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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080989/overview-of-chytrid-emergence-and-impacts-on-amphibians
#1
REVIEW
Karen R Lips
Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians that affects over 700 species on all continents where amphibians occur. The amphibian-chytridiomycosis system is complex, and the response of any amphibian species to chytrid depends on many aspects of the ecology and evolutionary history of the amphibian, the genotype and phenotype of the fungus, and how the biological and physical environment can mediate that interaction. Impacts of chytridiomycosis on amphibians are varied; some species have been driven extinct, populations of others have declined severely, whereas still others have not obviously declined...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055125/effects-of-amphibian-phylogeny-climate-and-human-impact-on-the-occurrence-of-the-amphibian-killing-chytrid-fungus
#2
Leonardo D Bacigalupe, Claudio Soto-Azat, Cristobal García-Vera, Ismael Barría-Oyarzo, Enrico L Rezende
Chytridiomycosis, due to the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been associated with the alarming decline and extinction crisis of amphibians worldwide. Because conservation programs are implemented locally, it is essential to understand how the complex interactions among host species, climate and human activities contribute to Bd occurrence at regional scales. Using weighted phylogenetic regressions and model selection, we investigated geographic patterns of Bd occurrence along a latitudinal gradient of 1,500 km within a biodiversity hotspot in Chile (1,845 individuals sampled from 253 sites and representing 24 species), and its association with climatic, socio-demographic and economic variables...
January 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028562/characterization-of-mhc-class-ia-in-the-endangered-southern-corroboree-frog
#3
Tiffany A Kosch, John A Eimes, Chelsea Didinger, Laura A Brannelly, Bruce Waldman, Lee Berger, Lee F Skerratt
Southern corroboree frogs (Pseudophryne corroboree) have declined to near extinction in the wild after the emergence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in southeastern Australia in the 1980s. A major captive breeding and reintroduction program is underway to preserve this iconic species, but improving resistance to B. dendrobatidis would help the wild population to be self-sustaining. Using 3' and 5' rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends (RACE), we characterized the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IA locus in this species...
December 27, 2016: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973602/a-new-chytridiomycete-fungus-intermixed-with-crustacean-resting-eggs-in-a-407-million-year-old-continental-freshwater-environment
#4
Christine Strullu-Derrien, Tomasz Goral, Joyce E Longcore, Jørgen Olesen, Paul Kenrick, Gregory D Edgecombe
The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland) contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957606/recent-emergence-of-a-chytrid-fungal-pathogen-in-california-cascades-frogs-rana-cascadae
#5
Marina E De León, Vance T Vredenburg, Jonah Piovia-Scott
The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been associated with global amphibian declines, but it is often difficult to discern the relative importance of Bd as a causal agent in declines that have already occurred. Retrospective analyses of museum specimens have allowed researchers to associate the timing of Bd arrival with the timing of past amphibian declines. Cascades frogs (Rana cascadae) have experienced dramatic declines in northern California, but it is not clear whether the onset of these declines corresponds to the arrival of Bd...
December 12, 2016: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832124/multilevel-models-for-the-distribution-of-hosts-and-symbionts
#6
Maxwell B Joseph, William E Stutz, Pieter T J Johnson
Symbiont occurrence is influenced by host occurrence and vice versa, which leads to correlations in host-symbiont distributions at multiple levels. Interactions between co-infecting symbionts within host individuals can cause correlations in the abundance of two symbiont species across individual hosts. Similarly, interactions between symbiont transmission and host population dynamics can drive correlations between symbiont and host abundance across habitat patches. If ignored, these interactions can confound estimated responses of hosts and symbionts to other factors...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798698/exploring-the-distribution-of-the-spreading-lethal-salamander-chytrid-fungus-in-its-invasive-range-in-europe-a-macroecological-approach
#7
Stephan Feldmeier, Lukas Schefczyk, Norman Wagner, Günther Heinemann, Michael Veith, Stefan Lötters
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a dangerous pathogen to salamanders and newts. Apparently native to Asia, it has recently been detected in Western Europe where it is expected to spread and to have dramatic effects on naïve hosts. Since 2010, Bsal has led to some catastrophic population declines of urodeles in the Netherlands and Belgium. More recently, it has been discovered in additional, more distant sites including sites in Germany. With the purpose to contribute to a better understanding of Bsal, we modelled its potential distribution in its invasive European range to gain insights about the factors driving this distribution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786160/jumping-into-a-trap-high-prevalence-of-chytrid-fungus-in-the-preferred-microhabitats-of-a-bromeliad-specialist-frog
