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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762662/national-costs-associated-with-methicillin-susceptible-and-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states-2010-2014
#1
Eili Y Klein, Wendi Jiang, Nestor Mojica, Katie K Tseng, Ryan McNeill, Sara E Cosgrove, Trish M Perl
Background: Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with worse patient outcomes and higher costs of care than susceptible (MSSA) infections. However, the healthcare landscape has changed since prior studies found these differences, including widespread dissemination of community-associated strains of MRSA. Our objective was to provide updated estimates of the excess costs of resistant S. aureus infections. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis using data from the National Inpatient Sample from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for the years 2010 to 2014...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717567/risk-of-brain-tumor-induction-from-pediatric-head-ct-procedures-a-systematic-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
John P Sheppard, Thien Nguyen, Yasmine Alkhalid, Joel S Beckett, Noriko Salamon, Isaac Yang
Head computed tomography (CT) is instrumental for managing patients of all ages. However, its low dose radiation may pose a low but non-zero risk of tumor induction in pediatric patients. Here, we present a systematic literature review on the estimated incidence of brain tumor induction from head CT exams performed on children and adolescents. MEDLINE was searched using an electronic protocol and bibliographic searches to identify articles related to CT, cancer, and epidemiology or risk assessment. Sixteen studies that predicted or measured head CT-related neoplasm incidence or mortality were identified and reviewed...
April 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704970/working-memory-and-motor-activity-a-comparison-across-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-healthy-control-groups
#3
Sarah E Lea, R Matt Alderson, Connor H G Patros, Stephanie J Tarle, Elaine F Arrington, DeMond M Grant
Converging findings from recent research suggest a functional relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related hyperactivity and demands on working memory (WM) in both children and adults. Excessive motor activity such as restlessness and fidgeting are not pathognomonic symptoms of ADHD, however, and are often associated with other diagnoses such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Further, previous research indicates that anticipatory processing associated with anxiety can directly interfere with storage and rehearsal processes of WM...
May 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704745/trends-and-determinants-of-weight-gains-among-oecd-countries-an-ecological-study
#4
S Nghiem, X-B Vu, A Barnett
OBJECTIVES: Obesity has become a global issue with abundant evidence to indicate that the prevalence of obesity in many nations has increased over time. The literature also reports a strong association between obesity and economic development, but the trend that obesity growth rates may converge over time has not been examined. We propose a conceptual framework and conduct an ecological analysis on the relationship between economic development and weight gain. We also test the hypothesis that weight gain converges among countries over time and examine determinants of weight gains...
April 25, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689766/low-dose-ct-reconstruction-via-l1-norm-dictionary-learning-using-alternating-minimization-algorithm-and-balancing-principle
#5
Junfeng Wu, Fang Dai, Gang Hu, Xuanqin Mou
Excessive radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) scans increases the chance of developing cancer and has become a major clinical concern. Recently, statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) with l0-norm dictionary learning regularization has been developed to reconstruct CT images from the low dose and few-view dataset in order to reduce radiation dose. Nonetheless, the sparse regularization term adopted in this approach is l0-norm, which cannot guarantee the global convergence of the proposed algorithm...
April 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607455/epigenetic-signatures-in-cardiac-fibrosis-special-emphasis-on-dna-methylation-and-histone-modification
#6
REVIEW
Hui Tao, Zheng-Yu Song, Xuan-Sheng Ding, Jing-Jing Yang, Kai-Hu Shi, Jun Li
Cardiac fibrosis is defined as excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), resulting in tissue scarring and organ dysfunction. In recent years, despite the underlying mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis are still unknown, numerous studies suggest that epigenetic regulation of cardiac fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is regulated by a myriad of factors that converge on the transcription of genes encoding extracellular matrix protein, a process the epigenetic machinery plays a pivotal role. Epigenetic modifications contain three main processes: DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs...
