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convergence excess

Sascha Rutz, Wenjun Ouyang
Interleukin (IL)-10 is an essential anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays important roles as a negative regulator of immune responses to microbial antigens. Loss of IL-10 results in the spontaneous development of inflammatory bowel disease as a consequence of an excessive immune response to the gut microbiota. IL-10 also functions to prevent excessive inflammation during the course of infection. IL-10 can be produced in response to pro-inflammatory signals by virtually all immune cells, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lan Guo, Jing Tian, Heng Du
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, in which multiple risk factors converge. Despite the complexity of the etiology of the disease, synaptic failure is the pathological basis of cognitive impairment, the cardinal sign of AD. Decreased synaptic density, compromised synaptic transmission, and defected synaptic plasticity are hallmark synaptic pathologies accompanying AD. However, the mechanisms by which synapses are injured in AD-related conditions have not been fully elucidated yet...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Heba M Fouad, Mohamad A Abdelhakim, Ahmed Awadein, Hala Elhilali
PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of medial rectus (MR) muscle pulley fixation and augmented recession in children with convergence excess esotropia and variable-angle infantile esotropia. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized interventional study in which children with convergence excess esotropia or variable-angle infantile esotropia were randomly allocated to either augmented MR muscle recession (augmented group) or MR muscle pulley posterior fixation (pulley group)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Hiroko Torii, Atsuhiro Yoshida, Tatsuya Katsuno, Takayuki Nakagawa, Juichi Ito, Koichi Omori, Makoto Kinoshita, Norio Yamamoto
Septins are guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins that are evolutionally conserved in all eukaryotes other than plants. They function as multimeric complexes that interact with membrane lipids, actomyosin, and microtubules. Based on these interactions, septins play essential roles in the morphogenesis and physiological functions of many mammalian cell types including the regulation of microtubule stability, vesicle trafficking, cortical rigidity, planar cell polarity, and apoptosis. The inner ear, which perceives auditory and equilibrium sensation with highly differentiated hair cells, has a complicated gross morphology...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Biology
Talha Ijaz, Ronald G Tilton, Allan R Brasier
On April 29, 2015, Son and colleagues published an article entitled "Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is required for aortic dissection/intramural haematoma" in Nature Communications. The authors observed that the heterozygous Kruppel-like transcription factor 6 (KLF6) deficiency or absence of myeloid-specific KLF6 led to upregulation of macrophage GM-CSF expression, promoted the development of aortic hematoma/dissection, and stimulated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation when the vessel wall was subjected to an inflammatory stimulus...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Siamak Salavatian, Eric Beaumont, Jean-Philippe Longpré, John Andrew Armour, Alain Vinet, Vincent Jacquemet, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal nerve stimulation (MNS) reproducibly evokes atrial fibrillation (AF) by excessive and heterogeneous activation of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons. This study evaluated whether pre-emptive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) impacts MNS-induced evoked changes in IC neural network activity to thereby alter susceptibility to AF. METHODS: IC neuronal activity in the right atrial ganglionated plexus was directly recorded in anesthetized canines (n=8) using a linear microelectrode array concomitant with right atrial electrical activity in response to: 1) epicardial touch or great vessel occlusion vs (2) stellate or vagal stimulation...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Nils Klüver, Carolina Vogs, Rolf Altenburger, Beate I Escher, Stefan Scholz
Fish embryos have become a popular model in ecotoxicology and toxicology. The fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish embryo was recently adopted by the OECD as technical guideline TG 236 and a large database of concentrations causing 50% lethality (LC50) is available in the literature. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) of baseline toxicity (also called narcosis) are helpful to estimate the minimum toxicity of chemicals to be tested and to identify excess toxicity in existing data sets...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Thomas Spaller, Eva Kling, Gernot Glöckner, Falk Hillmann, Thomas Winckler
BACKGROUND: In gene-dense genomes, mobile elements are confronted with highly selective pressure to amplify without causing excessive damage to the host. The targeting of tRNA genes as potentially safe integration sites has been developed by retrotransposons in various organisms such as the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In D. discoideum, tRNA gene-targeting retrotransposons have expanded to approximately 3 % of the genome. Recently obtained genome sequences of species representing the evolutionary history of social amoebae enabled us to determine whether the targeting of tRNA genes is a generally successful strategy for mobile elements to colonize compact genomes...
2016: Mobile DNA
Michael Chmielewski, Margarita Sala, Rui Tang, Austin Baldwin
Affective judgments of physical activity have emerged as important predictors of physical activity and interventions targeting affective judgments are a promising approach to improving regular physical activity. Currently, measures assessing a variety of potentially distinct constructs are treated as interchangeable assessments of affective judgments of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the construct validity of the purported measures of this construct. We review several components of construct validity; highlighting their importance for health psychology research...
