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Gallstones Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320323/multimodality-imaging-including-dual-energy-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-gallbladder-disease
#1
Lisa Ratanaprasatporn, Jennifer W Uyeda, Jeremy R Wortman, Ian Richardson, Aaron D Sodickson
Imaging of the gallbladder has a key role in the examination of patients with abdominal pain-especially pain localized to the right upper quadrant. Pathologic conditions that affect the gallbladder include cholelithiasis and associated complications such as acute and chronic cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, gallstone pancreatitis, and cancer. Modalities used to image the gallbladder include ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and nuclear scintigraphy. US is the primary imaging modality used to evaluate entities suspected of being gallbladder disease, as it is both sensitive and specific for demonstrating gallstones, biliary duct dilatation, and inflammatory features...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317704/biofilm-formation-protects-salmonella-from-the-antibiotic-ciprofloxacin-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-the-mouse-model-of-chronic-carriage
#2
Juan F González, Halley Alberts, Joel Lee, Lauren Doolittle, John S Gunn
Typhoid fever is caused by the human-restricted pathogen Salmonella enterica sv. Typhi. Approximately 5% of people that resolve the disease become chronic carriers, with the gallbladder as the main reservoir of the bacteria. Of these, about 90% present with gallstones, on which Salmonella form biofilms. Because S. Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen, these carriers are the main source of dissemination of the disease; unfortunately, antibiotic treatment has shown to be an ineffective therapy. This is believed to be caused by the inherent antibiotic resistance conferred by Salmonella biofilms growing on gallstones...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311470/associations-between-lifestyle-related-diseases-and-transporters-involved-in-intestinal-absorption-and-biliary-excretion-of-cholesterol
#3
Yoshihide Yamanashi, Tappei Takada, Hiroshi Suzuki
Westernization of dietary habits leads to an increase in lipid intake and is thought to be responsible for an increase in patients with dyslipidemia. It is a well-known fact that the impaired cholesterol homeostasis is closely related to the development of various lifestyle-related diseases such as fatty liver, diabetes, and gallstone as well as dyslipidemia leading to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke. Therefore, appropriate management of cholesterol levels in the body is considered important in prevention and treatments of these lifestyle-related diseases and in addition, molecular mechanisms controlling plasma (and/or hepatic) cholesterol levels have been intensively studied...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286073/proteasome-inhibition-protects-against-diet-induced-gallstone-formation-through-modulation-of-cholesterol-and-bile-acid-homeostasis
#4
Eun-Ji Lee, Min Hee Kim, Ye-Ryung Kim, Joo-Won Park, Woo-Jae Park
Gallstone disease is one of the most prevalent and costly gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. Gallstones are formed in the biliary system by cholesterol secretions in bile, which result from excess cholesterol, a deficiency in bile salts or a combination of the two. The present study examined the effects of proteasome inhibition on gallstone formation using the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib (BT) and carfilzomib (CF). C57BL/6J mice were fed a lithogenic diet to generate gallstones and injected with BT or CF for 12 weeks...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283909/an-update-on-the-pathogenesis-of-cholesterol-gallstone-disease
#5
Agostino Di Ciaula, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gallstone disease is a major epidemiologic and economic burden worldwide, and the most frequent form is cholesterol gallstone disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Major pathogenetic factors for cholesterol gallstones include a genetic background, hepatic hypersecretion of cholesterol, and supersaturated bile which give life to precipitating cholesterol crystals that accumulate and grow in a sluggish gallbladder. Additional factors include mucin and inflammatory changes in the gallbladder, slow intestinal motility, increased intestinal absorption of cholesterol, and altered gut microbiota...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248236/bipolar-androgen-therapy-in-men-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-after-progression-on-enzalutamide-an-open-label-phase-2-multicohort-study
#6
Benjamin A Teply, Hao Wang, Brandon Luber, Rana Sullivan, Irina Rifkind, Ashley Bruns, Avery Spitz, Morgan DeCarli, Victoria Sinibaldi, Caroline F Pratz, Changxue Lu, John L Silberstein, Jun Luo, Michael T Schweizer, Charles G Drake, Michael A Carducci, Channing J Paller, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Mario A Eisenberger, Samuel R Denmeade
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer that progresses after enzalutamide treatment is poorly responsive to further antiandrogen therapy, and paradoxically, rapid cycling between high and low serum testosterone concentrations (bipolar androgen therapy [BAT]) in this setting might induce tumour responses. We aimed to evaluate BAT in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that progressed after enzalutamide. METHODS: We did this single-centre, open-label, phase 2, multicohort study in the USA...
