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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281968/transcriptome-analyses-of-immune-tissues-from-three-japanese-frogs-genus-rana-reveals-their-utility-in-characterizing-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-ii
#1
Quintin Lau, Takeshi Igawa, Ryuhei Minei, Tiffany A Kosch, Yoko Satta
BACKGROUND: In Japan and East Asia, endemic frogs appear to be tolerant or not susceptible to chytridiomycosis, a deadly amphibian disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytridium dendrobatidis (Bd). Japanese frogs may have evolved mechanisms of immune resistance to pathogens such as Bd. This study characterizes immune genes expressed in various tissues of healthy Japanese Rana frogs. RESULTS: We generated transcriptome data sets of skin, spleen and blood from three adult Japanese Ranidae frogs (Japanese brown frog Rana japonica, the montane brown frog Rana ornativentris, and Tago's brown frog Rana tagoi tagoi) as well as whole body of R...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276502/composition-of-micro-eukaryotes-on-the-skin-of-the-cascades-frog-rana-cascadae-and-patterns-of-correlation-between-skin-microbes-and-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#2
Jordan G Kueneman, Sophie Weiss, Valerie J McKenzie
Global amphibian decline linked to fungal pathogens has galvanized research on applied amphibian conservation. Skin-associated bacterial communities of amphibians have been shown to mediate fungal skin infections and the development of probiotic treatments with antifungal bacteria has become an emergent area of research. While exploring the role of protective bacteria has been a primary focus for amphibian conservation, we aim to expand and study the other microbes present in amphibian skin communities including fungi and other micro-eukaryotes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218845/probiotic-consortia-are-not-uniformly-effective-against-different-amphibian-chytrid-pathogen-isolates
#3
Rachael E Antwis, Xavier A Harrison
Symbiotic bacterial communities can protect their hosts from infection by pathogens. Treatment of wild individuals with protective bacteria (probiotics) isolated from hosts can combat the spread of emerging infectious diseases. However, it is unclear whether candidate probiotic bacteria can offer consistent protection across multiple isolates of globally-distributed pathogens. Here we use the lethal amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis to investigate whether probiotic richness (number of bacteria) or genetic distance among consortia members influences broad-scale in vitro inhibitory capabilities of probiotics across multiple isolates of the pathogen...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192210/low-resistance-to-chytridiomycosis-in-direct-developing-amphibians
#4
Andréa F C Mesquita, Carolina Lambertini, Mariana Lyra, Leo R Malagoli, Timothy Y James, Luís Felipe Toledo, Célio F B Haddad, C Guilherme Becker
Host-generalist pathogens sporadically infect naive hosts, potentially triggering epizootics. The waterborne fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is linked to declines of hundreds of amphibian species with aquatic larvae. Although several population declines and extinctions attributed to Bd have been reported among cryptic species undergoing direct development away from water, epidemiological studies focused on these terrestrial frogs are lacking. Our field data support that terrestrial direct-developing hosts are less exposed to Bd during their ontogeny than species with aquatic larvae, and thus they might lack adaptive responses against waterborne chytrids...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187961/host-size-influences-the-effects-of-four-isolates-of-an-amphibian-chytrid-fungus
#5
Angela K Burrow, Samantha L Rumschlag, Michelle D Boone
Understanding factors that influence host-pathogen interactions is key to predicting outbreaks in natural systems experiencing environmental change. Many amphibian population declines have been attributed to an amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). While this fungus is widespread, not all Bd-positive populations have been associated with declines, which could be attributed to differences in pathogen virulence or host susceptibility. In a laboratory experiment, we examined the effects of Bd isolate origin, two from areas with Bd-associated amphibian population declines (El Copé, Panama, and California, USA) and two from areas without Bd-related population declines (Ohio and Maine, USA), on the terrestrial growth and survival of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) metamorphs reared in larval environments with low or high intraspecific density...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163558/current-status-and-challenges-in-identifying-disease-resistance-genes-in-brassica-napus
#6
REVIEW
Ting Xiang Neik, Martin J Barbetti, Jacqueline Batley
Brassica napus is an economically important crop across different continents including temperate and subtropical regions in Europe, Canada, South Asia, China and Australia. Its widespread cultivation also brings setbacks as it plays host to fungal, oomycete and chytrid pathogens that can lead to serious yield loss. For sustainable crop production, identification of resistance (R) genes in B. napus has become of critical importance. In this review, we discuss four key pathogens affecting Brassica crops: Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae), Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans and L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147975/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-and-the-risk-of-a-second-amphibian-pandemic
#7
REVIEW
Tiffany A Yap, Natalie T Nguyen, Megan Serr, Alexander Shepack, Vance T Vredenburg
Amphibians are experiencing devastating population declines globally. A major driver is chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Bd was described in 1999 and has been linked with declines since the 1970s, while Bsal is a more recently discovered pathogen that was described in 2013. It is hypothesized that Bsal originated in Asia and spread via international trade to Europe, where it has been linked to salamander die-offs...
