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epistemological conceptions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436780/truth-axes-and-the-transformation-of-self
#1
Shlomit Yadlin-Gadot
Freud adhered to the idea that psychoanalysis is a science and that truth is one. The transition from a realistic epistemology to an epistemology of subjective idealism in psychoanalytic thought was accompanied by the splintering of the "one" realistic truth into a multiplicity of truths: realistic-correspondent, ideal, subjective-existential, intersubjective, coherent, and pragmatic truths. The present paper, employing the concept of "truth axes," explores these truths as they relate to basic human needs, self- states, and the structuring of subjectivity...
April 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419738/academic-voice-on-feminism-presence-and-objectivity-in-writing
#2
Kim M Mitchell
Academic voice is an oft-discussed, yet variably defined concept, and confusion exists over its meaning, evaluation, and interpretation. This paper will explore perspectives on academic voice and counterarguments to the positivist origins of objectivity in academic writing. While many epistemological and methodological perspectives exist, the feminist literature on voice is explored here as the contrary position. From the feminist perspective, voice is a socially constructed concept that cannot be separated from the experiences, emotions, and identity of the writer and, thus, constitutes a reflection of an author's way of knowing...
April 16, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359768/on-the-science-of-consciousness-epistemological-reflections-and-clinical-implications
#3
Enrico Facco, Daniela Lucangeli, Patrizio Tressoldi
Consciousness has been one of the most important and tantalizing issues ever since the origin of philosophy and medicine. The concept of consciousness and the so-called "hard problem" (i.e., the mind-brain relationship) are highly complex topics that have yet to be elucidated, involving the realms of both science and philosophy with profound epistemological implications. In the lively debate on the foundations of the science of consciousness there are several potential biases of an essentially philosophical nature, such as those related to the paradigm and axioms adopted, and the ostensible logical contradiction between monism and dualism...
February 24, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358566/use-of-tools-and-misuse-of-embodied-cognition-reply-to-buxbaum-2017
#4
François Osiurak, Arnaud Badets
Osiurak and Badets (2016) examined the validity of the manipulation-based versus the reasoning-based approaches to tool use in light of studies in experimental psychology and neuropsychology. They concluded that the reasoning-based approach seems to be more promising than the manipulation-based approach for understanding the current literature. Buxbaum (2017) questioned this conclusion and raised certain theoretical limitations with regard to the reasoning-based approach. She also suggested that this approach is not well-equipped to integrate the existing psychological and neuroanatomical data in the tool use domain...
April 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239195/who-is-the-scientist-subject-a-critique-of-the-neo-kantian-scientist-subject-in-lorraine-daston-and-peter-galison-s-objectivity
#5
REVIEW
Esha Shah
The main focus of this essay is to closely engage with the role of scientist-subjectivity in the making of objectivity in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison's book Objectivity, and Daston's later and earlier works On Scientific Observation and The Moral Economy of Science. I have posited four challenges to the neo-Kantian and Foucauldian constructions of the co-implication of psychology and epistemology presented in these texts. Firstly, following Jacques Lacan's work, I have argued that the subject of science constituted by the mode of modern science suffers from paranoia...
2017: Minerva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225699/what-is-the-relevance-of-procedural-fairness-to-making-determinations-about-medical-evidence
#6
Govind Persad
Approaches relying on fair procedures rather than substantive principles have been proposed for answering dilemmas in medical ethics and health policy. These dilemmas generally involve two questions: the epistemological (factual) question of which benefits an intervention will have, and the ethical (value) question of how to distribute those benefits. This article focuses on the potential of fair procedures to help address epistemological and factual questions in medicine, using the debate over antidepressant efficacy as a test case...
