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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634476/changes-in-n-p-supply-ratios-affect-the-ecological-stoichiometry-of-a-toxic-cyanobacterium-and-its-fungal-parasite
#1
Thijs Frenken, Joren Wierenga, Alena S Gsell, Ellen van Donk, Thomas Rohrlack, Dedmer B Van de Waal
Human activities have dramatically altered nutrient fluxes from the landscape into receiving waters. As a result, not only the concentration of nutrients in surface waters has increased, but also their elemental ratios have changed. Such shifts in resource supply ratios will alter autotroph stoichiometry, which may in turn have consequences for higher trophic levels, including parasites. Here, we hypothesize that parasite elemental composition will follow changes in the stoichiometry of its host, and that its reproductive success will decrease with host nutrient limitation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618196/integrating-chytrid-fungal-parasites-into-plankton-ecology-research-gaps-and-needs
#2
REVIEW
Thijs Frenken, Elisabet Alacid, Stella A Berger, Elizabeth C Bourne, Mélanie Gerphagnon, Hans-Peter Grossart, Alena S Gsell, Bas W Ibelings, Maiko Kagami, Frithjof C Küpper, Peter M Letcher, Adeline Loyau, Takeshi Miki, Jens C Nejstgaard, Serena Rasconi, Albert Reñé, Thomas Rohrlack, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Dirk S Schmeller, Bettina Scholz, Kensuke Seto, Télesphore Sime-Ngando, Assaf Sukenik, Dedmer B Van de Waal, Silke Van den Wyngaert, Ellen Van Donk, Justyna Wolinska, Christian Wurzbacher, Ramsy Agha
Chytridiomycota, often referred to as chytrids, can be virulent parasites with the potential to inflict mass mortalities on hosts, causing e.g. changes in phytoplankton size distributions and succession, and the delay or suppression of bloom events. Molecular environmental surveys have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of chytrids across a wide range of aquatic ecosystems worldwide. As a result, scientific interest towards fungal parasites of phytoplankton has been gaining momentum in the past few years...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562628/introduced-bullfrogs-are-associated-with-increased-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-prevalence-and-reduced-occurrence-of-korean-treefrogs
#3
Amaël Borzée, Tiffany A Kosch, Miyeon Kim, Yikweon Jang
Bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus, have been described as major vectors of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Bd is widespread throughout the range of amphibians yet varies considerably within and among populations in prevalence and host impact. In our study, the presence of L. catesbeianus is correlated with a 2.5 increase in Bd prevalence in treefrogs, and the endangered Dryophytes suweonensis displays a significantly higher Bd prevalence than the more abundant D. japonicus for the 37 sites surveyed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494706/ranid-herpesvirus-3-and-proliferative-dermatitis-in-free-ranging-wild-common-frogs-rana-temporaria
#4
F C Origgi, B R Schmidt, P Lohmann, P Otten, E Akdesir, V Gaschen, L Aguilar-Bultet, T Wahli, U Sattler, M H Stoffel
Amphibian pathogens are of current interest as contributors to the global decline of amphibians. However, compared with chytrid fungi and ranaviruses, herpesviruses have received relatively little attention. Two ranid herpesviruses have been described: namely, Ranid herpesvirus 1 (RHV1) and Ranid herpesvirus 2 (RHV2). This article describes the discovery and partial characterization of a novel virus tentatively named Ranid herpesvirus 3 (RHV3), a candidate member of the genus Batrachovirus in the family Alloherpesviridae...
July 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473602/wasp-and-scar-are-evolutionarily-conserved-in-actin-filled-pseudopod-based-motility
#5
Lillian K Fritz-Laylin, Samuel J Lord, R Dyche Mullins
Diverse eukaryotic cells crawl through complex environments using distinct modes of migration. To understand the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary relationships, we must define each mode and identify its phenotypic and molecular markers. In this study, we focus on a widely dispersed migration mode characterized by dynamic actin-filled pseudopods that we call "α-motility." Mining genomic data reveals a clear trend: only organisms with both WASP and SCAR/WAVE-activators of branched actin assembly-make actin-filled pseudopods...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464282/using-a-bayesian-network-to-clarify-areas-requiring-research-in-a-host-pathogen-system
#6
D S Bower, K Mengersen, R A Alford, L Schwarzkopf
Bayesian network analyses can integrate complex relationships to examine a range of hypotheses and identify areas that lack associated empirical studies, to prioritise future research. We examined complex relationships in host and pathogen biology to examine disease-driven decline by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen that is reducing amphibian biodiversity globally. We constructed a Bayesian network consisting of a range of behavioural, genetic, physiological, and environmental variables that influence disease, and used them to predict host population trends (the variable 'Population trend' which could be declining or stable)...
