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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095196/analysis-of-online-composite-mirror-descent-algorithm
#1
Yunwen Lei, Ding-Xuan Zhou
We study the convergence of the online composite mirror descent algorithm, which involves a mirror map to reflect the geometry of the data and a convex objective function consisting of a loss and a regularizer possibly inducing sparsity. Our error analysis provides convergence rates in terms of properties of the strongly convex differentiable mirror map and the objective function. For a class of objective functions with Hölder continuous gradients, the convergence rates of the excess (regularized) risk under polynomially decaying step sizes have the order [Formula: see text] after [Formula: see text] iterates...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067363/efficient-floating-diffuse-functions-for-accurate-characterization-of-the-surface-bound-excess-electrons-in-water-cluster-anions
#2
Changzhe Zhang, Yuxiang Bu
In this work, the effect of diffuse function types (atom-centered diffuse functions versus floating functions and s-type versus p-type diffuse functions) on the structures and properties of three representative water cluster anions featuring a surface-bound excess electron is studied and we find that an effective combination of such two kinds of diffuse functions can not only reduce the computational cost but also, most importantly, considerably improve the accuracy of results and even avoid incorrect predictions of spectra and the EE shape...
January 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057475/motivation-emotion-regulation-and-the-latent-structure-of-psychopathology-an-integrative-and-convergent-historical-perspective
#3
Theodore P Beauchaine, Aimee Zisner
Motivational models of psychopathology have long been advanced by psychophysiologists, and have provided key insights into neurobiological mechanisms of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. These accounts emphasize individual differences in activity and reactivity of bottom-up, subcortical neural systems of approach and avoidance in affecting behavior. Largely independent literatures emphasize the roles of top-down, cortical deficits in emotion regulation and executive function in conferring vulnerability to psychopathology...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048863/su-f-j-105-towards-a-novel-treatment-planning-pipeline-delivering-pareto-optimal-plans-while-enabling-inter-and-intrafraction-plan-adaptation
#4
C Kontaxis, S Breedveld, G Bol, A Sharfo, B Heijmen, J Lagendijk, B Raaymakers
PURPOSE: To develop a new IMRT treatment planning methodology suitable for the new generation of MR-linear accelerator machines. The pipeline is able to deliver Pareto-optimal plans and can be utilized for conventional treatments as well as for inter- and intrafraction plan adaptation based on real-time MR-data. METHODS: A Pareto-optimal plan is generated using the automated multicriterial optimization approach Erasmus-iCycle. The resulting dose distribution is used as input to the second part of the pipeline, an iterative process which generates deliverable segments that target the latest anatomical state and gradually converges to the prescribed dose...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040558/complement-in-autoimmune-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Pandiarajan Vignesh, Amit Rawat, Madhubala Sharma, Surjit Singh
The complement system is an ancient and evolutionary conserved element of the innate immune mechanism. It comprises of more than 20 serum proteins most of which are synthesized in the liver. These proteins are synthesized as inactive precursor proteins which are activated by appropriate stimuli. The activated forms of these proteins act as proteases and cleave other components successively in amplification pathways leading to exponential generation of final effectors. Three major pathways of complement pathways have been described, namely the classical, alternative and lectin pathways which are activated by different stimuli...
December 28, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025003/chemical-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-%C3%AF-hydroxy-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#6
Sung Hee Hwang, Karen Wagner, Jian Xu, Jun Yang, Xichun Li, Zhengyu Cao, Christophe Morisseau, Kin Sing Stephen Lee, Bruce D Hammock
ω-Hydroxy polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), natural metabolites from arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were prepared via convergent synthesis approach using two key steps: Cu-mediated CC bond formation to construct methylene skipped poly-ynes and a partial alkyne hydrogenation where the presence of excess 2-methyl-2-butene as an additive that is proven to be critical for the success of partial reduction of the poly-ynes to the corresponding cis-alkenes without over-hydrogenation...
