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visual feedback

Suhitha Veeravelli, Bijan Najafi, Ivan Marin, Fernando Blumenkron, Shannon Smith, Stephen A Klotz
Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States live with HIV infection. Medical advancements have increased the life expectancy and this cohort is aging. HIV-positive individuals have a high incidence of frailty (~20%) characterized by depression and sedentary behavior. Exercise would be healthy, but due to the frail status of many HIV-positive individuals, conventional exercise is too taxing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel game-based training program (exergame) in ameliorating some aspects of frailty in HIV-infected individuals...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rodrigo S Maeda, Shawn M O'Connor, J Maxwell Donelan, Daniel S Marigold
As we walk, we must accurately place our feet to stabilize our motion and to navigate our environment. We must also achieve this accuracy despite imperfect sensory feedback and unexpected disturbances. Here we tested whether the nervous system uses state estimation to beneficially combine sensory feedback with forward model predictions to compensate for these challenges. Specifically, subjects wore prism lenses during a visually guided walking task, and we used trial-by-trial variation in prism lenses to add uncertainty to visual feedback and induce a reweighting of this input...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ryan Stables, Graeme Clemens, Holly J Butler, Katherine M Ashton, Andrew Brodbelt, Timothy P Dawson, Leanne M Fullwood, Michael D Jenkinson, Matthew J Baker
Spectroscopic diagnostics have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of disease states from human tissue. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopic probes are of particular interest as they allow for in vivo spectroscopic diagnostics, for tasks such as the identification of tumour margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate a feature-driven approach to the classification of metastatic brain cancer, glioblastoma (GB) and non-cancer from tissue samples, and we provide a real-time feedback method for endoscopic diagnostics using sound...
October 19, 2016: Analyst
Michael Pickell, Stephen M Mann, Rajesh Chakravertty, Daniel P Borschneck
BACKGROUND: This is a prospective observational study examining the use of a surgeon-driven intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring system. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring is becoming the standard of care for spinal surgeries with potential post-operative neurologic deficits. This standard applies to both adult and pediatric spinal surgery, but a shortage of appropriately trained and certified technologists and physiologists can compromise monitoring capabilities in some centers...
September 2016: J Spine Surg
Bradley M Appelhans, Molly A Martin, Marieli Guzman, Tamara Olinger, Andrew Pleasant, Jennifer Cabe, Lynda H Powell
OBJECTIVE: This report describes the development and validation of a technology-based system that integrates data on food choice, nutrition, and plate waste to generate feedback reports summarizing students' dietary intake at school meals. METHODS: Cafeteria staff used the system to document the school lunch choices of seventh-graders (n = 37) in an urban charter school for 5 months. Plate waste was assessed by research staff using a visual estimation method that was validated against directly weighed plate waste...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Cosima Engerer, Pascal O Berberat, Andreas Dinkel, Baerbel Rudolph, Heribert Sattel, Alexander Wuensch
BACKGROUND: Feedback is considered a key didactic element in medical education, especially for teaching of communication skills. This study investigates the impact of a best evidence-based practice feedback concept within the context of communication skills training (CST). We evaluate this concept for acceptance and changes in students self-ratings of communication competence. METHODS: Our CST integrating feedback process comprises a short theoretical introduction presenting standards for good communication and a constructive 360° feedback from three perspectives: feedback from peers, from standardized patients (SPs), and from a trainer...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Steven Steinhubl
Despite having the basic tools necessary to appropriately identify and manage individuals with hypertension for over half a century it remains the single greatest contributing risk factor to morbidity and mortality worldwide today. Since diagnosis and effective treatment availability are not issues, this major failing in care can be attributed to inadequate systems of care: systems that have led to only <20% of hypertensive individuals globally having their blood pressure adequately controlled. Even in the US, where it is one of the most common reasons for a primary care visit, and with over $42...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Emma Sumner, Samuel B Hutton, Gustav Kuhn, Elisabeth L Hill
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) fail to acquire adequate motor skill, yet surprisingly little is known about the oculomotor system in DCD. Successful completion of motor tasks is supported by accurate visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any oculomotor differences can distinguish between children with and without a motor impairment. Using eye tracking technology, visual fixation, smooth pursuit, and pro- and anti-saccade performance were assessed in 77 children that formed three groups: children with DCD (aged 7-10), chronologically age (CA) matched peers, and a motor-match (MM) group (aged 4-7)...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Adam J Toth, Laurence R Harris, John Zettel, Leah R Bent
Visuo-vestibular recalibration, in which visual information is used to alter the interpretation of vestibular signals, has been shown to influence both oculomotor control and navigation. Here we investigate whether vision can recalibrate the vestibular feedback used during the re-establishment of equilibrium following a perturbation. The perturbation recovery responses of nine participants were examined following exposure to a period of 11 s of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). During GVS in VISION trials, occlusion spectacles provided 4 s of visual information that enabled participants to correct for the GVS-induced tilt and associate this asymmetric vestibular signal with a visually provided 'upright'...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Loïc Peter, Diana Mateus, Pierre Chatelain, Denis Declara, Noemi Schworm, Stefan Stangl, Gabriele Multhoff, Nassir Navab
The examination of biopsy samples plays a central role in the diagnosis and staging of numerous diseases, including most cancer types. However, because of the large size of the acquired images, the localization and quantification of diseased portions of a tissue is usually time-consuming, as pathologists must scroll through the whole slide to look for objects of interest which are often only scarcely distributed. In this work, we introduce an approach to facilitate the visual inspection of large digital histopathological slides...