May 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462022/exploring-the-binding-properties-and-structural-stability-of-an-opsin-in-the-chytrid-spizellomyces-punctatus-using-comparative-and-molecular-modeling
#7
Steven R Ahrendt, Edgar Mauricio Medina, Chia-En A Chang, Jason E Stajich
BACKGROUND: Opsin proteins are seven transmembrane receptor proteins which detect light. Opsins can be classified into two types and share little sequence identity: type 1, typically found in bacteria, and type 2, primarily characterized in metazoa. The type 2 opsins (Rhodopsins) are a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a large and diverse class of seven transmembrane proteins and are generally restricted to metazoan lineages. Fungi use light receptors including opsins to sense the environment and transduce signals for developmental or metabolic changes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425998/drivers-of-salamander-extirpation-mediated-by-batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans
#8
Gwij Stegen, Frank Pasmans, Benedikt R Schmidt, Lieze O Rouffaer, Sarah Van Praet, Michael Schaub, Stefano Canessa, Arnaud Laudelout, Thierry Kinet, Connie Adriaensen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Wim Bert, Franky Bossuyt, An Martel
The recent arrival of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe was followed by rapid expansion of its geographical distribution and host range, confirming the unprecedented threat that this chytrid fungus poses to western Palaearctic amphibians. Mitigating this hazard requires a thorough understanding of the pathogen's disease ecology that is driving the extinction process. Here, we monitored infection, disease and host population dynamics in a Belgian fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population for two years immediately after the first signs of infection...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425465/chytrid-fungus-infection-in-zebrafish-demonstrates-that-the-pathogen-can-parasitize-non-amphibian-vertebrate-hosts
#9
Nicole Liew, Maria J Mazon Moya, Claudia J Wierzbicki, Michael Hollinshead, Michael J Dillon, Christopher R Thornton, Amy Ellison, Jo Cable, Matthew C Fisher, Serge Mostowy
Aquatic chytrid fungi threaten amphibian biodiversity worldwide owing to their ability to rapidly expand their geographical distributions and to infect a wide range of hosts. Combating this risk requires an understanding of chytrid host range to identify potential reservoirs of infection and to safeguard uninfected regions through enhanced biosecurity. Here we extend our knowledge on the host range of the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis by demonstrating infection of a non-amphibian vertebrate host, the zebrafish...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405365/dynamics-of-host-populations-affected-by-the-emerging-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans
#10
Benedikt R Schmidt, Claudio Bozzuto, Stefan Lötters, Sebastian Steinfartz
Emerging infectious diseases cause extirpation of wildlife populations. We use an epidemiological model to explore the effects of a recently emerged disease caused by the salamander-killing chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) on host populations, and to evaluate which mitigation measures are most likely to succeed. As individuals do not recover from Bsal, we used a model with the states susceptible, latent and infectious, and parametrized the model using data on host and pathogen taken from the literature and expert opinion...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371384/unlocking-the-story-in-the-swab-a-new-genotyping-assay-for-the-amphibian-chytrid-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#11
Allison Q Byrne, Andrew P Rothstein, Thomas J Poorten, Jesse Erens, Matthew L Settles, Erica Bree Rosenblum
One of the most devastating emerging pathogens of wildlife is the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which affects hundreds of amphibian species around the world. Genomic data from pure Bd cultures has advanced our understanding of Bd phylogenetics, genomic architecture, and mechanisms of virulence. However pure cultures are laborious to obtain and whole genome sequencing is comparatively expensive, so relatively few isolates have been genetically characterized. Thus we still know little about the genetic diversity of Bd in natural systems...
April 2, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361735/key-ecological-roles-for-zoosporic-true-fungi-in-aquatic-habitats
#12
Frank H Gleason, Bettina Scholz, Thomas G Jephcott, Floris F van Ogtrop, Linda Henderson, Osu Lilje, Sandra Kittelmann, Deborah J MacArthur
The diversity and abundance of zoosporic true fungi have been analyzed recently using fungal sequence libraries and advances in molecular methods, such as high-throughput sequencing. This review focuses on four evolutionary primitive true fungal phyla: the Aphelidea, Chytridiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, and Rosellida (Cryptomycota), most species of which are not polycentric or mycelial (filamentous), rather they tend to be primarily monocentric (unicellular). Zoosporic fungi appear to be both abundant and diverse in many aquatic habitats around the world, with abundance often exceeding other fungal phyla in these habitats, and numerous novel genetic sequences identified...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332467/fungal-sex-the-mucoromycota
#13
Soo Chan Lee, Alexander Idnurm
Although at the level of resolution of genes and molecules most information about mating in fungi is from a single lineage, the Dikarya, many fundamental discoveries about mating in fungi have been made in the earlier branches of the fungi. These are nonmonophyletic groups that were once classified into the chytrids and zygomycetes. Few species in these lineages offer the potential of genetic tractability, thereby hampering the ability to identify the genes that underlie those fundamental insights. Research performed during the past decade has now established the genes required for mating type determination and pheromone synthesis in some species in the phylum Mucoromycota, especially in the order Mucorales...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322291/genomic-innovations-linked-to-infection-strategies-across-emerging-pathogenic-chytrid-fungi