December 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119317/prodigiosin-violacein-and-volatile-organic-compounds-produced-by-widespread-cutaneous-bacteria-of-amphibians-can-inhibit-two-batrachochytrium-fungal-pathogens
#8
Douglas C Woodhams, Brandon C LaBumbard, Kelly L Barnhart, Matthew H Becker, Molly C Bletz, Laura A Escobar, Sandra V Flechas, Megan E Forman, Anthony A Iannetta, Maureen D Joyce, Falitiana Rabemananjara, Brian Gratwicke, Miguel Vences, Kevin P C Minbiole
Symbiotic bacteria can produce secondary metabolites and volatile compounds that contribute to amphibian skin defense. Some of these symbionts have been used as probiotics to treat or prevent the emerging disease chytridiomycosis. We examined 20 amphibian cutaneous bacteria for the production of prodigiosin or violacein, brightly colored defense compounds that pigment the bacteria and have characteristic spectroscopic properties making them readily detectable, and evaluated the antifungal activity of these compounds...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030867/do-host-associated-gut-microbiota-mediate-the-effect-of-an-herbicide-on-disease-risk-in-frogs
#9
Sarah A Knutie, Caitlin Gabor, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
1.Environmental stressors, such as pollutants, can increase disease risk in wildlife. For example, the herbicide atrazine affects host defenses (e.g. resistance and tolerance) of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but the mechanisms for these associations are not always clear. Given that pollutants can alter the gut microbiota of hosts, which in turn can affect their health and immune systems, one potential mechanism by which pollutants could increase infection risk is by influencing host-associated microbiota...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030586/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-not-detected-in-u-s-survey-of-pet-salamanders
#10
Blake Klocke, Matthew Becker, James Lewis, Robert C Fleischer, Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Larry Rockwood, A Alonso Aguirre, Brian Gratwicke
We engaged pet salamander owners in the United States to screen their animals for two amphibian chytrid fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal). We provided pet owners with a sampling kit and instructional video to swab the skin of their animals. We received 639 salamander samples from 65 species by mail, and tested them for Bd and Bsal using qPCR. We detected Bd on 1.3% of salamanders (95% CI 0.0053-0.0267) and did not detect Bsal (95% CI 0.0000-0.0071). If Bsal is present in the U...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023562/efficacy-of-chemical-disinfectants-for-the-containment-of-the-salamander-chytrid-fungus-batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans
#11
Pascale Van Rooij, Frank Pasmans, Yanaika Coen, An Martel
The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal®, Chloramine-T®, Dettol medical®, Disolol®, ethanol, F10®, Hibiscrub®, potassium permanganate, Safe4®, sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S®, were effective at killing Bsal. Concentrations of 5% sodium chloride or lower, 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978729/fragile-coexistence-of-a-global-chytrid-pathogen-with-amphibian-populations-is-mediated-by-environment-and-demography
#12
Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Stefano Canessa, An Martel, Frank Pasmans
Unravelling the multiple interacting drivers of host-pathogen coexistence is crucial in understanding how an apparently stable state of endemism may shift towards an epidemic and lead to biodiversity loss. Here, we investigate the apparent coexistence of the global amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) with Bombina variegata populations in The Netherlands over a 7-year period. We used a multi-season mark-recapture dataset and assessed potential drivers of coexistence (individual condition, environmental mediation and demographic compensation) at the individual and population levels...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930087/detection-of-amphibian-chytrid-fungus-on-waterfowl-integument-in-natural-settings
#13
Shane M Hanlon, Jerad R Henson, Jacob L Kerby
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causal agent of the amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, has spread at an alarming rate since its discovery. Bd was initially thought to only infect keratinizing epithelial cells in amphibians, a core component of amphibian skin. However, recent studies have detected Bd on the integument of non-amphibian hosts. We conducted a survey of 3 duck species (gadwalls, green-winged teals, and mallards) to determine whether Bd DNA could be found on their feet...
September 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930083/differential-patterns-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-infection-in-relict-amphibian-populations-following-severe-disease-associated-declines
#14
Steven M Whitfield, Gilbert Alvarado, Juan Abarca, Hector Zumbado, Ibrahim Zuñiga, Mark Wainwright, Jacob Kerby
Global amphibian biodiversity has declined dramatically in the past 4 decades, and many amphibian species have declined to near extinction as a result of emergence of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). However, persistent or recovering populations of several amphibian species have recently been rediscovered, and such populations may illustrate how amphibian species that are highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis may survive in the presence of Bd. We conducted field surveys for Bd infection in 7 species of Costa Rican amphibians (all species that have declined to near extinction but for which isolated populations persist) to characterize infection profiles in highly Bd-susceptible amphibians post-decline...