#8
Gustavo Ruano-Fajardo, Luís Felipe Toledo, Tamí Mott
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been identified as a major threat to several amphibian populations in tropical forests. Amphibians that inhabit the phytotelmata (water tanks) of bromeliads may be especially at risk of Bd infection since the humid, environmentally buffered microhabitat that they prefer might also be favorable for Bd persistence on the host. To test this hypothesis, we sampled adults and tadpoles of the bromeligenous anuran Phyllodytes edelmoi (endemic to the northern Brazilian Atlantic Forest) from the bromeliad Portea leptantha for Bd, using qPCR...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733762/chytrid-parasitism-facilitates-trophic-transfer-between-bloom-forming-cyanobacteria-and-zooplankton-daphnia
#9
Ramsy Agha, Manja Saebelfeld, Christin Manthey, Thomas Rohrlack, Justyna Wolinska
Parasites are rarely included in food web studies, although they can strongly alter trophic interactions. In aquatic ecosystems, poorly grazed cyanobacteria often dominate phytoplankton communities, leading to the decoupling of primary and secondary production. Here, we addressed the interface between predator-prey and host-parasite interactions by conducting a life-table experiment, in which four Daphnia galeata genotypes were maintained on quantitatively comparable diets consisting of healthy cyanobacteria or cyanobacteria infected by a fungal (chytrid) parasite...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714973/phylogenetic-position-of-parasitic-chytrids-on-diatoms-characterization-of-a-novel-clade-in-chytridiomycota
#10
Kensuke Seto, Maiko Kagami, Yousuke Degawa
Chytrids are true fungi that reproduce with posteriorly uniflagellate zoospores. In the last decade, environmental DNA surveys revealed a large number of uncultured chytrids as well as undescribed order-level novel clades in Chytridiomycota. Although many species have been morphologically described, only some DNA sequence data of parasitic chytrids are available from the database. We herein discuss five cultures of parasitic chytrids on diatoms Aulacoseira spp. and Asterionella formosa. In order to identify the chytrids examined, thallus morphologies were observed using light microscopy...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709310/survey-of-pathogenic-chytrid-fungi-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-and-b-salamandrivorans-in-salamanders-from-three-mountain-ranges-in-europe-and-the-americas
#11
Joshua Curtis Parrott, Alexander Shepack, David Burkart, Brandon LaBumbard, Patrick Scimè, Ethan Baruch, Alessandro Catenazzi
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a virulent fungal pathogen that infects salamanders. It is implicated in the recent collapse of several populations of fire salamanders in Europe. This pathogen seems much like that of its sister species, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the agent responsible for anuran extinctions and extirpations worldwide, and is considered to be an emerging global threat to salamander communities. Bsal thrives at temperatures found in many mountainous regions rich in salamander species; because of this, we have screened specimens of salamanders representing 17 species inhabiting mountain ranges in three continents: The Smoky Mountains, the Swiss Alps, and the Peruvian Andes...
October 5, 2016: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695446/interplays-between-soil-borne-plant-viruses-and-rna-silencing-mediated-antiviral-defense-in-roots
#12
Ida Bagus Andika, Hideki Kondo, Liying Sun
Although the majority of plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors and invade the host plants through the aerial parts, there is a considerable number of plant viruses that infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors such as plasmodiophorids, chytrids, and nematodes. These soil-borne viruses belong to diverse families, and many of them cause serious diseases in major crop plants. Thus, roots are important organs for the life cycle of many viruses. Compared to shoots, roots have a distinct metabolism and particular physiological characteristics due to the differences in development, cell composition, gene expression patterns, and surrounding environmental conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690360/exposure-to-corticosterone-affects-host-resistance-but-not-tolerance-to-an-emerging-fungal-pathogen
#13
Julie Murone, Joseph A DeMarchi, Matthew D Venesky
Host responses to pathogens include defenses that reduce infection burden (i.e., resistance) and traits that reduce the fitness consequences of an infection (i.e., tolerance). Resistance and tolerance are affected by an organism's physiological status. Corticosterone ("CORT") is a hormone that is associated with the regulation of many physiological processes, including metabolism and reproduction. Because of its role in the stress response, CORT is also considered the primary vertebrate stress hormone. When secreted at high levels, CORT is generally thought to be immunosuppressive...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630622/contribution-of-multiple-inter-kingdom-horizontal-gene-transfers-to-evolution-and-adaptation-of-amphibian-killing-chytrid-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#14