February 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219269/the-potentiality-of-a-healthy-self-evaluating-progressively-empowered-internalisation-and-diagnosis-through-the-lens-of-existential-epistemology
#7
Anna Westin
In this article I will examine how the language of diagnosis can engage with existential epistemology to develop a concept of Progressively Empowered Internalisation (PEI). This, I will argue, challenges conceptualisations of diagnosis as articulating and maintaining a static self-concept. It enables the individual to synthesise the language of a particular mental experience within the wider engagement of their own active process of self-becoming. I will suggest that this construction of PEI addresses the limitations of stigmatisation and static self-concepts...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165286/the-erudite-humility-of-the-historian-the-critical-epistemology-of-georges-lant%C3%A3-ri-laura
#8
Elisabetta Basso Lorini
This paper analyses the historical and epistemological work of the French psychiatrist Georges Lantéri-Laura (1930-2004) within the context of the French 'tradition' of history and philosophy of sciences, with special reference to Georges Canguilhem and Michel Foucault. After an introduction devoted to a critical survey of the most recent works on the history and historiography of psychiatry in French, the paper outlines Lantéri-Laura's approach by focusing especially on the role played by the methodological concept of 'semiology' as regards the relation between medicine and psychiatry...
February 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138927/towards-topological-mechanisms-underlying-experience-acquisition-and-transmission-in-the-human-brain
#9
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Experience is a process of awareness and mastery of facts or events, gained through actual observation or second-hand knowledge. Recent findings reinforce the idea that a naturalized epistemological approach is needed to further advance our understanding of the nervous mechanisms underlying experience. This essay is an effort to build a coherent topological-based framework able to elucidate particular aspects of experience, e.g., how it is acquired by a single individual, transmitted to others and collectively stored in form of general ideas...
January 30, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062650/euthanasia-embedded-in-palliative-care-responses-to-essentialistic-criticisms-of-the-belgian-model-of-integral-end-of-life-care
#10
Jan L Bernheim, Kasper Raus
The Belgian model of 'integral' end-of-life care consists of universal access to palliative care (PC) and legally regulated euthanasia. As a first worldwide, the Flemish PC organisation has embedded euthanasia in its practice. However, some critics have declared the Belgian-model concepts of 'integral PC' and 'palliative futility' to fundamentally contradict the essence of PC. This article analyses the various essentialistic arguments for the incompatibility of euthanasia and PC. The empirical evidence from the euthanasia-permissive Benelux countries shows that since legalisation, carefulness (of decision making) at the end of life has improved and there have been no significant adverse 'slippery slope' effects...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045888/look-who-is-talking-now-eliciting-the-concept-of-fatherhood-among-filipino-fathers-using-metaphor-analysis
#11
Neil Jupiter E Villamor, Allan B de Guzman, Evangeline T Matienzo
BACKGROUND: Although the increased interest in investigating the dynamics of fatherhood in developed nations has been documented in the literature, its collective meaning and implications in nursing remain largely unknown in the context of East Asia, especially in developing countries such as the Philippines. PURPOSE: Capitalizing on the unique power of metaphors to improve the understanding of complex and abstract ideas and to shape healthcare practices, this qualitative semiotic investigation intended to define the essence of fatherhood from the perspective of Filipino fathers...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012731/another-stage-of-development-biological-degeneracy-and-the-study-of-bodily-ageing
#12
REVIEW
Paul H Mason, Ryszard Maleszka, Juan F Dominguez D
Ageing is a poorly understood process of human development mired by a scientific approach that struggles to piece together distributed variable factors involved in ongoing transformations of living systems. Reconfiguring existing research paradigms, we review the concept of 'degeneracy', which has divergent popular and technical definitions. The technical meaning of degeneracy refers to the structural diversity underlying functional plasticity. Degeneracy is a distributed system property that can be observed within individual brains or across different brains...