April 2, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602686/prevalence-of-esophoria-in-concussed-patients
#7
Barry Tannen, Kalynn Good, Kenneth J Ciuffreda, Kelsey J Moore
PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of esophoria at near in concussed patients in a neuro-optometric private practice setting. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed involving a chart review in a neuro-optometric, private practice setting of consecutive patients with a medical diagnosis of concussion from January 1st 2016 to December 31st 2016. A total of 71 patients were included in the analysis. All received a comprehensive vision examination, with a near vision emphasis...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600186/symptomatic-accommodative-and-binocular-dysfunctions-from-the-use-of-flat-panel-displays
#8
Esteban Porcar, Juan Carlos Montalt, Álvaro M Pons, Enrique España-Gregori
AIM: To determine the presence of symptomatic accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions (ANS BD) in a non-presbyopic population of video display unit (VDU) users with flat-panel displays. METHODS: One hundred and one VDU users, aged between 20 to 34y, initially participated in the study. This study excluded contact-lens wearers and subjects who had undergone refractive surgery or had any systemic or ocular disease. First, subjects were asked about the type and nature of eye symptoms they experienced during VDU use...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568277/the-development-and-validation-of-the-bergen-yale-sex-addiction-scale-with-a-large-national-sample
#9
Cecilie S Andreassen, Ståle Pallesen, Mark D Griffiths, Torbjørn Torsheim, Rajita Sinha
The view that problematic excessive sexual behavior ("sex addiction") is a form of behavioral addiction has gained more credence in recent years, but there is still considerable controversy regarding operationalization of the concept. Furthermore, most previous studies have relied on small clinical samples. The present study presents a new method for assessing sex addiction-the Bergen-Yale Sex Addiction Scale (BYSAS)-based on established addiction components (i.e., salience/craving, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict/problems, and relapse/loss of control)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560971/hydrogen-bond-network-structures-of-protonated-short-chain-alcohol-clusters
#10
Asuka Fujii, Natsuko Sugawara, Po-Jen Hsu, Takuto Shimamori, Ying-Cheng Li, Toru Hamashima, Jer-Lai Kuo
Because of the hydrogen bond coordination properties of alcohols, their possible hydrogen bond network structures are categorized into only a few types. Therefore, gas phase clusters of alcohols can be a very simple model system to examine the properties of hydrogen bond networks, such as structural development with cluster size and temperature dependence. In this perspective, we focus on the structural study of protonated short-chain alcohol clusters, whose excess protons (charge) enable size-selective spectroscopy in combination with mass spectrometric techniques...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523389/postural-tachycardia-syndrome-diagnosis-physiology-and-prognosis
#11
REVIEW
Amy C Arnold, Jessica Ng, Satish R Raj
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that has gained increasing interest over the past few decades due to its increasing prevalence and clinical impact on health-related quality of life. POTS is clinically characterized by sustained excessive tachycardia upon standing that occurs in the absence of significant orthostatic hypotension and other medical conditions and or medications, and with chronic symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. POTS represents one of the most common presentations of syncope and presyncope secondary to autonomic dysfunction in emergency rooms and in cardiology, neurology, and primary care clinics...
February 28, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485737/hypertension-in-pregnancy-taking-cues-from-pathophysiology-for-clinical-practice
#12
REVIEW
Ruxandra I Sava, Keith L March, Carl J Pepine
Pregnancy-related hypertension (PHTN) syndromes are a frequent and potentially deadly complication of pregnancy, while also negatively impacting the lifelong health of the mother and child. PHTN appears in women likely to develop hypertension later in life, with the stress of pregnancy unmasking a subclinical hypertensive phenotype. However, distinguishing between PHTN and chronic hypertension is essential for optimal management. Preeclampsia (PE) is linked to potentially severe outcomes and lacks effective treatments due to poorly understood mechanisms...
February 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482121/a-high-throughput-upc-2-ms-ms-method-for-the-separation-and-quantification-of-c-19-and-c-21-steroids-and-their-c11-oxy-steroid-metabolites-in-the-classical-alternative-backdoor-and-11oha4-steroid-pathways
#13
Therina du Toit, Maria A Stander, Amanda C Swart
In the present study an ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPC2 -MS/MS) analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of 17 C19 and 14 C21 steroids, including C11-oxy C19 and C11-oxy C21 steroids. The limit of detection and limit of quantification ranged from 0.01 to 10 ng/mL and from 0.01 to 20 ng/mL, respectively, and the method shows the recovery, matrix effect and process efficiency of steroids isolated from a serum matrix to be within acceptable limits...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473912/application-of-improved-5th-cubature-kalman-filter-in-initial-strapdown-inertial-navigation-system-alignment-for-large-misalignment-angles
#14
Wei Wang, Xiyuan Chen
In view of the fact the accuracy of the third-degree Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) used for initial alignment under large misalignment angle conditions is insufficient, an improved fifth-degree CKF algorithm is proposed in this paper. In order to make full use of the innovation on filtering, the innovation covariance matrix is calculated recursively by an innovative sequence with an exponent fading factor. Then a new adaptive error covariance matrix scaling algorithm is proposed. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method is used for improving the numerical stability of the fifth-degree CKF in this paper...
