keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

chytrid

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425998/drivers-of-salamander-extirpation-mediated-by-batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans
#1
Gwij Stegen, Frank Pasmans, Benedikt R Schmidt, Lieze O Rouffaer, Sarah Van Praet, Michael Schaub, Stefano Canessa, Arnaud Laudelout, Thierry Kinet, Connie Adriaensen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Wim Bert, Franky Bossuyt, An Martel
The recent arrival of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe was followed by rapid expansion of its geographical distribution and host range, confirming the unprecedented threat that this chytrid fungus poses to western Palaearctic amphibians. Mitigating this hazard requires a thorough understanding of the pathogen's disease ecology that is driving the extinction process. Here, we monitored infection, disease and host population dynamics in a Belgian fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population for two years immediately after the first signs of infection...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425465/chytrid-fungus-infection-in-zebrafish-demonstrates-that-the-pathogen-can-parasitize-non-amphibian-vertebrate-hosts
#2
Nicole Liew, Maria J Mazon Moya, Claudia J Wierzbicki, Michael Hollinshead, Michael J Dillon, Christopher R Thornton, Amy Ellison, Jo Cable, Matthew C Fisher, Serge Mostowy
Aquatic chytrid fungi threaten amphibian biodiversity worldwide owing to their ability to rapidly expand their geographical distributions and to infect a wide range of hosts. Combating this risk requires an understanding of chytrid host range to identify potential reservoirs of infection and to safeguard uninfected regions through enhanced biosecurity. Here we extend our knowledge on the host range of the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis by demonstrating infection of a non-amphibian vertebrate host, the zebrafish...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405365/dynamics-of-host-populations-affected-by-the-emerging-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans
#3
Benedikt R Schmidt, Claudio Bozzuto, Stefan Lötters, Sebastian Steinfartz
Emerging infectious diseases cause extirpation of wildlife populations. We use an epidemiological model to explore the effects of a recently emerged disease caused by the salamander-killing chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) on host populations, and to evaluate which mitigation measures are most likely to succeed. As individuals do not recover from Bsal, we used a model with the states susceptible, latent and infectious, and parametrized the model using data on host and pathogen taken from the literature and expert opinion...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371384/unlocking-the-story-in-the-swab-a-new-genotyping-assay-for-the-amphibian-chytrid-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#4
Allison Q Byrne, Andrew P Rothstein, Thomas J Poorten, Jesse Erens, Matthew L Settles, Erica Bree Rosenblum
One of the most devastating emerging pathogens of wildlife is the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which affects hundreds of amphibian species around the world. Genomic data from pure Bd cultures has advanced our understanding of Bd phylogenetics, genomic architecture, and mechanisms of virulence. However pure cultures are laborious to obtain and whole genome sequencing is comparatively expensive, so relatively few isolates have been genetically characterized. Thus we still know little about the genetic diversity of Bd in natural systems...
April 2, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361735/key-ecological-roles-for-zoosporic-true-fungi-in-aquatic-habitats
#5
Frank H Gleason, Bettina Scholz, Thomas G Jephcott, Floris F van Ogtrop, Linda Henderson, Osu Lilje, Sandra Kittelmann, Deborah J MacArthur
The diversity and abundance of zoosporic true fungi have been analyzed recently using fungal sequence libraries and advances in molecular methods, such as high-throughput sequencing. This review focuses on four evolutionary primitive true fungal phyla: the Aphelidea, Chytridiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, and Rosellida (Cryptomycota), most species of which are not polycentric or mycelial (filamentous), rather they tend to be primarily monocentric (unicellular). Zoosporic fungi appear to be both abundant and diverse in many aquatic habitats around the world, with abundance often exceeding other fungal phyla in these habitats, and numerous novel genetic sequences identified...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332467/fungal-sex-the-mucoromycota
#6
Soo Chan Lee, Alexander Idnurm
Although at the level of resolution of genes and molecules most information about mating in fungi is from a single lineage, the Dikarya, many fundamental discoveries about mating in fungi have been made in the earlier branches of the fungi. These are nonmonophyletic groups that were once classified into the chytrids and zygomycetes. Few species in these lineages offer the potential of genetic tractability, thereby hampering the ability to identify the genes that underlie those fundamental insights. Research performed during the past decade has now established the genes required for mating type determination and pheromone synthesis in some species in the phylum Mucoromycota, especially in the order Mucorales...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322291/genomic-innovations-linked-to-infection-strategies-across-emerging-pathogenic-chytrid-fungi
#7
Rhys A Farrer, An Martel, Elin Verbrugghe, Amr Abouelleil, Richard Ducatelle, Joyce E Longcore, Timothy Y James, Frank Pasmans, Matthew C Fisher, Christina A Cuomo