October 5, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
S Müller, H Huber, G Goebel, G Wimmer, I Kapferer-Seebacher
OBJECTIVES: The ultrasonic NO PAIN technology (Electro Medical Systems, Nyon, CH) promises minimal pain during debridement due to linear oscillating action combined with a sinusoidal power output and feedback control. The aim of the present study was to measure pain perception on a visual analogue scale (VAS) during supportive periodontal therapy including debridement of hypersensitive teeth. Two ultrasonic scalers were used, one with and one without NO PAIN technology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a randomized-controlled clinical study with split-mouth design, 100 hypersensitive teeth matched for air blast hypersensitivity were either treated with the ultrasonic device Piezon Master 700 or the Mini Piezon (both EMS, Nyon, CH)...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Douglas McLelland, Rufin VanRullen
Several theories have been advanced to explain how cross-frequency coupling, the interaction of neuronal oscillations at different frequencies, could enable item multiplexing in neural systems. The communication-through-coherence theory proposes that phase-matching of gamma oscillations between areas enables selective processing of a single item at a time, and a later refinement of the theory includes a theta-frequency oscillation that provides a periodic reset of the system. Alternatively, the theta-gamma neural code theory proposes that a sequence of items is processed, one per gamma cycle, and that this sequence is repeated or updated across theta cycles...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Ali Talasaz, Ana Luisa Trejos, Rajni Patel
The lack of haptic feedback in roboticsassisted surgery can result in tissue damage or accidental tool-tissue hits. This paper focuses on exploring the effect of haptic feedback via direct force reflection and visual presentation of force magnitude on performance during robotics-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RAMIS) suturing. For this purpose, a haptics-enabled dual-arm master-slave teleoperation system capable of measuring tool-tissue interaction forces in all 7 Degrees-of-Freedom (DOFs) was used. Two suturing tasks, tissue puncturing and knottightening, were chosen to assess user skills when suturing on phantom tissue...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
John Kingston, Joshua Levy, Amanda Rysling, Adrian Staub
Listeners tend to categorize an ambiguous speech sound so that it forms a word with its context (Ganong, 1980). This effect could reflect feedback from the lexicon to phonemic activation (McClelland & Elman, 1986), or the operation of a task-specific phonemic decision system (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2000). Because the former account involves feedback between lexical and phonemic levels, it predicts that the lexicon's influence on phonemic decisions should be delayed and should gradually increase in strength...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Kimberly Giraud, Megan Pontin, Linda D Sharples, Paul Fletcher, Tim Dalgleish, Allaina Eden, David P Jenkins, Alain Vuylsteke
Introduction: Post-operative delirium remains a significant problem, particularly in the older surgical patient. Previous evidence suggests that the provision of supplementary visual feedback about ones environment via the use of a mirror may positively impact on mental status and attention (core delirium diagnostic domains). We aimed to explore whether use of an evidence-based mirrors intervention could be effective in reducing delirium and improving post-operative outcomes such as factual memory encoding of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environment in older cardiac surgical patients...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Brady R Still, Laura W Christianson, Julie M Mhlaba, Ian P O'Malley, David H Song, Alexander J Langerman
Background A key avoidable expense in the surgical setting is the wastage of disposable surgical items, which are discarded after cases even if they go unused. A major contributor to wastage of these items is the inaccuracy of surgeon preference cards, which are rarely examined or updated. The authors report the application of a novel technique called cost heatmapping to facilitate standardization of preference cards for microvascular breast reconstruction. Methods Preference card data were obtained for all surgeons performing microvascular breast reconstruction at the authors' institution...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Jennifer E Ruttle, Erin K Cressman, Bernard Marius 't Hart, Denise Y P Henriques
Training to reach with rotated visual feedback results in adaptation of hand movements, which persist when the perturbation is removed (reach aftereffects). Training also leads to changes in felt hand position, which we refer to as proprioceptive recalibration. The rate at which motor and proprioceptive changes develop throughout training is unknown. Here, we aim to determine the timescale of these changes in order to gain insight into the processes that may be involved in motor learning. Following six rotated reach training trials (30° rotation), at three radially located targets, we measured reach aftereffects and perceived hand position (proprioceptive guided reaches)...
2016: PloS One
Erika Zemková, Ol'ga Kyselovičová, Michal Jeleň, Zuzana Kováčiková, Gábor Ollé, Gabriela Štefániková, Tomáš Vilman, Miroslav Baláž, Timea Kurdiová, Jozef Ukropec, Barbara Ukropcová
The authors evaluated the effect of 3 months of resistance and aerobic training (3 sessions/week) on body balance in a group of 25 overweight and obese individuals. Prior to and after the training, they performed static and task-oriented balance tests under various conditions. Mean center of pressure (CoP) velocity and mean trace length of the CoP in the y-axis registered during a one-legged stance significantly decreased after the resistance training (19.1%, p = .024; 29.3%, p = .009). Mean trace length of the CoP in the y-axis decreased significantly also during a bipedal stance on a foam surface with eyes open and closed (10...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yasunobu Murata, Matthew T Colonnese
Spontaneous retinal waves are critical for the development of receptive fields in visual thalamus (LGN) and cortex (VC). Despite a detailed understanding of the circuit specializations in retina that generate waves, whether central circuit specializations also exist to control their propagation through visual pathways of the brain is unknown. Here we identify a developmentally transient, corticothalamic amplification of retinal drive to thalamus as a mechanism for retinal wave transmission in the infant rat brain...
October 11, 2016: ELife
Angel Lago-Rodriguez, R Chris Miall
Prolonged exposure to movement perturbations leads to creation of motor memories which decay towards previous states when the perturbations are removed. However, it remains unclear whether this decay is due only to a spontaneous and passive recovery of the previous state. It has recently been reported that activation of reinforcement-based learning mechanisms delays the onset of the decay. This raises the question whether other motor learning mechanisms may also contribute to the retention and/or decay of the motor memory...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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