September 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875068/skin-bacterial-microbiome-of-a-generalist-puerto-rican-frog-varies-along-elevation-and-land-use-gradients
#15
Myra C Hughey, Janelle A Pena, Roberto Reyes, Daniel Medina, Lisa K Belden, Patricia A Burrowes
Host-associated microbial communities are ubiquitous among animals, and serve important functions. For example, the bacterial skin microbiome of amphibians can play a role in preventing or reducing infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Evidence suggests that environmental bacteria likely serve as a source pool for at least some of the members of the amphibian skin bacterial community, underscoring the potential for local environmental changes to disrupt microbial community source pools that could be critical to the health of host organisms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839273/infection-increases-vulnerability-to-climate-change-via-effects-on-host-thermal-tolerance
#16
Sasha E Greenspan, Deborah S Bower, Elizabeth A Roznik, David A Pike, Gerry Marantelli, Ross A Alford, Lin Schwarzkopf, Brett R Scheffers
Unprecedented global climate change and increasing rates of infectious disease emergence are occurring simultaneously. Infection with emerging pathogens may alter the thermal thresholds of hosts. However, the effects of fungal infection on host thermal limits have not been examined. Moreover, the influence of infections on the heat tolerance of hosts has rarely been investigated within the context of realistic thermal acclimation regimes and potential anthropogenic climate change. We tested for effects of fungal infection on host thermal tolerance in a model system: frogs infected with the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835551/land-cover-and-forest-connectivity-alter-the-interactions-among-host-pathogen-and-skin-microbiome
#17
C G Becker, A V Longo, C F B Haddad, K R Zamudio
Deforestation has detrimental consequences on biodiversity, affecting species interactions at multiple scales. The associations among vertebrates, pathogens and their commensal/symbiotic microbial communities (i.e. microbiomes) have important downstream effects for biodiversity conservation, yet we know little about how deforestation contributes to changes in host microbial diversity and pathogen abundance. Here, we tested the effects of landcover, forest connectivity and infection by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) on amphibian skin bacterial diversity along deforestation gradients in Brazilian landscapes...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729657/spatial-and-temporal-changes-of-parasitic-chytrids-of-cyanobacteria
#18
Mélanie Gerphagnon, Jonathan Colombet, Delphine Latour, Télesphore Sime-Ngando
Parasitism is certainly one of the most important driving biotic factors of cyanobacterial blooms which remains largely understudied. Among these parasites, fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids) are the only eukaryotic microorganisms infecting cyanobacteria. Here, we address spatiotemporal dynamics of the cyanobacterial host Dolichospermum macrosporum (syn. Anabaena macrospora) and its associated chytrid parasites, Rhizosiphon spp., in an eutrophic lake by studying spatial (vertical, horizontal) and temporal (annual and inter-annual) variations...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704705/a-new-parasitic-chytrid-staurastromyces-oculus-rhizophydiales-staurastromycetaceae-fam-nov-infecting-the-freshwater-desmid-staurastrum-sp
#19
Silke Van den Wyngaert, Kensuke Seto, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Maiko Kagami, Hans-Peter Grossart
Chytrids are a diverse group of ubiquitous true zoosporic fungi. The recent molecular discovery of a large diversity of undescribed chytrids has raised awareness on their important, but so far understudied ecological role in aquatic ecosystems. In the pelagic zone, of both freshwater and marine ecosystems, many chytrid species have been morphologically described as parasites on almost all major groups of phytoplankton. However, the majority of these parasitic chytrids has rarely been isolated and lack DNA sequence data, resulting in a large proportion of "dark taxa" in databases...
May 13, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634476/changes-in-n-p-supply-ratios-affect-the-ecological-stoichiometry-of-a-toxic-cyanobacterium-and-its-fungal-parasite
#20
Thijs Frenken, Joren Wierenga, Alena S Gsell, Ellen van Donk, Thomas Rohrlack, Dedmer B Van de Waal
Human activities have dramatically altered nutrient fluxes from the landscape into receiving waters. As a result, not only the concentration of nutrients in surface waters has increased, but also their elemental ratios have changed. Such shifts in resource supply ratios will alter autotroph stoichiometry, which may in turn have consequences for higher trophic levels, including parasites. Here, we hypothesize that parasite elemental composition will follow changes in the stoichiometry of its host, and that its reproductive success will decrease with host nutrient limitation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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