December 13, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242416/etiology-and-outcome-of-cholelithiasis-in-turkish-children
#7
Maşallah Baran, Yeliz Çağan Appak, Gökhan Tümgör, Miray Karakoyun, Tunç Özdemir, Gökhan Köylüoğlu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the etiology of gallstones in children and responses to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment. METHODS: 74 children with cholelithiasis were recruited, and underwent ultrasonography to detect gallstones. All relevant clinical information was recorded in a structured proforma. RESULTS: The commonest risk factor was a family history of gallstones. Most children responded to UDCA treatment in the first six months; children with hemolytic diseases showed no response to UDCA...
December 14, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241388/hypercalcemia-induced-pancreatitis-in-pregnancy-following-calcium-carbonate-ingestion
#8
May S Trezevant, John C Winton, Ashley K Holmes
BACKGROUND: Calcium carbonate is often used to relieve Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in pregnant patients. This report describes a potentially serious complication. CASE: A pregnant female presented at 34 weeks gestation with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Home medications included an unquantifiable amount of calcium carbonate 500 mg due to constant consumption for GERD. Laboratory findings included elevated calcium, amylase, lipase, and triglyceride level...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225328/gallbladder-hypoplasia-a-congenital-abnormality-of-the-gallbladder-a-case-report
#9
Christophoros S Kosmidis, Georgios D Koimtzis, Maria S Kosmidou, Fotini Ieridou, Triantafyllia Koletsa, Katerina T Zarampouka, Eleni Georgakoudi, Isaac Kesisoglou
BACKGROUND There are different variations in the anatomy of the gallbladder. Congenital abnormalities of the gallbladder such as agenesis and hypoplasia are rare conditions and difficult to diagnose with imaging studies. Patients are usually asymptomatic or have symptoms that mimic gallstone disease. The diagnosis is often made intraoperatively and is established by histopathological examination. CASE REPORT We report a case of a 62-year-old male who had cholelithiasis symptoms and was falsely diagnosed with gallstone disease by abdominal ultrasound scan...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222221/acute-pancreatitis-following-oesophagogastroduodenoscopy
#10
Nnamdi Arinze Nwafo
Acute pancreatitis is a well-recognised complication of endoscopic procedures like endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography but not oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD). I report a case of a 33-year-old woman, admitted with severe epigastric pain and vomiting 2 hours after an elective OGD for evaluation of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms. Pancreatitis was diagnosed on the basis of elevated lipase (40 790 U/L; normal 11-82) and findings on imaging studies. Other common causes of acute pancreatitis such as gallstones, alcohol and medications were ruled out...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213001/-resumption-of-enteral-nutrition-using-enteral-formula-containing-sodium-alginate-following-hemorrhaging-after-endoscopic-sphincterotomy-a-case-report
#11
Tetsuro Akashi, Kazuhide Matsumoto, Risa Hashimoto, Naomi Koikawa, Masaki Yamada, Junko Shimizu, Chisato Kakegawa, Mari Nakamura, Chieko Kumamoto
Enteral nutrition is often performed in elderly patients with dysphagia. Choledocholithiasis is a disease that is common in elderly patients. Gastrointestinal hemorrhaging can occur in association with endoscopic sphincterotomy, and subsequent enteral nutrition must be carefully resumed. We herein report our experience using Mermed Plus containing sodium alginate after endoscopic hemostasis. The patient was an 88-year-old woman with an onset of gallstone cholangitis during rehabilitation after cerebral infarction...
2017: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206676/hepatobiliary-hands-of-hopkins
#12
Henry A Pitt
OBJECTIVE: This historical perspective documents the role that John L. Cameron played in advancing hepatobiliary research, education, and surgery at Johns Hopkins in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Dating back to William S. Halsted in the 19th century, leaders of the Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins have been interested in hepatobiliary disease and surgery. John L. Cameron had broad hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) interests when he completed his surgical training...
December 4, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195671/alcohol-smoking-and-benign-hepato-biliary-disease
#13
REVIEW
Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh, Srdan Novovic
Gallstone disease and pancreatitis are the most frequent benign hepato-biliary causes of hospital admissions. Gallstone disease is prevalent, but symptomatic disease develops only in about one out of five carriers. Alcohol intake seems to protect gallstone formation in cohort studies possibly through effects on bile cholesterol metabolism, the enterohepatic circulation, and gallbladder function. The impact of smoking on gallstone formation seems minor. Both alcohol intake and smoking do not alter the clinical course of gallstone disease carriers...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193901/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-risk-of-gallstones-a-meta-analysis
#14
Karn Wijarnpreecha, Charat Thongprayoon, Panadeekarn Panjawatanan, Natasorn Lekuthai, Patompong Ungprasert
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gallstones and its complications are one of the most common hepatobiliary tract diseases. Several epidemiologic studies have suggested that patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection might be at an increased risk of gallstones. However, the data on this relationship remain inconclusive. This meta-analysis was conducted with the aims to summarize all available evidence. METHODS: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to May 2016...