To understand the evolutionary pathways that lead to emerging infections of vertebrates, here we explore the genomic innovations that allow free-living chytrid fungi to adapt to and colonize amphibian hosts. Sequencing and comparing the genomes of two pathogenic species of Batrachochytrium to those of close saprophytic relatives reveals that pathogenicity is associated with remarkable expansions of protease and cell wall gene families, while divergent infection strategies are linked to radiations of lineage-specific gene families...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293222/characterization-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-inhibiting-bacteria-from-amphibian-populations-in-costa-rica
#8
Joseph D Madison, Elizabeth A Berg, Juan G Abarca, Steven M Whitfield, Oxana Gorbatenko, Adrian Pinto, Jacob L Kerby
Global amphibian declines and extinction events are occurring at an unprecedented rate. While several factors are responsible for declines and extinction, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been cited as a major constituent in these events. While the effects of this chytrid fungus have been shown to cause broad scale population declines and extinctions, certain individuals and relict populations have shown resistance. This resistance has been attributed in part to the cutaneous bacterial microbiome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287614/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-is-the-predominant-chytrid-fungus-in-vietnamese-salamanders
#9
Alexandra E Laking, Hai Ngoc Ngo, Frank Pasmans, An Martel, Tao Thien Nguyen
The amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), pose a major threat to amphibian biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests Southeast Asia as a potential cradle for both fungi, which likely resulted in widespread host-pathogen co-existence. We sampled 583 salamanders from 8 species across Vietnam in 55 locations for Bsal and Bd, determined scaled mass index as a proxy for fitness and collected environmental data. Bsal was found within 14 of the 55 habitats (2 of which it was detected in 2013), in 5 salamandrid species, with a prevalence of 2...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262636/effects-of-corticosterone-on-infection-and-disease-in-salamanders-exposed-to-the-amphibian-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#10
Chris W Fonner, Shreya A Patel, Shelby M Boord, Matthew D Venesky, Sarah K Woodley
Although it is well established that glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) alter immune function and disease resistance in humans and laboratory animal models, fewer studies have linked elevated GCs to altered immune function and disease resistance in wild animals. The chytrid fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infects amphibians and can cause the disease chytridiomycosis, which is responsible for worldwide amphibian declines. It is hypothesized that long-term exposure to environmental stressors reduces host resistance to Bd by suppressing host immunity via stress-induced release of GCs such as corticosterone (CORT)...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261462/long-term-monitoring-of-tropical-alpine-habitat-change-andean-anurans-and-chytrid-fungus-in-the-cordillera-vilcanota-peru-results-from-a-decade-of-study
#11
Tracie A Seimon, Anton Seimon, Karina Yager, Kelsey Reider, Amanda Delgado, Preston Sowell, Alfredo Tupayachi, Bronwen Konecky, Denise McAloose, Stephan Halloy
The Cordillera Vilcanota in southern Peru is the second largest glacierized range in the tropics and home to one of the largest high-alpine lakes, Sibinacocha (4,860 m). Here, Telmatobius marmoratus (marbled water frog), Rhinella spinulosa (Andean toad), and Pleurodema marmoratum (marbled four-eyed frog) have expanded their range vertically within the past century to inhabit newly formed ponds created by ongoing deglaciation. These anuran populations, geographically among the highest (5,200-5,400 m) recorded globally, are being impacted by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and the disease it causes, chytridiomycosis...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240267/impact-of-asynchronous-emergence-of-two-lethal-pathogens-on-amphibian-assemblages
#12
Gonçalo M Rosa, Joana Sabino-Pinto, Telma G Laurentino, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Rui Rebelo, Richard A Griffiths, Anke C Stöhr, Rachel E Marschang, Stephen J Price, Trenton W J Garner, Jaime Bosch
Emerging diseases have been increasingly associated with population declines, with co-infections exhibiting many types of interactions. The chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and ranaviruses have extraordinarily broad host ranges, however co-infection dynamics have been largely overlooked. We investigated the pattern of co-occurrence of these two pathogens in an amphibian assemblage in Serra da Estrela (Portugal). The detection of chytridiomycosis in Portugal was linked to population declines of midwife-toads (Alytes obstetricans)...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239442/integral-projection-models-for-host-parasite-systems-with-an-application-to-amphibian-chytrid-fungus
#13
Mark Q Wilber, Kate E Langwig, A Marm Kilpatrick, Hamish I McCallum, Cheryl J Briggs
Host parasite models are typically constructed under either a microparasite or macroparasite paradigm. However, this has long been recognized as a false dichotomy because many infectious disease agents, including most fungal pathogens, have attributes of both microparasites and macroparasites.We illustrate how Integral Projection Models (IPM)s provide a novel, elegant modeling framework to represent both types of pathogens. We build a simple host-parasite IPM that tracks both the number of susceptible and infected hosts and the distribution of parasite burdens in infected hosts...
