker, Molly C Bletz, Laura A Escobar, Sandra V Flechas, Megan E Forman, Anthony A Iannetta, Maureen D Joyce, Falitiana Rabemananjara, Brian Gratwicke, Miguel Vences, Kevin P C Minbiole
Symbiotic bacteria can produce secondary metabolites and volatile compounds that contribute to amphibian skin defense. Some of these symbionts have been used as probiotics to treat or prevent the emerging disease chytridiomycosis. We examined 20 amphibian cutaneous bacteria for the production of prodigiosin or violacein, brightly colored defense compounds that pigment the bacteria and have characteristic spectroscopic properties making them readily detectable, and evaluated the antifungal activity of these compounds...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030867/do-host-associated-gut-microbiota-mediate-the-effect-of-an-herbicide-on-disease-risk-in-frogs
#3
Sarah A Knutie, Caitlin Gabor, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
1.Environmental stressors, such as pollutants, can increase disease risk in wildlife. For example, the herbicide atrazine affects host defenses (e.g. resistance and tolerance) of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but the mechanisms for these associations are not always clear. Given that pollutants can alter the gut microbiota of hosts, which in turn can affect their health and immune systems, one potential mechanism by which pollutants could increase infection risk is by influencing host-associated microbiota...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030586/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-not-detected-in-u-s-survey-of-pet-salamanders
#4
Blake Klocke, Matthew Becker, James Lewis, Robert C Fleischer, Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Larry Rockwood, A Alonso Aguirre, Brian Gratwicke
We engaged pet salamander owners in the United States to screen their animals for two amphibian chytrid fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal). We provided pet owners with a sampling kit and instructional video to swab the skin of their animals. We received 639 salamander samples from 65 species by mail, and tested them for Bd and Bsal using qPCR. We detected Bd on 1.3% of salamanders (95% CI 0.0053-0.0267) and did not detect Bsal (95% CI 0.0000-0.0071). If Bsal is present in the U...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023562/efficacy-of-chemical-disinfectants-for-the-containment-of-the-salamander-chytrid-fungus-batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans
#5
Pascale Van Rooij, Frank Pasmans, Yanaika Coen, An Martel
The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal®, Chloramine-T®, Dettol medical®, Disolol®, ethanol, F10®, Hibiscrub®, potassium permanganate, Safe4®, sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S®, were effective at killing Bsal. Concentrations of 5% sodium chloride or lower, 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978729/fragile-coexistence-of-a-global-chytrid-pathogen-with-amphibian-populations-is-mediated-by-environment-and-demography
#6
Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Stefano Canessa, An Martel, Frank Pasmans
Unravelling the multiple interacting drivers of host-pathogen coexistence is crucial in understanding how an apparently stable state of endemism may shift towards an epidemic and lead to biodiversity loss. Here, we investigate the apparent coexistence of the global amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) with Bombina variegata populations in The Netherlands over a 7-year period. We used a multi-season mark-recapture dataset and assessed potential drivers of coexistence (individual condition, environmental mediation and demographic compensation) at the individual and population levels...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930087/detection-of-amphibian-chytrid-fungus-on-waterfowl-integument-in-natural-settings
#7
Shane M Hanlon, Jerad R Henson, Jacob L Kerby
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causal agent of the amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, has spread at an alarming rate since its discovery. Bd was initially thought to only infect keratinizing epithelial cells in amphibians, a core component of amphibian skin. However, recent studies have detected Bd on the integument of non-amphibian hosts. We conducted a survey of 3 duck species (gadwalls, green-winged teals, and mallards) to determine whether Bd DNA could be found on their feet...
September 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930083/differential-patterns-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-infection-in-relict-amphibian-populations-following-severe-disease-associated-declines
#8
Steven M Whitfield, Gilbert Alvarado, Juan Abarca, Hector Zumbado, Ibrahim Zuñiga, Mark Wainwright, Jacob Kerby
Global amphibian biodiversity has declined dramatically in the past 4 decades, and many amphibian species have declined to near extinction as a result of emergence of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). However, persistent or recovering populations of several amphibian species have recently been rediscovered, and such populations may illustrate how amphibian species that are highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis may survive in the presence of Bd. We conducted field surveys for Bd infection in 7 species of Costa Rican amphibians (all species that have declined to near extinction but for which isolated populations persist) to characterize infection profiles in highly Bd-susceptible amphibians post-decline...
