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Gallstones Disease

Xu Li, Pujun Gao
We investigated possible links between the etiology of liver disease and gallstone risk in Chinese patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We compared the outcomes of 267 Chinese CLD patients with gallstones and those of a control group of 1,015 CLD patients without gallstones. Logistic regression analyses adjusting for demographic features and other gallstone risk factors revealed that liver cirrhosis increased the risk of gallstone development twofold [adjusted odds ratio (AOR); 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Frank Ursin, Florian Steger
INTRODUCTION:  Gallstones are rarely mentioned in the medical texts of antiquity. The physician, Alexander of Tralles mentions-for the first time-stones in the gallbladder as a possible cause for obstructive jaundice. This designation is found in his textbook on medicine under the heading "obstruction of the liver". Based on that observation, we describe the ancient history of hepatic obstruction and investigate the connection with the rare reference of gallstones in the medical texts of antiquity...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Faiza Qayyum, Bo K Lauridsen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Klaus F Kofoed, Børge G Nordestgaard, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen
Aims: Myocardial infarction (MI) and gallstone disease (GSD) are intrinsically linked via cholesterol metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants in the gene encoding cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver, are associated with risk of MI and GSD in the general population. Methods and results: We performed tests of association between lipid levels and eight rare non-synonymous mutations and two common variants, rs2081687 and rs3808607, in CYP7A1 in 100 149 individuals from the general population...
February 23, 2018: European Heart Journal
Ivana Zitinic, Ivana Plavsic, Goran Poropat, Goran Hauser
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common gastrointestinal disease of varied etiology; however, the most common causes of AP are gallstones and alcohol abuse. AP has emerged as the most frequent complication after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Post-ERCP pancreatitis is generally a clinically irrelevant condition; however, it can be severe or even fatal in up to 0.8% of cases. Different clinical courses and outcomes have been observed between mild and severe AP of different etiologies (i.e...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Mehmet Suat Yalçın, Adnan Tas, Banu Kara, Sehmus Olmez, Bunyamin Saritas
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is inflammation of the pancreas of various severity ranging from mild abdominal pain to mortality. AP may be classified as acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis (AEP) or acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP), according to the revised Atlanta criteria. Most of the patients with AP are AEP (75-85% of patients), while 15-25% of patients have ANP. The mortality rate is 3% in AEP and 15% in ANP. Thus, it is important to predict the severity of AP to decrease the morbidity and mortality...
February 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Fabio Tonin, Isabel W C E Arends
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a pharmaceutical ingredient widely used in clinics. As bile acid it solubilizes cholesterol gallstones and improves the liver function in case of cholestatic diseases. UDCA can be obtained from cholic acid (CA), which is the most abundant and least expensive bile acid available. The now available chemical routes for the obtainment of UDCA yield about 30% of final product. For these syntheses several protection and deprotection steps requiring toxic and dangerous reagents have to be performed, leading to the production of a series of waste products...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
W Man, L Le, C Xue-Qin, L I Lei, F Yue-Yi
Objective To understand the prevalence and epidemiological features of clonorchiasis sinensis based on inpatients in Zhongshan City. Methods All of the 23 town hospitals in Zhongshan City were selected as the surveillance hospitals in 2016. Among the inpatients from those hospitals, those lived in the city longer than 6 months were selected as the surveillance subjects. The stool specimens of the subjects were collected and examined by the modified Kato-Katz thick smear method for the eggs of Clonorchis sinensis ...
July 5, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Ambika Amblee, Divyanshu Mohananey, Micheal Morkos, Sanjib Basu, Ayokunle Abegunde, Malini Ganesh, Neil Bhalerao, Amrutha Mary George, Milli Jain, Leon Fogelfeld
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and predictors of hypertriglycerdemic acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP) in a multiethnic minority population. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study from 2003 to 2013 of 1157 adults with serum triglyceride (TG) level ≥ 1000 mg/dL comparing baseline characteristics and risk factors between those with and without HTG-AP. RESULTS: Mean study population age was 49.2±11.5 years; 75.6% males; 31.6% African Americans, 38...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Nèwel Salet, Rolf H Bremmer, Marc A M T Verhagen, Vivian E Ekkelenkamp, Bettina E Hansen, Pieter J F de Jonge, Rob A de Man
OBJECTIVE: To develop a feasible model for monitoring short-term outcome of clinical care trajectories for hospitals in the Netherlands using data obtained from hospital information systems for identifying hospital variation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of collected data from hospital information systems combined with clinical indicator definitions to define and compare short-term outcomes for three gastrointestinal pathways using the concept of Textbook Outcome...
March 1, 2018: BMJ Open
H Tafazal, P Spreadborough, D Zakai, N Shastri-Hurst, S Ayaani, M Hanif
Introduction There is an increasing trend towards day case surgery for uncomplicated gallstone disease. The challenges of maximising training opportunities are well recognised by surgical trainees and the need to demonstrate timely progression of competencies is essential. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy provides the potential for excellent trainee learning opportunities. Our study builds upon previous work by assessing whether measures of outcome are still affected when cases are stratified based on procedural difficulty...