Baofa Sun, Tong Li, Jinhua Xiao, Li Liu, Peng Zhang, Robert W Murphy, Shunmin He, Dawei Huang
Amphibian populations are experiencing catastrophic declines driven by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Although horizontal gene transfer (HGT) facilitates the evolution and adaptation in many fungi by conferring novel function genes to the recipient fungi, inter-kingdom HGT in Bd remains largely unexplored. In this study, our investigation detects 19 bacterial genes transferred to Bd, including metallo-beta-lactamase and arsenate reductase that play important roles in the resistance to antibiotics and arsenates...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582566/borealophlyctis-nickersoniae-a-new-species-in-rhizophlyctidales
#15
William J Davis, Peter M Letcher, Martha J Powell
Zoospore ultrastructural characters combined with molecular phylogenetic hypotheses have been used to revise the taxonomy of zoosporic true fungi. An example is the reclassification of Rhizophlyctis rosea-like fungal strains into four new families and three new genera within the order Rhizophlyctidales. One genus was Borealophlyctis, which included a Canadian isolate, DAOMC 229843. A recent survey of chytrid diversity in Alabama (USA) yielded additional strains (WJD 170, WJD 171) in the Borealophlyctis lineage...
July 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582565/characterization-of-a-new-chytrid-species-parasitic-on-the-dinoflagellate-peridinium-gatunense
#16
Tamar Leshem, Peter M Letcher, Martha J Powell, Assaf Sukenik
Only a few chytrid fungi have been reported as parasites of dinoflagellates. Among these reports, chytrids are periodically observed growing on the dinoflagellate, Peridinium gatunense, in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel. Because of the distinctive roles of parasitic chytrid fungi in decreasing phytoplankton populations and in transforming inedible algae into chytrid biomass which zooplankton grazers can eat, characterizing dinoflagellate parasites contributes to our understanding of the sustainability of this important water resource...
July 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567721/synchytrium-microbalum-sp-nov-is-a-saprobic-species-in-a-lineage-of-parasites
#17
Joyce E Longcore, D Rabern Simmons, Peter M Letcher
The diversity of the Chytridiomycota is poorly known and sequence information is not well represented in databases, often preventing identification of chytrid sequences retrieved from environmental samples. We found an unknown, saprobic chytrid, related to Synchytrium, which heretofore has been considered a lineage of parasites. Because of its phylogenetic relationship, and ecological dissimilarity to other Synchytrium species, we considered this fungus of scientific interest and describe it herein. We based our study on an analysis of 18S rDNA, light microscopic morphology, and ultrastructural characters of the zoospores...
September 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540072/genome-sequence-of-spizellomyces-punctatus
#18
Carsten Russ, B Franz Lang, Zehua Chen, Sharvari Gujja, Terrance Shea, Qiandong Zeng, Sarah Young, Christina A Cuomo, Chad Nusbaum
Spizellomyces punctatus is a basally branching chytrid fungus that is found in the Chytridiomycota phylum. Spizellomyces species are common in soil and of importance in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we report the genome sequence of S. punctatus, which will facilitate the study of this group of early diverging fungi.
August 18, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531158/major-histocompatibility-complex-selection-dynamics-in-pathogen-infected-t%C3%A3%C2%BAngara-frog-physalaemus-pustulosus-populations
#19
Tiffany A Kosch, Arnaud Bataille, Chelsea Didinger, John A Eimes, Sofia Rodríguez-Brenes, Michael J Ryan, Bruce Waldman
Pathogen-driven selection can favour major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles that confer immunological resistance to specific diseases. However, strong directional selection should deplete genetic variation necessary for robust immune function in the absence of balancing selection or challenges presented by other pathogens. We examined selection dynamics at one MHC class II (MHC-II) locus across Panamanian populations of the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, infected by the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)...
August 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525594/chytrid-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-in-wild-populations-of-the-lake-titicaca-frog-telmatobius-culeus-in-peru
#20
Raul A Berenguel, Roberto K Elias, Thomas J Weaver, Richard P Reading
The Lake Titicaca frog (Telmatobius culeus) is critically endangered, primarily from overexploitation. However, additional threats, such as chytrid fungus ( Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ), are poorly studied. We found moderate levels of chytrid infection using quantitative PCR. Our results enhance our understanding of chytrid tolerance to high pH and low water temperature.
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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