#14
Rhys A Farrer, An Martel, Elin Verbrugghe, Amr Abouelleil, Richard Ducatelle, Joyce E Longcore, Timothy Y James, Frank Pasmans, Matthew C Fisher, Christina A Cuomo
To understand the evolutionary pathways that lead to emerging infections of vertebrates, here we explore the genomic innovations that allow free-living chytrid fungi to adapt to and colonize amphibian hosts. Sequencing and comparing the genomes of two pathogenic species of Batrachochytrium to those of close saprophytic relatives reveals that pathogenicity is associated with remarkable expansions of protease and cell wall gene families, while divergent infection strategies are linked to radiations of lineage-specific gene families...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293222/characterization-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-inhibiting-bacteria-from-amphibian-populations-in-costa-rica
#15
Joseph D Madison, Elizabeth A Berg, Juan G Abarca, Steven M Whitfield, Oxana Gorbatenko, Adrian Pinto, Jacob L Kerby
Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible for declines and extinction, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been cited as a major constituent in these events. While the effects of this chytrid fungus have been shown to cause broad scale population declines and extinctions, certain individuals and relict populations have shown resistance. This resistance has been attributed in part to the cutaneous bacterial microbiome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287614/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-is-the-predominant-chytrid-fungus-in-vietnamese-salamanders
#16
Alexandra E Laking, Hai Ngoc Ngo, Frank Pasmans, An Martel, Tao Thien Nguyen
The amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), pose a major threat to amphibian biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests Southeast Asia as a potential cradle for both fungi, which likely resulted in widespread host-pathogen co-existence. We sampled 583 salamanders from 8 species across Vietnam in 55 locations for Bsal and Bd, determined scaled mass index as a proxy for fitness and collected environmental data. Bsal was found within 14 of the 55 habitats (2 of which it was detected in 2013), in 5 salamandrid species, with a prevalence of 2...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262636/effects-of-corticosterone-on-infection-and-disease-in-salamanders-exposed-to-the-amphibian-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#17
Chris W Fonner, Shreya A Patel, Shelby M Boord, Matthew D Venesky, Sarah K Woodley
Although it is well established that glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) alter immune function and disease resistance in humans and laboratory animal models, fewer studies have linked elevated GCs to altered immune function and disease resistance in wild animals. The chytrid fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infects amphibians and can cause the disease chytridiomycosis, which is responsible for worldwide amphibian declines. It is hypothesized that long-term exposure to environmental stressors reduces host resistance to Bd by suppressing host immunity via stress-induced release of GCs such as corticosterone (CORT)...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261462/long-term-monitoring-of-tropical-alpine-habitat-change-andean-anurans-and-chytrid-fungus-in-the-cordillera-vilcanota-peru-results-from-a-decade-of-study
#18
Tracie A Seimon, Anton Seimon, Karina Yager, Kelsey Reider, Amanda Delgado, Preston Sowell, Alfredo Tupayachi, Bronwen Konecky, Denise McAloose, Stephan Halloy
The Cordillera Vilcanota in southern Peru is the second largest glacierized range in the tropics and home to one of the largest high-alpine lakes, Sibinacocha (4,860 m). Here, Telmatobius marmoratus (marbled water frog), Rhinella spinulosa (Andean toad), and Pleurodema marmoratum (marbled four-eyed frog) have expanded their range vertically within the past century to inhabit newly formed ponds created by ongoing deglaciation. These anuran populations, geographically among the highest (5,200-5,400 m) recorded globally, are being impacted by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and the disease it causes, chytridiomycosis...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240267/impact-of-asynchronous-emergence-of-two-lethal-pathogens-on-amphibian-assemblages
#19
Gonçalo M Rosa, Joana Sabino-Pinto, Telma G Laurentino, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Rui Rebelo, Richard A Griffiths, Anke C Stöhr, Rachel E Marschang, Stephen J Price, Trenton W J Garner, Jaime Bosch
Emerging diseases have been increasingly associated with population declines, with co-infections exhibiting many types of interactions. The chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and ranaviruses have extraordinarily broad host ranges, however co-infection dynamics have been largely overlooked. We investigated the pattern of co-occurrence of these two pathogens in an amphibian assemblage in Serra da Estrela (Portugal). The detection of chytridiomycosis in Portugal was linked to population declines of midwife-toads (Alytes obstetricans)...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239442/integral-projection-models-for-host-parasite-systems-with-an-application-to-amphibian-chytrid-fungus
#20
Mark Q Wilber, Kate E Langwig, A Marm Kilpatrick, Hamish I McCallum, Cheryl J Briggs
Host parasite models are typically constructed under either a microparasite or macroparasite paradigm. However, this has long been recognized as a false dichotomy because many infectious disease agents, including most fungal pathogens, have attributes of both microparasites and macroparasites.We illustrate how Integral Projection Models (IPM)s provide a novel, elegant modeling framework to represent both types of pathogens. We build a simple host-parasite IPM that tracks both the number of susceptible and infected hosts and the distribution of parasite burdens in infected hosts...
October 2016: Methods in Ecology and Evolution
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