March 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Bao Z Yao, Liang Li, Ming Jiang, Jie Wang, Jun Zhang
RATIONALE: Gallstone disease is commonly worldwide and safely treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Chylous ascites is a rare but serious complication of many abdominal operations. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a rare case of refractory chyle leakage post-LC for acute cholecystitis that is successfully treated in a 40-year-old man, and review current literature on the prevalence, diagnosis, and management of this complication. DIAGNOSES: Refractory chyle leakage post-LC, a rare but serious complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kristine T Hanson, Cornelius A Thiels, Stephanie F Polites, Halena M Gazelka, Mohamed D Ray-Zack, Martin D Zielinski, Elizabeth B Habermann
BACKGROUND: Postoperative prescribing following acute care surgery must be optimized to limit excess opioids in circulation as misuse and diversion are frequently preceded by a prescription for acute pain. This study aimed to identify patient characteristics associated with higher opioid prescribing following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). METHODS: Among patients age ≥18 years who underwent LC at a single institution 2014-2016, opioids prescribed at discharge were converted to oral morphine equivalents (OME) and compared to developing state guidelines (max 200 OME)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Won-Bae Chang, Ho-Seong Han, Yoo-Seok Yoon, Jai Young Cho, YoungRok Choi
Since multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a standard treatment for gallbladder (GB) disease, a single incision laparoscopic surgical technique has been tried to decrease the surgical site pain and achieve a better cosmetic out come in selected patients. The development of devices dedicated for single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is expanding the indication of this single incision laparoscopic technique to more complicated GB diseases. Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is one of the complex uncommon gallstone diseases in patients undergoing cholecystectomy...
February 2018: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh, Allan Linneberg, Tea Skaaby, Lars Tue Sørensen, Torben Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease is highly prevalent and is associated with systemic inflammation. AIMS: To determine whether screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy are associated with the occurrence of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases and the most common subgroups thereof. METHODS: A cohort study of three randomly selected general population samples from Copenhagen was performed. Participants (n = 5928) were examined in the period 1982-1992, underwent abdominal ultrasound examination to detect gallstone disease, and followed through national registers until December 2014 (median 24...
January 31, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Julie Vaynshtein, Gilbert Sabbag, Ilya Pinsk, Ilan Rahmani, Avraham Reshef
AIM: Biliary lithiasis is common in most western countries. Symptomatic patients will also have choledocholithiasis in 10% of the cases. For patients with intermediate probability of CBD stones, the recommended imaging studies are endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or MRCP. This study aims to identify early factors that can be used as predictors for the presence of CBD stones, and by that to find which patient should undergo ERCP without an early EUS. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study including all patients who underwent EUS for suspected choledocholithiasis at the Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC) in the years 2009-2014...
February 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Piyush Manoria, Sameer Inamdar, Ravindra Kumar
Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and gallstones are frequently present in diabetics, but its exact prevalence is not well studied in India. We have done a prevalence study of hepatobiliary involvement in Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and also studied the other risk factors of NAFLD. Materials and Methods: Two hundred diabetics and 200 controls underwent anthropometric measurements, abdominal ultrasonography, (USG) and biochemical tests at a tertiary care hospital...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Hee Seung Lee, Moon Jae Chung, Jeong Youp Park, Seungmin Bang, Seung Woo Park, Si Young Song, Jae Bock Chung
Acute pancreatitis is a common diagnosis worldwide, with gallstone disease being the most prevalent cause (50%). The American College of Gastroenterology recommends urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (within 24 h) for patients with biliary pancreatitis accompanied by cholangitis. Most international guidelines recommend that ERCP be performed within 72 h in patients with biliary pancreatitis and a bile duct obstruction without cholangitis, but the optimal timing for endoscopy is controversial...
2018: PloS One
Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh
Gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Denmark and other countries of northern Europe, and cholecystectomy for the treatment of clinical gallstone disease is one the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Research efforts for the identification of mechanisms involved in gallstone formation have a long history and the most established include bile cholesterol saturation, gallbladder motor function, and the enterohepatic circulation of secondary bile salts produced by fecal microbiota. A small number of determinants that are believed to affect these mechanisms have been identified until now...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Dae Bum Kim, Chang-Nyol Paik, Do Seon Song, Yeon Ji Kim, Ji Min Lee
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) might be prevalent in gallstone disease, including cases involving cholecystectomy and gallstones. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of SIBO in patients with gallstone disease. METHODS: This prospective study evaluated 265 patients for gallstone disease (200, gallstones; 65, cholecystectomy) and 39 healthy controls. Laboratory data, abdominal ultrasonography, and glucose breath test (GBT) with bowel symptom questionnaire were performed...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Dhiren K Patel, Fatima Cody Stanford
The prevalence of obesity and associated comorbidities is rising. Despite their weight-loss efficacy, new generation anti-obesity medications are only prescribed to a minority of adults with obesity, possibly, which in part may be due to safety concerns. This review presents detailed safety profiles for orlistat, phentermine/topiramate, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion and liraglutide 3.0 mg, and discusses the associated risk-benefit profiles. Two anti-obesity medications presented safety issues that warranted further discussion; phentermine/topiramate (fetal toxicity) and liraglutide 3...
February 8, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
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