October 2016: Methods in Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177293/no-evidence-for-effects-of-infection-with-the-amphibian-chytrid-fungus-on-populations-of-yellow-bellied-toads
#14
Norman Wagner, Claus Neubeck, Daniela Guicking, Lennart Finke, Martin Wittich, Kurt Weising, Christian Geske, Michael Veith
The parasitic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause the lethal disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians and therefore may play a role in population declines. The yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata suffered strong declines throughout western and northwestern parts of its range and is therefore listed as highly endangered for Germany and the federal state of Hesse. Whether chytridiomycosis may play a role in the observed local declines of this strictly protected anuran species has never been tested...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125065/chytridiomycosis-of-marine-diatoms-the-role-of-stress-physiology-and-resistance-in-parasite-host-recognition-and-accumulation-of-defense-molecules
#15
Bettina Scholz, Frithjof C Küpper, Wim Vyverman, Halldór G Ólafsson, Ulf Karsten
Little is known about the role of chemotaxis in the location and attachment of chytrid zoospores to potential diatom hosts. Hypothesizing that environmental stress parameters affect parasite-host recognition, four chytrid-diatom tandem cultures (Chytridium sp./Navicula sp., Rhizophydium type I/Nitzschia sp., Rhizophydium type IIa/Rhizosolenia sp., Rhizophydium type IIb/Chaetoceros sp.) were used to test the chemotaxis of chytrid zoospores and the presence of potential defense molecules in a non-contact-co-culturing approach...
January 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095428/linking-ecology-and-epidemiology-to-understand-predictors-of-multi-host-responses-to-an-emerging-pathogen-the-amphibian-chytrid-fungus
#16
Stephanie S Gervasi, Patrick R Stephens, Jessica Hua, Catherine L Searle, Gisselle Yang Xie, Jenny Urbina, Deanna H Olson, Betsy A Bancroft, Virginia Weis, John I Hammond, Rick A Relyea, Andrew R Blaustein
Variation in host responses to pathogens can have cascading effects on populations and communities when some individuals or groups of individuals display disproportionate vulnerability to infection or differ in their competence to transmit infection. The fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been detected in almost 700 different amphibian species and is implicated in numerous global amphibian population declines. Identifying key hosts in the amphibian-Bd system-those who are at greatest risk or who pose the greatest risk for others-is challenging due in part to many extrinsic environmental factors driving spatiotemporal Bd distribution and context-dependent host responses to Bd in the wild...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094607/detection-of-the-amphibian-chytrid-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-in-museum-specimens-of-andean-aquatic-birds-implications-for-pathogen-dispersal
#17
Patricia A Burrowes, Ignacio De la Riva
The occurrence of the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in the feet of live waterfowl has been documented, but the potential role of birds as dispersers has not been studied. We report the presence of Bd in the feet of preserved aquatic birds in the Bolivian high Andes during the time of drastic amphibian declines in the country. We sampled 48 aquatic birds from the Bolivian Andes that were preserved in museum collections. Birds were sampled for the presence of Bd DNA by swabbing, taking small pieces of tissue from toe webbing, or both...
April 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080989/overview-of-chytrid-emergence-and-impacts-on-amphibians
#18
REVIEW
Karen R Lips
Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians that affects over 700 species on all continents where amphibians occur. The amphibian-chytridiomycosis system is complex, and the response of any amphibian species to chytrid depends on many aspects of the ecology and evolutionary history of the amphibian, the genotype and phenotype of the fungus, and how the biological and physical environment can mediate that interaction. Impacts of chytridiomycosis on amphibians are varied; some species have been driven extinct, populations of others have declined severely, whereas still others have not obviously declined...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055125/effects-of-amphibian-phylogeny-climate-and-human-impact-on-the-occurrence-of-the-amphibian-killing-chytrid-fungus
#19
Leonardo D Bacigalupe, Claudio Soto-Azat, Cristobal García-Vera, Ismael Barría-Oyarzo, Enrico L Rezende
Chytridiomycosis, due to the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been associated with the alarming decline and extinction crisis of amphibians worldwide. Because conservation programs are implemented locally, it is essential to understand how the complex interactions among host species, climate and human activities contribute to Bd occurrence at regional scales. Using weighted phylogenetic regressions and model selection, we investigated geographic patterns of Bd occurrence along a latitudinal gradient of 1,500 km within a biodiversity hotspot in Chile (1,845 individuals sampled from 253 sites and representing 24 species), and its association with climatic, socio-demographic and economic variables...
January 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028562/characterization-of-mhc-class-ia-in-the-endangered-southern-corroboree-frog
#20
Tiffany A Kosch, John A Eimes, Chelsea Didinger, Laura A Brannelly, Bruce Waldman, Lee Berger, Lee F Skerratt
Southern corroboree frogs (Pseudophryne corroboree) have declined to near extinction in the wild after the emergence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in southeastern Australia in the 1980s. A major captive breeding and reintroduction program is underway to preserve this iconic species, but improving resistance to B. dendrobatidis would help the wild population to be self-sustaining. Using 3' and 5' rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends (RACE), we characterized the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IA locus in this species...
December 27, 2016: Immunogenetics
keyword
keyword
104427
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"