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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738310/postural-response-to-predictable-and-nonpredictable-visual-flow-in-children-and-adults
#1
Mark A Schmuckler
Children's (3-5years) and adults' postural reactions to different conditions of visual flow information varying in its frequency content was examined using a moving room apparatus. Both groups experienced four conditions of visual input: low-frequency (0.20Hz) visual oscillations, high-frequency (0.60Hz) oscillations, multifrequency nonpredictable visual input, and no imposed visual information. Analyses of the frequency content of anterior-posterior (AP) sway revealed that postural reactions to the single-frequency conditions replicated previous findings; children were responsive to low- and high-frequency oscillations, whereas adults were responsive to low-frequency information...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736308/laminar-fmri-what-can-the-time-domain-tell-us
#2
REVIEW
Natalia Petridou, Jeroen C W Siero
The rapid developments in functional MRI (fMRI) acquisition methods and hardware technologies in recent years, particularly at high field (≥7 T), have enabled unparalleled visualization of functional detail at a laminar or columnar level, bringing fMRI close to the intrinsic resolution of brain function. These advances highlight the potential of high resolution fMRI to be a valuable tool to study the fundamental processing performed in cortical micro-circuits, and their interactions such as feedforward and feedback processes...
July 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735829/comparative-effects-of-12-weeks-of-equipment-based-and-mat-pilates-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-on-pain-function-and-transversus-abdominis-activation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
David Cruz-Díaz, M Bergamin, S Gobbo, Antonio Martínez-Amat, Fidel Hita-Contreras
BACKGROUND: Pilates method has been recommended for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and the activation of transversus abdominis has been deemed to play an important role in the improvement of these patients. Nevertheless, the evidence of the activation of TrA in Pilates practitioners remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of 12 weeks of Pilates practice in disability, pain, kinesiophobia and transversus abdominis activation in patients with chronic nonspecific Low Back Pain...
August 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733770/distinct-and-flexible-rates-of-online-control
#4
John de Grosbois, Luc Tremblay
Elliott et al. (Hum Mov Sci 10:393-418, 1991) proposed a pseudocontinuous model of online control whereby overlapping corrections lead to the appearance of smooth kinematic profiles in the presence of online feedback. More recently, it was also proposed that online control is not a singular process [see Elliott et al. (Psychol Bull 136(6):1023-1044, 2010)]. However, support for contemporary models of online control were based on methodologies that were not designed to be sensitive to different online control sub-processes...
July 21, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731599/does-eating-environment-have-an-impact-on-the-protein-and-energy-intake-in-the-hospitalised-elderly
#5
Karon Markovski, Aranka Nenov, Aurora Ottaway, Elizabeth Skinner
AIM: This pilot study aimed to examine the difference in energy and protein intake of the midday meal in two different eating environments-the communal dining room and patient bedside-and to obtain feedback on patient preference at each location. METHODS: Elderly patients in two rehabilitation wards were observed consuming the midday meal on two consecutive days: day 1 in the dining room and day 2 at the bedside. The patients' intake was recorded by a visual 5-point assessment scale and analysed for protein and energy content using the hospital food services nutrient analysis of the menu...
July 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729951/young-children-do-not-require-perceptual-motor-feedback-to-solve-aesop-s-fable-tasks
#6
Rachael Miller, Sarah A Jelbert, Elsa Loissel, Alex H Taylor, Nicola S Clayton
Aesop's Fable tasks-in which subjects drop objects into a water-filled tube to raise the water level and obtain out-of-reach floating rewards -have been used to test for causal understanding of water displacement in both young children and non-human animals. However, a number of alternative explanations for success on these tasks have yet to be ruled out. One hypothesis is that subjects may respond to perceptual-motor feedback: repeating those actions that bring the reward incrementally closer. Here, we devised a novel, forced-choice version of the Aesop's Fable task to assess whether subjects can solve water displacement tasks when this type of feedback is removed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729162/effect-of-3basic-life-support-training-programs-in-future-primary-school-teachers-a-quasi-experimental-design
#7
R Navarro-Patón, M Freire-Tellado, S Basanta-Camiño, R Barcala-Furelos, V Arufe-Giraldez, J E Rodriguez-Fernández
AIM: To evaluate the learning of basic life support (BLS) measures on the part of laypersons after 3different teaching programs. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental before-after study involving a non-probabilistic sample without a control group was carried out. SCOPE: Primary school teacher students from the University of Santiago (Spain). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 124 students (68.8% women and 31.2% men) aged 20-39 years (M=22...