September 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875068/skin-bacterial-microbiome-of-a-generalist-puerto-rican-frog-varies-along-elevation-and-land-use-gradients
#9
Myra C Hughey, Janelle A Pena, Roberto Reyes, Daniel Medina, Lisa K Belden, Patricia A Burrowes
Host-associated microbial communities are ubiquitous among animals, and serve important functions. For example, the bacterial skin microbiome of amphibians can play a role in preventing or reducing infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Evidence suggests that environmental bacteria likely serve as a source pool for at least some of the members of the amphibian skin bacterial community, underscoring the potential for local environmental changes to disrupt microbial community source pools that could be critical to the health of host organisms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839273/infection-increases-vulnerability-to-climate-change-via-effects-on-host-thermal-tolerance
#10
Sasha E Greenspan, Deborah S Bower, Elizabeth A Roznik, David A Pike, Gerry Marantelli, Ross A Alford, Lin Schwarzkopf, Brett R Scheffers
Unprecedented global climate change and increasing rates of infectious disease emergence are occurring simultaneously. Infection with emerging pathogens may alter the thermal thresholds of hosts. However, the effects of fungal infection on host thermal limits have not been examined. Moreover, the influence of infections on the heat tolerance of hosts has rarely been investigated within the context of realistic thermal acclimation regimes and potential anthropogenic climate change. We tested for effects of fungal infection on host thermal tolerance in a model system: frogs infected with the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835551/land-cover-and-forest-connectivity-alter-the-interactions-among-host-pathogen-and-skin-microbiome
#11
C G Becker, A V Longo, C F B Haddad, K R Zamudio
Deforestation has detrimental consequences on biodiversity, affecting species interactions at multiple scales. The associations among vertebrates, pathogens and their commensal/symbiotic microbial communities (i.e. microbiomes) have important downstream effects for biodiversity conservation, yet we know little about how deforestation contributes to changes in host microbial diversity and pathogen abundance. Here, we tested the effects of landcover, forest connectivity and infection by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) on amphibian skin bacterial diversity along deforestation gradients in Brazilian landscapes...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729657/spatial-and-temporal-changes-of-parasitic-chytrids-of-cyanobacteria
#12
Mélanie Gerphagnon, Jonathan Colombet, Delphine Latour, Télesphore Sime-Ngando
Parasitism is certainly one of the most important driving biotic factors of cyanobacterial blooms which remains largely understudied. Among these parasites, fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids) are the only eukaryotic microorganisms infecting cyanobacteria. Here, we address spatiotemporal dynamics of the cyanobacterial host Dolichospermum macrosporum (syn. Anabaena macrospora) and its associated chytrid parasites, Rhizosiphon spp., in an eutrophic lake by studying spatial (vertical, horizontal) and temporal (annual and inter-annual) variations...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704705/a-new-parasitic-chytrid-staurastromyces-oculus-rhizophydiales-staurastromycetaceae-fam-nov-infecting-the-freshwater-desmid-staurastrum-sp
#13
Silke Van den Wyngaert, Kensuke Seto, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Maiko Kagami, Hans-Peter Grossart
Chytrids are a diverse group of ubiquitous true zoosporic fungi. The recent molecular discovery of a large diversity of undescribed chytrids has raised awareness on their important, but so far understudied ecological role in aquatic ecosystems. In the pelagic zone, of both freshwater and marine ecosystems, many chytrid species have been morphologically described as parasites on almost all major groups of phytoplankton. However, the majority of these parasitic chytrids has rarely been isolated and lack DNA sequence data, resulting in a large proportion of "dark taxa" in databases...