December 21, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002140/look-who-is-talking-now-eliciting-the-concept-of-fatherhood-among-filipino-fathers-using-metaphor-analysis
#13
Neil Jupiter E Villamor, Allan B de Guzman, Evangeline T Matienzo
BACKGROUND: Although the increased interest in investigating the dynamics of fatherhood in developed nations has been documented in the literature, its collective meaning and implications in nursing remain largely unknown in the context of East Asia, especially in developing countries such as the Philippines. PURPOSE: Capitalizing on the unique power of metaphors to improve the understanding of complex and abstract ideas and to shape healthcare practices, this qualitative semiotic investigation intended to define the essence of fatherhood from the perspective of Filipino fathers...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862985/theory-analysis-of-the-dental-hygiene-human-needs-conceptual-model
#14
L MacDonald, D M Bowen
PURPOSE: Theories provide a structural knowing about concept relationships, practice intricacies, and intuitions and thus shape the distinct body of the profession. Capturing ways of knowing and being is essential to any professions' practice, education and research. This process defines the phenomenon of the profession - its existence or experience. Theory evaluation is a systematic criterion-based assessment of a specific theory. This study presents a theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DH HNCM)...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862249/a-critical-caring-theory-of-protection-for-migrants-and-seasonal-farmworkers
#15
Jennifer E Shearer
Pesticide exposures represent inequities among a vulnerable population of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. A social justice theory synthesized from an environmental health research framework, a middle range theory of critical caring, and literature on pesticide exposure is presented as a situation-specific public health practice theory. Concepts from the physiological, epistemological, vulnerability, and health protection domains are related to concepts of critical caring revealing protective strategies for vulnerable populations exposed to pesticides...
November 14, 2016: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836557/social-impact-assessment-sia-from-a-multidimensional-paradigmatic-perspective-challenges-and-opportunities
#16
Antonio Aledo-Tur, J Andrés Domínguez-Gómez
The literature specialized in Social Impact Assessment (SIA) concurs that there is still much work to do in the discussion and thorough grounding of its theories and conceptual bases. The authors of this paper consider that the understanding of SIA as a paradigm may prove useful as a foundation on which more robust and better grounded SIA knowledge production may be built. Further, we suggest that the application of the concept of the paradigm in the terms expressed here may offer a comprehensive guide to practice in SIA studies...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831656/why-is-it-so-difficult-to-integrate-ethics-in-health-technology-assessment-hta-the-epistemological-viewpoint
#17
P Refolo, D Sacchini, L Brereton, A Gerhardus, B Hofmann, K B Lysdahl, K Mozygemba, W Oortwijn, M Tummers, G J van der Wilt, P Wahlster, A G Spagnolo
Ethics has been identified as a key element in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) since its conception. However, ethical issues are still not frequently addressed explicitly in HTA. Several valuable reasons have been identified. The basis of the article is the claim that ethics is often not part of HTA for "epistemological reasons". Hence, the main aim of the contribution is to explore in more details and emphasize them by using the fact/value dichotomy. Our conclusion is that current HTA configuration is predominantly based on the comparison among objective and empirically testable "facts", whilst ethics is not empirically testable...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697237/determination-of-death-metaphysical-and-biomedical-discourse
#18
REVIEW
Irayda Jakušovaitė, Žydrunė Luneckaitė, Eimantas Peičius, Živilė Bagdonaitė, Olga Riklikienė, Edgaras Stankevičius
The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676958/conceptualizing-disability-to-inform-rehabilitation-historical-and-epistemological-perspectives
#19
Alain Leplege, Catherine Barral, Katherine Mc Pherson
In order to rethink rehabilitation - it is vital that we think about current rehabilitation - what it looks like and why. The dominant models that have emerged to guide development and practice, the frameworks that underpin compensation policies, funding for services, and indeed research, all have historical and political roots. If we better understand these models, their basis or foundation, their strengths and also their weaknesses, then perhaps we can better understand how to contribute to progress in the future...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666083/searching-for-wisdom-in-oncology-care-a-scoping-review
#20
Helen Butlin, Elizabeth Anne Kinsella, Carla Garcia, Glenn Bauman
OBJECTIVE: The concept of "wisdom" is beginning to emerge in the oncology literature, raising questions concerning: (1) how the concept of wisdom is used in oncology literature; (2) the ways in which wisdom has been a focus of inquiry within oncology care; and (3) how wisdom is characterized when the term is used. METHOD: A scoping review, using Arksey and O'Malley's five-step framework, was undertaken to address these questions. In consultation with oncology reference librarians, "wisdom"- and "oncology"-related search terms were identified, and four electronic databases were searched: CINAHL, SocINDEX, PubMed, and PsychINFO...
September 26, 2016: Palliative & Supportive Care
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