July 17, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729159/what-do-we-know-about-laminar-connectivity
#8
REVIEW
Kathleen S Rockland
In this brief review, I attempt an overview of the main components of anatomical laminar-level connectivity. These are: extrinsic outputs, excitatory and inhibitory intrinsic connectivity, and intrinsic inputs. Supporting data are biased from the visual system of nonhuman primates (NHPs), but I have drawn as much as possible from a broader span in order to treat the important issue of area-specific variability. In a second part, I briefly discuss laminar connectivity in the context of network organization (feedforward/feedback cortical connections, and the major types of corticothalamic connections)...
July 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728802/-psychotherapies-for-the-treatment-of-phantom-limb-pain
#9
Katherine Cárdenas, Mariana Aranda
INTRODUCTION: The phantom limb pain has been described as a condition in which patients experience a feeling of itching, spasm or pain in a limb or body part that has been previously amputated. Such pain can be induced by a conflict between the representation of the visual and proprioceptive feedback of the previously healthy limb. The phantom limb pain occurs in at least 42 to 90% of amputees. Regular drug treatment of phantom limb pain is almost never effective. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted in Medline and Cochrane using the MESH terms "phantom limb pain" and "psychotherapy", published in the last 10 years, in English and Spanish, finding 49 items...
July 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728461/rehabilitation-of-emergent-awareness-of-errors-post-traumatic-brain-injury-a-pilot-intervention
#10
Mary C C FitzGerald, Fiadhnait O'Keeffe, Simone Carton, Robert F Coen, Simon Kelly, Paul Dockree
Impaired awareness of errors is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can be a barrier to successful rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a computer-based intervention programme aimed at improving error awareness in individuals with TBI. A further aim was to explore its effects on metacognitive awareness and variability of performance. Participants were 11 individuals with TBI and impaired error awareness who performed a sustained attention task twice-weekly for four weeks...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725181/impact-of-proestrus-on-gene-expression-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-of-mice
#11
Csaba Vastagh, Zsolt Liposits
The antero-ventral periventricular zone (AVPV) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) have been recognized as gonadal hormone receptive regions of the rodent brain that-via wiring to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons-contribute to orchestration of the preovulatory GnRH surge. We hypothesized that neural genes regulating the induction of GnRH surge show altered expression in proestrus. Therefore, we compared the expression of 48 genes obtained from intact proestrous and metestrous mice, respectively, by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724444/adaptation-effects-in-static-postural-control-by-providing-simultaneous-visual-feedback-of-center-of-pressure-and-center-of-gravity
#12
Kenta Takeda, Hiroki Mani, Naoya Hasegawa, Yuki Sato, Shintaro Tanaka, Hiroshi Maejima, Tadayoshi Asaka
BACKGROUND: The benefit of visual feedback of the center of pressure (COP) on quiet standing is still debatable. This study aimed to investigate the adaptation effects of visual feedback training using both the COP and center of gravity (COG) during quiet standing. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy young adults were divided into three groups randomly (COP + COG, COP, and control groups). A force plate was used to calculate the coordinates of the COP in the anteroposterior (COPAP) and mediolateral (COPML) directions...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720803/contingent-sounds-change-the-mental-representation-of-one-s-finger-length
#13
Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Maria Vakali, Merle T Fairhurst, Alisa Mandrigin, Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze, Ophelia Deroy
Mental body-representations are highly plastic and can be modified after brief exposure to unexpected sensory feedback. While the role of vision, touch and proprioception in shaping body-representations has been highlighted by many studies, the auditory influences on mental body-representations remain poorly understood. Changes in body-representations by the manipulation of natural sounds produced when one's body impacts on surfaces have recently been evidenced. But will these changes also occur with non-naturalistic sounds, which provide no information about the impact produced by or on the body? Drawing on the well-documented capacity of dynamic changes in pitch to elicit impressions of motion along the vertical plane and of changes in object size, we asked participants to pull on their right index fingertip with their left hand while they were presented with brief sounds of rising, falling or constant pitches, and in the absence of visual information of their hands...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717861/patient-perspectives-on-gene-transfer-therapy-for-sickle-cell-disease
#14
Heather Strong, Monica J Mitchell, Alana Goldstein-Leever, Lisa Shook, Punam Malik, Lori E Crosby
INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic genetic disease with high morbidity and early mortality; it affects nearly 100,000 individuals in the USA. Bone marrow transplantation, the only curative treatment, is available to less than 20% of patients because of a number of access barriers. Gene transfer therapy (GTT) has been shown to be curative in animal models and is approved for use in humans for early-phase studies at a few centers. GTT would offer a more accessible treatment option available to all patients...