December 2, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917358/rigorous-solution-for-1-d-consolidation-of-a-clay-layer-under-haversine-cyclic-loading-with-rest-period
#7
Nina Müthing, Sabah S Razouki, Maria Datcheva, Tom Schanz
Presented in this paper is a rigorous solution of the conventional Terzaghi one-dimensional consolidation under haversine cyclic loading with any rest period. The clay deposit is either permeable at both top and bottom or permeable at the top and impermeable at the bottom. This exact analytical solution was achieved using Fourier harmonic analysis for the periodic function representing the rate of imposition of excess pore water pressure. The double Fourier series in the rigorous solution was found to be rapidly convergent...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911727/role-of-the-bone-morphogenic-protein-pathway-in-developmental-haemopoiesis-and-leukaemogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Parto Toofan, Helen Wheadon
Myeloid leukaemias share the common characteristics of being stem cell-derived clonal diseases, characterised by excessive proliferation of one or more myeloid lineage. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) arises from a genetic alteration in a normal haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) giving rise to a leukaemic stem cell (LSC) within the bone marrow (BM) 'niche'. CML is characterised by the presence of the oncogenic tyrosine kinase fusion protein breakpoint cluster region-abelson murine leukaemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (BCR-ABL), which is responsible for driving the disease through activation of downstream signal transduction pathways...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907833/development-of-a-scale-to-evaluate-young-children-s-responses-to-uncertainty-and-low-environmental-structure
#9
Amanda L Sanchez, Danielle Cornacchio, Tommy Chou, Ovsanna Leyfer, Stefany Coxe, Donna Pincus, Jonathan S Comer
Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU), defined as the dispositional interpretation of uncertain or ambiguous events as stressful and problematic, has been linked to excessive worry and other anxiety-related problems in adults and youth. IU has been conceptualized as a vulnerability factor for excessive worry and anxiety, but the historical absence of a supported measure of IU in young children has hampered longitudinal research needed to evaluate temporal relationships between IU and anxiety and the differential developmental pathways of IU leading to different anxiety disorders and depression...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891107/internet-communication-disorder-it-s-a-matter-of-social-aspects-coping-and-internet-use-expectancies
#10
Elisa Wegmann, Matthias Brand
Online communication applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter are some of the most frequently used Internet applications. There is a growing amount of individuals suffering diminished control over their use of online communication applications which leads to diverse negative consequences in offline life. This could be referred to as Internet-communication disorder (ICD). The current study investigates the role of individual characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms, feelings of loneliness) and specific cognitions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878136/phenotypic-convergence-of-menkes-and-wilson-disease
#11
Boglarka Bansagi, David Lewis-Smith, Endre Pal, Jennifer Duff, Helen Griffin, Angela Pyle, Juliane S Müller, Gabor Rudas, Zsuzsanna Aranyi, Hanns Lochmüller, Patrick F Chinnery, Rita Horvath
Menkes disease is an X-linked multisystem disorder with epilepsy, kinky hair, and neurodegeneration caused by mutations in the copper transporter ATP7A. Other ATP7A mutations have been linked to juvenile occipital horn syndrome and adult-onset hereditary motor neuropathy.(1,2) About 5%-10% of the patients present with "atypical Menkes disease" characterized by longer survival, cerebellar ataxia, and developmental delay.(2) The intracellular copper transport is regulated by 2 P type ATPase copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B...
December 2016: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871306/akirin2-is-essential-for-the-formation-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#12
Peter J Bosch, Leah C Fuller, Carolyn M Sleeth, Joshua A Weiner
BACKGROUND: The proper spatial and temporal regulation of dorsal telencephalic progenitor behavior is a prerequisite for the formation of the highly-organized, six-layered cerebral cortex. Premature differentiation of cells, disruption of cell cycle timing, excessive apoptosis, and/or incorrect neuronal migration signals can have devastating effects, resulting in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders involving microcephaly and/or lissencephaly. Though genes encoding many key players in cortical development have been identified, our understanding remains incomplete...
November 21, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834738/contribution-of-adaptive-thermogenesis-to-the-hypothalamic-regulation-of-energy-balance
#13
REVIEW
Ricardo Lage, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Miguel López
Obesity and its related disorders are among the most pervasive diseases in contemporary societies, and there is an urgent need for new therapies and preventive approaches. Given (i) our poor social capacity to correct unhealthy habits, and (ii) our evolutionarily genetic predisposition to store excess energy as fat, the current environment of caloric surplus makes the treatment of obesity extremely difficult. During the last few decades, an increasing number of methodological approaches have increased our knowledge of the neuroanatomical basis of the control of energy balance...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829393/advice-given-by-community-members-to-pregnant-women-a-mixed-methods-study
#14
Bianca A Verma, Lauren P Nichols, Melissa A Plegue, Michelle H Moniz, Manisha Rai, Tammy Chang
BACKGROUND: Smoking and excess weight gain during pregnancy have been shown to have serious health consequences for both mothers and their infants. Advice from friends and family on these topics influences pregnant women's behaviors. The purpose of our study was to compare the advice that community members give pregnant women about smoking versus the advice they give about pregnancy weight gain. METHODS: A survey was sent via text messaging to adults in a diverse, low-income primary care clinic in 2015...