February 23, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426162/soil-nutrient-variability-and-groundwater-nitrate-n-in-agricultural-fields
#15
Sally D Logsdon, Kevin J Cole
Landscape may result in uneven nutrient loads within a field. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of landscape on soil carbon and nutrient levels, and on levels of nitrate-N in groundwater. Soil samples were collected in three fields, two transects each, 30 sites in each field. The soil morphology was characterized for the profile, and soil organic carbon and nutrient levels were determined for 0-0.15 and 0.15-0.3 m depths. Each field had wells installed at three of the sites. One field showed a wide range of landscape variability, and significant effects of curvature on soil carbon and nutrient levels...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423213/cardiovascular-effects-of-metabolic-syndrome-after-transplantation-convergence-of-obesity-and-transplant-related-factors
#16
Kristen Sgambat, Sarah Clauss, Asha Moudgil
Children are at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) after kidney transplantation, which contributes to long-term cardiovascular (CV) morbidities and decline in allograft function. While MS in the general population occurs due to excess caloric intake and physical inactivity, additional chronic kidney disease and transplant-related factors contribute to the development of MS in transplant recipients. Despite its significant health consequences, the interplay of the individual components in CV morbidity in pediatric transplant recipients is not well understood...
February 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411421/tanycytes-and-hypothalamic-control-of-energy-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Francis J P Ebling, Jo E Lewis
Studies from a number of areas of neuroendocrinology indicate that hypothalamic tanycytes play a key role in control of energy metabolism. First, profound annual changes in gene expression have been identified in these unusual glial cells in seasonal mammals, for example in genes relating to the transport and metabolism of thyroid hormone into the hypothalamus. The consequent changes in local thyroid hormone availability in the hypothalamus have been shown experimentally to regulate annual cycles in energy intake, storage and expenditure in seasonal species...
June 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397925/-smartphone-addiction-french-validation-of-the-internet-addiction-test-smartphone-version-iat-smartphone-and-associated-psychopathological-features
#18
S Barrault, F Durousseau, N Ballon, C Réveillère, P Brunault
INTRODUCTION: Since their first appearance in 1992 smartphones have improved constantly, and their use, combined with the rapid spread of the Internet, has increased dramatically. The recent emergence of this technology raises new issues, at both individual and societal levels. Several studies have investigated the physical and psychological harm that may be caused by smartphones. The issue of excessive smartphone use as an addictive disorder is frequently raised and debated, although it is not acknowledged in international classifications...
February 2, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383107/genetic-variation-in-the-neil2-dna-glycosylase-gene-is-associated-with-oxidative-dna-damage-in-brca2-mutation-carriers
#19
Carlos Benítez-Buelga, Juan Miguel Baquero, Tereza Vaclova, Victoria Fernández, Paloma Martín, Lucia Inglada-Perez, Miguel Urioste, Ana Osorio, Javier Benítez
In this report, we have tried to gain molecular insight into a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the NEIL2 gene previously identified as "cancer risk modifier" for BRCA2 mutation carriers. To that end, we studied the role of this SNP (rs804271) on NEIL2 transcriptional regulation, oxidative DNA damage and genome instability in two independent set of samples: The first one was a series of eighty-six BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and eighty non-carrier controls in which we evaluated the effect of the SNP on NEIL2 gene expression and oxidative DNA damage accumulation...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368439/in-vivo-skin-reactions-from-pulsed-type-bipolar-alternating-current-radiofrequency-treatment-using-invasive-noninsulated-electrodes
#20
S B Cho, J Na, Z Zheng, J M Lim, J-S Kang, J H Lee, S E Lee
BACKGROUND: Bipolar, alternating current radiofrequency (RF) conduction using invasive noninsulated electrodes consecutively generates independent tissue coagulation around each electrode and then, the converged coagulation columns. METHODS: Two pulsed-type RF models at the on-time pulse width/pulse pack of 30 and 40 milliseconds were designed to amplify the early stage of RF-induced tissue reaction using hairless mouse skin in vivo. Then, structural and ultrastructural changes were evaluated in hairless mouse skin samples at baseline and immediately 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days after treatment...
January 25, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
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