July 17, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717721/evaluation-of-a-smartphone-based-training-strategy-among-health-care-workers-screening-for-cervical-cancer-in-northern-tanzania-the-kilimanjaro-method
#15
Karen E Yeates, Jessica Sleeth, Wilma Hopman, Ophira Ginsburg, Katharine Heus, Linda Andrews, Mary Rose Giattas, Safina Yuma, Godwin Macheku, Aziz Msuya, Olola Oneko
PURPOSE: Almost nine of 10 deaths resulting from cervical cancer occur in low-income countries. Visual inspection under acetic acid (VIA) is an evidence-based, cost-effective approach to cervical cancer screening (CCS), but challenges to effective implementation include health provider training costs, provider turnover, and skills retention. We hypothesized that a smartphone camera and use of cervical image transfer for real-time mentorship by experts located distantly across a closed user group through a commercially available smartphone application would be both feasible and effective in enhancing VIA skills among CCS providers in Tanzania...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715554/variable-practice-to-enhance-speech-learning-in-ultrasound-biofeedback-treatment-for-childhood-apraxia-of-speech-a-single-case-experimental-study
#16
Jonathan L Preston, Megan C Leece, Kerry McNamara, Edwin Maas
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of practice variability, through prosodic variation during speech sound training, in biofeedback treatment for children with childhood apraxia of speech. It was hypothesized that variable practice would facilitate speech sound learning. Method: Six children ages 8-16 years with persisting speech sound errors due to childhood apraxia of speech participated in a single-subject experimental design. For each participant, 2 speech sound targets were treated with ultrasound visual feedback training: one with prosodic variation (i...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715331/the-importance-of-haptics-in-generating-exoskeleton-gait-trajectory-using-alternate-motor-inputs
#17
Kiran K Karunakaran, Kevin M Abbruzzese, Hao Xu, Richard A Foulds
Human gait requires both haptic and visual feedback to generate and control rhythmic movements, and navigate environmental obstacles. Current lower extremity wearable exoskeletons that restore gait to individuals with paraplegia due to spinal cord injury rely completely on visual feedback to generate limited pre-programmed gait-variations, and generally provide little control by the user over the gait cycle. As an alternative to this limitation, we propose user control of gait in real time using healthy upper extremities...
July 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714016/elastin%C3%A2-derived-peptides-are-involved-in-the-processes-of-human-temporomandibular-disorder-by-inducing-inflammatory-responses-in-synovial-cells
#18
Kazuhiko Kobayashi, Rei Jokaji, Mayuko Miyazawa-Hira, Shigeyuki Takatsuka, Akira Tanaka, Kazuhiro Ooi, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Shuichi Kawashiri
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) is a collection of clinical symptoms that involve masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Common symptoms include limited jaw motion and joint sound/pain, along with TMJ disc displacement. TMD is frequently associated with synovitis, a chronic inflammation of the synovium. Fibroblast‑like synovial cells have been identified to produce several inflammatory mediators and may have an important role in the progression of TMJ inflammation. Degradation of the extracellular matrix molecule elastin may lead to the release of bioactive peptides...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713233/the-role-of-the-interplay-between-stimulus-type-and-timing-in-explaining-bci-illiteracy-for-visual-p300-based-brain-computer-interfaces
#19
Roberta Carabalona
Visual P300-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) spellers enable communication or interaction with the environment by flashing elements in a matrix and exploiting consequent changes in end-user's brain activity. Despite research efforts, performance variability and BCI-illiteracy still are critical issues for real world applications. Moreover, there is a quite unaddressed kind of BCI-illiteracy, which becomes apparent when the same end-user operates BCI-spellers intended for different applications: our aim is to understand why some well performers can become BCI-illiterate depending on speller type...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706497/the-sustained-influence-of-an-error-on-future-decision-making
#20
Björn C Schiffler, Sara L Bengtsson, Daniel Lundqvist
Post-error slowing (PES) is consistently observed in decision-making tasks after negative feedback. Yet, findings are inconclusive as to whether PES supports performance accuracy. We addressed the role of PES by employing drift diffusion modeling which enabled us to investigate latent processes of reaction times and accuracy on a large-scale dataset (>5,800 participants) of a visual search experiment with emotional face stimuli. In our experiment, post-error trials were characterized by both adaptive and non-adaptive decision processes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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