November 9, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811276/ocean-mixing-and-ice-sheet-control-of-seawater-234u-238u-during-the-last-deglaciation
#15
Tianyu Chen, Laura F Robinson, Matthew P Beasley, Louis M Claxton, Morten B Andersen, Lauren J Gregoire, Jemma Wadham, Daniel J Fornari, Karen S Harpp
Seawater (234)U/(238)U provides global-scale information about continental weathering and is vital for marine uranium-series geochronology. Existing evidence supports an increase in (234)U/(238)U since the last glacial period, but the timing and amplitude of its variability has been poorly constrained. Here we report two seawater (234)U/(238)U records based on well-preserved deep-sea corals from the low-latitude Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The Atlantic (234)U/(238)U started to increase before major sea-level rise and overshot the modern value by 3 per mil during the early deglaciation...
November 4, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799577/high-ac-a-ratio-esotropia-do-we-really-need-to-be-using-bifocals
#16
Scott E Olitsky
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Most strabismus specialists use bifocals for patients with convergence excess esotropia whose distance deviation is small. While this is a popular treatment modality, there is actually no good data to indicate that this should be considered a standard of care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In patients for whom the distance deviation is small enough to allow for the development of binocular vision, my preference is to simply observe these patients...
January 2016: American Orthoptic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787894/docosahexaenoic-acid-up-regulates-both-pi3k-akt-dependent-fabp7-ppar%C3%AE-interaction-and-mkp3-that-enhance-gfap-in-developing-rat-brain-astrocytes
#17
Sachin Tripathi, Rajesh Kushwaha, Juhi Mishra, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Harish Kumar, Somali Sanyal, Dhirendra Singh, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Amogh Anant Sahasrabuddhe, Mohan Kamthan, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay
The astrocyte marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), has essential functions in the brain, but may trigger astroglial scarring when expressed in excess. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 fatty acid that is protective during brain development. However, the effect of DHA on GFAP levels of developing brain remains unexplored. Here, we detected that treating developing rats with DHA-enriched fish-oil caused dose-dependent GFAP augmentation. We investigated the mechanism promoting GFAP, hypothesizing the participation of fatty acid-binding protein-7 (FABP7), known to bind DHA...
January 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734410/regulation-of-interleukin-10-expression
#18
Sascha Rutz, Wenjun Ouyang
Interleukin (IL)-10 is an essential anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays important roles as a negative regulator of immune responses to microbial antigens. Loss of IL-10 results in the spontaneous development of inflammatory bowel disease as a consequence of an excessive immune response to the gut microbiota. IL-10 also functions to prevent excessive inflammation during the course of infection. IL-10 can be produced in response to pro-inflammatory signals by virtually all immune cells, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662318/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-synaptic-transmission-failure-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Lan Guo, Jing Tian, Heng Du
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, in which multiple risk factors converge. Despite the complexity of the etiology of the disease, synaptic failure is the pathological basis of cognitive impairment, the cardinal sign of AD. Decreased synaptic density, compromised synaptic transmission, and defected synaptic plasticity are hallmark synaptic pathologies accompanying AD. However, the mechanisms by which synapses are injured in AD-related conditions have not been fully elucidated yet...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647120/comparison-between-medial-rectus-pulley-fixation-and-augmented-recession-in-children-with-convergence-excess-and-variable-angle-infantile-esotropia
#20
Heba M Fouad, Mohamad A Abdelhakim, Ahmed Awadein, Hala Elhilali
PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of medial rectus (MR) muscle pulley fixation and augmented recession in children with convergence excess esotropia and variable-angle infantile esotropia. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized interventional study in which children with convergence excess esotropia or variable-angle infantile esotropia were randomly allocated to either augmented MR muscle recession (augmented group) or MR muscle pulley posterior fixation (pulley group)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
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