November 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192385/choledocholithiasis-after-bariatric-surgery-more-than-a-stone-s-throw-to-reach
#15
Krishnamurthy Somasekar, David S Y Chan, Nhatuveetil S Sreekumar, Salman Anwer
BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease is common after bariatric surgery, and patients with bile duct stones in this cohort can be difficult to treat, due to the altered anatomy. This review aims to analyse the various management options available for choledocholithiasis in post-bariatric surgery patients. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, Medline and Cochrane library databases was carried out for studies on this subject, between January 1970 and March 2017. After initial screening and further full text review, suitable studies were identified after applying the inclusion criteria...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189884/adaptive-immune-cell-dysregulation-and-role-in-acute-pancreatitis-disease-progression-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Pascaline Fonteh, Martin Smith, Martin Brand
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammation of the pancreas caused by various stimuli including excessive alcohol consumption, gallstone disease and certain viral infections. Managing specifically the severe form of AP is limited due to lack of an understanding of the complex immune events that occur during AP involving immune cells and inflammatory molecules such as cytokines. The relative abundance of various immune cells resulting from the immune dysregulation drives disease progression. In this review, we examine the literature on the adaptive immune cells in AP, the prognostic value of these cells in stratifying patients into appropriate care and treatment strategies based on cell frequency in different AP severities are discussed...
November 30, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187474/plasma-glutathione-peroxidase-gpx1-levels-and-oxidative-stress-in-gallstone-patients-operated-with-two-different-cholecystectomy-techniques-a-randomized-study-with-special-reference-to-cancer-patients
#17
Jari Kärkkäinen, Samuli Aspinen, Jukka Harju, Petri Juvonen, Kari Pulkki, Matti Eskelinen
BACKGROUND/AIM: The plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) levels in gallstone patients operated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) or minicholecystectomy (MC) versus cancer patients is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Initially, 114 patients with symptomatic gallstone disease were randomized into LC (n=53) or MC (n=61) groups. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the oxidative stress marker GPX1 were measured at three time points; before (PRE), immediately after (POP1) and 6 hours after operation (POP2)...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178198/association-between-helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-gallbladder-diseases-a-retrospective-study
#18
Mei-Yan Xu, Jia-Hui Ma, Bao-Shi Yuan, Jian Yin, Lan Liu, Qing-Bin Lu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and gallbladder diseases is still unclear and is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study to clarify the prevalence of gallbladder diseases, and factors related to gallbladder diseases, and relationships between H. pylori infection, gallstones, cholecystitis and cholecystic polypus. METHODS: The retrospective study was performed at the Aerospace Center Hospital in Beijing. The subjects in this study were a healthy population who underwent health examinations at the hospital between 2012 and 2015...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176474/hepatic-parenchymal-injury-in-crigler-najjar-type-i
#19
Ellen Mitchell, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Patrick McKiernan, Robert H Squires, Kevin Strauss, Kyle Soltys, George Mazariegos, James E Squires
BACKGROUND: Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CNI) arises from biallelic variants of UGT1A1 that abrogate UGT1A1 activity resulting in unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Historically, liver parenchyma in CNI was considered structurally and histologically normal. Recent review of CNI liver explants revealed fibrosis. Our aim was to investigate the association between hepatic histology and disease phenotype in CNI. METHODS: We extracted data from the medical record at the time of liver transplant from 22 patients with CNI at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, and reviewed explant histology...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163550/evaluation-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-levels-and-serpina1-gene-polymorphisms-in-sickle-cell-disease
#20
Magda Oliveira Seixas Carvalho, André Luís Carvalho Santos Souza, Mauricio Batista Carvalho, Ana Paula Almeida Souza Pacheco, Larissa Carneiro Rocha, Valma Maria Lopes do Nascimento, Camylla Vilas Boas Figueiredo, Caroline Conceição Guarda, Rayra Pereira Santiago, Adekunle Adekile, Marilda de Souza Goncalves
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an inhibitor of neutrophil elastase and a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily, and little is known about its activity in sickle cell disease (SCD). We hypothesize that AAT may undergo changes in SCD because of the high oxidative stress and inflammation associated with the disease. We have found high AAT levels in SCD patients compared to controls, while mutant genotypes of SERPINA1 gene had decreased AAT levels, in both groups. AAT showed negative correlation with red blood cells, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, urea, creatinine, and albumin and was positively correlated with mean corpuscular Hb concentration, white blood cells, neutrophils, Hb S, bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, and C-reactive protein...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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