May 13, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634476/changes-in-n-p-supply-ratios-affect-the-ecological-stoichiometry-of-a-toxic-cyanobacterium-and-its-fungal-parasite
#14
Thijs Frenken, Joren Wierenga, Alena S Gsell, Ellen van Donk, Thomas Rohrlack, Dedmer B Van de Waal
Human activities have dramatically altered nutrient fluxes from the landscape into receiving waters. As a result, not only the concentration of nutrients in surface waters has increased, but also their elemental ratios have changed. Such shifts in resource supply ratios will alter autotroph stoichiometry, which may in turn have consequences for higher trophic levels, including parasites. Here, we hypothesize that parasite elemental composition will follow changes in the stoichiometry of its host, and that its reproductive success will decrease with host nutrient limitation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618196/integrating-chytrid-fungal-parasites-into-plankton-ecology-research-gaps-and-needs
#15
REVIEW
Thijs Frenken, Elisabet Alacid, Stella A Berger, Elizabeth C Bourne, Mélanie Gerphagnon, Hans-Peter Grossart, Alena S Gsell, Bas W Ibelings, Maiko Kagami, Frithjof C Küpper, Peter M Letcher, Adeline Loyau, Takeshi Miki, Jens C Nejstgaard, Serena Rasconi, Albert Reñé, Thomas Rohrlack, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Dirk S Schmeller, Bettina Scholz, Kensuke Seto, Télesphore Sime-Ngando, Assaf Sukenik, Dedmer B Van de Waal, Silke Van den Wyngaert, Ellen Van Donk, Justyna Wolinska, Christian Wurzbacher, Ramsy Agha
Chytridiomycota, often referred to as chytrids, can be virulent parasites with the potential to inflict mass mortalities on hosts, causing e.g. changes in phytoplankton size distributions and succession, and the delay or suppression of bloom events. Molecular environmental surveys have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of chytrids across a wide range of aquatic ecosystems worldwide. As a result, scientific interest towards fungal parasites of phytoplankton has been gaining momentum in the past few years...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562628/introduced-bullfrogs-are-associated-with-increased-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-prevalence-and-reduced-occurrence-of-korean-treefrogs
#16
Amaël Borzée, Tiffany A Kosch, Miyeon Kim, Yikweon Jang
Bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus, have been described as major vectors of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Bd is widespread throughout the range of amphibians yet varies considerably within and among populations in prevalence and host impact. In our study, the presence of L. catesbeianus is correlated with a 2.5 increase in Bd prevalence in treefrogs, and the endangered Dryophytes suweonensis displays a significantly higher Bd prevalence than the more abundant D. japonicus for the 37 sites surveyed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494706/ranid-herpesvirus-3-and-proliferative-dermatitis-in-free-ranging-wild-common-frogs-rana-temporaria
#17
F C Origgi, B R Schmidt, P Lohmann, P Otten, E Akdesir, V Gaschen, L Aguilar-Bultet, T Wahli, U Sattler, M H Stoffel
Amphibian pathogens are of current interest as contributors to the global decline of amphibians. However, compared with chytrid fungi and ranaviruses, herpesviruses have received relatively little attention. Two ranid herpesviruses have been described: namely, Ranid herpesvirus 1 (RHV1) and Ranid herpesvirus 2 (RHV2). This article describes the discovery and partial characterization of a novel virus tentatively named Ranid herpesvirus 3 (RHV3), a candidate member of the genus Batrachovirus in the family Alloherpesviridae...
July 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473602/wasp-and-scar-are-evolutionarily-conserved-in-actin-filled-pseudopod-based-motility
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lillian K Fritz-Laylin, Samuel J Lord, R Dyche Mullins
Diverse eukaryotic cells crawl through complex environments using distinct modes of migration. To understand the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary relationships, we must define each mode and identify its phenotypic and molecular markers. In this study, we focus on a widely dispersed migration mode characterized by dynamic actin-filled pseudopods that we call "α-motility." Mining genomic data reveals a clear trend: only organisms with both WASP and SCAR/WAVE-activators of branched actin assembly-make actin-filled pseudopods...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464282/using-a-bayesian-network-to-clarify-areas-requiring-research-in-a-host-pathogen-system
#19
D S Bower, K Mengersen, R A Alford, L Schwarzkopf
Bayesian network analyses can be used to interactively change the strength of effect of variables in a model to explore complex relationships in new ways. In doing so, they allow one to identify influential nodes that are not well studied empirically so that future research can be prioritized. We identified relationships in host and pathogen biology to examine disease-driven declines of amphibians associated with amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). We constructed a Bayesian network consisting of behavioral, genetic, physiological, and environmental variables that influence disease and used them to predict host population trends...
May 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462022/exploring-the-binding-properties-and-structural-stability-of-an-opsin-in-the-chytrid-spizellomyces-punctatus-using-comparative-and-molecular-modeling
#20
Steven R Ahrendt, Edgar Mauricio Medina, Chia-En A Chang, Jason E Stajich
BACKGROUND: Opsin proteins are seven transmembrane receptor proteins which detect light. Opsins can be classified into two types and share little sequence identity: type 1, typically found in bacteria, and type 2, primarily characterized in metazoa. The type 2 opsins (Rhodopsins) are a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a large and diverse class of seven transmembrane proteins and are generally restricted to metazoan lineages. Fungi use light receptors including opsins to sense the environment and transduce signals for developmental or metabolic changes...
2017: PeerJ
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