September 2016: Psychological Assessment
Changzhe Zhang, Yuxiang Bu
Diffuse functions have been proved to be especially crucial for the accurate characterization of excess electrons which are usually bound weakly in intermolecular zones far away from the nuclei. To examine the effects of diffuse functions on the nature of the cavity-shaped excess electrons in water cluster surroundings, both the HOMO and LUMO distributions, vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and visible absorption spectra of two selected (H2O)24(-) isomers are investigated in the present work. Two main types of diffuse functions are considered in calculations including the Pople-style atom-centered diffuse functions and the ghost-atom-based floating diffuse functions...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shams Y-Hassan
Heart failure and cardiovascular death are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and extremely prevalent in patients undergoing dialysis. It has been shown that the excess of cardiovascular mortality in this patient population is not fully accounted for by the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Substantial evidence exists for the presence of sympathetic over-activity in patients with dialytic and non-dialytic CKD. Several studies have also been reported on reversible segmental left ventricular wall motion abnormality consistent with myocardial stunning in association with dialysis especially hemodialysis...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Michela Fresina, Giuseppe Giannaccare, Piera Versura, Emilio C Campos
INTRODUCTION: Acute acquired distance esotropia (AADE) is a poorly understood moderate-angle strabismus, affecting young adult myopes and determining bothersome diplopia. Symptoms can be intermittent in the early stages, becoming constant in long-lasting disease. Symptomatic therapy includes prism correction, while surgery is the only curative treatment. However, the latter is affected by high rate of symptoms recurrence with the frequent need for reoperation. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that AADE could be caused by the increase of the accommodative demand, often secondary to a myopic overcorrection...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Ali R Vahdati, Andreas Wagner
BACKGROUND: Genotype networks are representations of genetic variation data that are complementary to phylogenetic trees. A genotype network is a graph whose nodes are genotypes (DNA sequences) with the same broadly defined phenotype. Two nodes are connected if they differ in some minimal way, e.g., in a single nucleotide. RESULTS: We analyze human genome variation data from the 1,000 genomes project, and construct haploid genotype (haplotype) networks for 12,235 protein coding genes...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Brenda W J H Penninx
Depression's burden of disease goes beyond functioning and quality of life and extends to somatic health. Results from longitudinal cohort studies converge in illustrating that major depressive disorder (MDD) subsequently increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with about 80%. The impact of MDD on cardiovascular health may be partly explained by mediating mechanisms such as unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, excessive alcohol use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, therapy non-compliance) and unfavorable pathophysiological disturbances (autonomic, HPA-axis, metabolic and immuno-inflammatory dysregulations)...
July 23, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Susan W Groth, Alison H Simpson, I Diana Fernandez
INTRODUCTION: Multiple factors influence the dietary choices of pregnant women that may increase the risk of excessive gestational weight gain. Several of these factors converge for African American women who are low income and reside in an urban setting. The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of how factors previously identified affect dietary decision making and determine the barriers that impede adoption of a healthy diet for this population. METHODS: Twenty-five in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with African American women who were low income, pregnant, and residing in an urban setting...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Valerie Voon, Jeffrey W Dalley
Impulsivity and compulsivity have emerged as important dimensional constructs that challenge traditional psychiatric classification systems. Both are present in normal healthy populations where the need to act quickly and repeatedly without hesitation can be highly advantageous. However, when excessively expressed, impulsive and compulsive behavior can lead to adverse consequences and spectrum disorders exemplified by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), autism, and drug addiction...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Kwan Hyuk Cho, Hee Weon Kim, Dong Gyu Choi, Joo Yeon Lee
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the type of exotropia (XT) based on the distance-near (D/N) difference in recurrent XT after bilateral lateral rectus (BLR) recession to treat intermittent XT (IXT) to look into the possibility of secondary convergence insufficiency (CI)-type strabismus. METHODS: A total of 121 patients with recurrent XT after BLR recession for basic-type and divergence excess (DE)-type IXT were retrospectively enrolled at a single institution...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
O Ehrt
Convergence excess is a common finding especially in pediatric strabismus. A detailed diagnostic approach has to start after full correction of any hyperopia measured in cycloplegia. It includes measurements of manifest and latent deviation at near and distance fixation, near deviation after relaxation of accommodation with addition of +3 dpt, assessment of binocular function with and without +3 dpt as well as the accommodation range. This diagnostic approach is important for the classification into three types of convergence excess, which require different therapeutic approaches: 1) hypo-accommodative convergence excess is treated with permanent bifocal glasses, 2) norm-accommodative patients should be treated with bifocals which can be weaned over years, especially in patients with good stereopsis and 3) non-accommodative convergence excess and patients with large distance deviations need a surgical approach...
July 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Allan I Pack
Dr. Leroy Hood promotes a paradigm to advance medical care that he calls P4 medicine. The four Ps are: personalized, predictive, preventative, and participatory. P4 medicine encourages a convergence of systems medicine, the digital revolution, and consumer-driven healthcare. Might P4 medicine be applicable to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)? OSA should be personalized in that there are different structural and physiological pathways to disease. Obesity is a major risk factor. The link between obesity and OSA is likely to be fat deposits in the tongue compromising the upper airway...
September 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Laifang Li, Raymond W Schmitt, Caroline C Ummenhofer, Kristopher B Karnauskas
Water evaporating from the ocean sustains precipitation on land. This ocean-to-land moisture transport leaves an imprint on sea surface salinity (SSS). Thus, the question arises of whether variations in SSS can provide insight into terrestrial precipitation. This study provides evidence that springtime SSS in the subtropical North Atlantic ocean can be used as a predictor of terrestrial precipitation during the subsequent summer monsoon in Africa. Specifically, increased springtime SSS in the central to eastern subtropical North Atlantic tends to be followed by above-normal monsoon-season precipitation in the African Sahel...
May 2016: Science Advances
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