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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280271/paper-1-nursing-as-concrete-philosophy-part-i-risjord-on-nursing-knowledge
#1
Kyriakos Theodoridis
This essay addresses the problem of the essentiality of nursing knowledge and what kind of theory, if any, is essential to nursing practice. The overarching aim of the essay was to argue for the thesis that nursing may be described as a kind of philosophical activity, and, consequently, that philosophy is the kind of "theory" that is essential to nursing practice and to the nursing discipline at large. The essay consists of two papers. The present paper, Part I, is a critical examination of Mark Risjord's discussion of the problem of the theory-practice gap in his Nursing Knowledge: Practice, Science, Philosophy, from 2010...
December 26, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276633/health-and-safety-at-work-analysis-from-the-brazilian-documentary-film-flesh-and-bone
#2
Luciano Mendes, Heliani Berlato Dos Santos, Elisa Yoshie Ichikawa
Background: The objective of this article is to make some analysis on the process of work and accidents occurring in slaughterhouses, evidenced in the Brazilian documentary film called Flesh and Bone. As such, it was necessary to discuss an alternative theoretical concept in relation to theories about health and safety at work. This alternative discussion focuses on the concepts of biopower and biopolitics. Methods: The use of audiovisual elements in research is not new, and there is already a branch of studies with methodological and epistemological variations...
December 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236806/the-circulation-of-psychoanalytical-knowledge-and-practice-in-the-social-sciences
#3
Luiz Fernando Dias Duarte
A concise but broad-based review is presented of the circulation of knowledge and practices from psychoanalysis in the social sciences, especially anthropology. The different contexts in which the concepts and conceptions of psychoanalysis have been read, refuted, or appropriated by different national schools of thought and intellectual traditions and the ways psychoanalysis itself has interacted with anthropological knowledge and its incorporations of psychoanalytical knowledge are explored. The interpretations of these two major groups of knowledge are referred to as participating in a common cultural horizon with a common epistemological orientation, and the sources of the frequent mistaken beliefs occurring in this interplay are also addressed...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235958/caring-science-or-science-of-caring
#4
Marian C Turkel, Jean Watson, Joseph Giovannoni
The concepts caring science and science of caring have different meanings; however, they are often used interchangeably. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the synthesis of the scholarly literature on the definitions of the science of caring and caring science and to affirm the authors' perspective relating to the language of caring science. Caring science advances the epistemology and ontology of caring. Ideas related to caring science inquiry are presented, and the authors acknowledge the future of caring science as unitary caring science...
January 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199093/evolutionary-epistemology-reviewing-and-reviving-with-new-data-the-research-programme-for-distributed-biological-intelligence
#5
REVIEW
Predrag Slijepcevic
Numerous studies in microbiology, eukaryotic cell biology, plant biology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and philosophy of science appear to support the principles of the epistemological theory inspired by evolution, also known as "Evolutionary Epistemology", or EE. However, that none of the studies acknowledged EE suggests that its principles have not been formulated with sufficient clarity and depth to resonate with the interests of the empirical research community. In this paper I review evidence in favor of EE, and also reformulate EE principles to better inform future research...
November 30, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195646/the-evaluation-of-measurement-uncertainties-and-its-epistemological-ramifications
#6
Nadine de Courtenay, Fabien Grégis
The way metrologists conceive of measurement has undergone a major shift in the last two decades. This shift can in great part be traced to a change in the statistical methods used to deal with the expression of measurement results, and, more particularly, with the calculation of measurement uncertainties. Indeed, as we show, the incapacity of the frequentist approach to the calculus of uncertainty to deal with systematic errors has prompted the replacement of the customary frequentist methods by fully Bayesian procedures...
October 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191718/-how-nationality-influences-opinion-darwinism-and-palaeontology-in-france-1859-1914
#7
Claudine Cohen
This paper discusses the "non-reception" of Darwin's works and concepts in French palaeontology and palaeoanthropology between 1859 and 1914. Indeed, this integration was difficult, biased and belated, for ideological, intellectual and epistemological reasons: Clémence Royer's biased 1862 translation of Darwin's Origin of Species pulled its ideas toward "social darwinism", making them less attractive to the natural sciences. - French nationalism and the authority of religion, which imposed Cuvier's thinking until late into the century - the dominance of Lamarckian and neo-Lamarckian transformism in France, both in biology and in paleontology, which proposed the notion of orthogenetic laws and environmental determinations, and refused darwinian evolutionary mechanisms - obstacles inherent to the application of Darwin's concepts to palaeontology, namely the impossibility to identify evolutionary mechanisms through the fossil record, which was stressed by Darwin himself and underlined in turn by 19th century French palaeontologists...
November 27, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188350/-understanding-in-psychiatry-part%C3%A2-1-philosophical-sources-and-concept-analysis
#8
REVIEW
J Valdés-Stauber
BACKGROUND: The dichotomy comprehension/understanding vs. explanation has been initially developed with a legitimating intention for the humanities vis à vis the natural sciences. This investigation examines the different usages of understanding/comprehension in psychiatry and psychotherapy as well as its relevance for medical practice. METHOD: Critical discussion of the historical roots of the comprehension-explanation dichotomy and its introduction into the psychiatry by Jaspers...
November 29, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186141/understanding-disciplinary-vocabularies-using-a-full-text-enabled-domain-independent-term-extraction-approach
#9
Erjia Yan, Jake Williams, Zheng Chen
Publication metadata help deliver rich analyses of scholarly communication. However, research concepts and ideas are more effectively expressed through unstructured fields such as full texts. Thus, the goals of this paper are to employ a full-text enabled method to extract terms relevant to disciplinary vocabularies, and through them, to understand the relationships between disciplines. This paper uses an efficient, domain-independent term extraction method to extract disciplinary vocabularies from a large multidisciplinary corpus of PLoS ONE publications...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182046/decolonizing-scoping-review-methodologies-for-literature-with-for-and-by-indigenous-peoples-and-the-african-diaspora-dialoguing-with-the-tensions
#10
Lori A Chambers, Randy Jackson, Catherine Worthington, Ciann L Wilson, Wangari Tharao, Nicole R Greenspan, Renee Masching, Valérie Pierre-Pierre, Tola Mbulaheni, Marni Amirault, Patrick Brownlee
This article summarizes our deepened understanding of decolonizing research with, for, and by Indigenous peoples and peoples of African descent that emerged from conducting a scoping review of the methodological literature and reflecting on our review process. Although our review identified decolonizing methodologies as a promising approach, we questioned if our scoping review process engaged in decolonizing knowing. To unpack the epistemological tensions between decolonizing knowing and Western ways of doing scoping reviews, we engaged in individual and collective reflective processes- dialoguing with the tensions-moving from individual immersion in the literature to transformative dialogues among the team...
January 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120109/from-sinks-to-webs-critical-social-science-after-the-fact-value-distinction
#11
Philip S Gorski
The fact-value distinction is leaky.  The problem is not just that values can color facts.  The reverse is also true: facts are also entangled with values.  Nor is that the end of the matter. The concepts of fact and value are not epistemologically or ethically neutral either. It is time to abandon the quest for axiological neutrality in favor of systematic attention to the complex relationship between the descriptive and the normative. Instead of attempting to be neutral, social scientists should strive to combine engagement with open-mindedness...
November 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077934/interdependence-reflexivity-fidelity-impedance-matching-and-the-evolution-of-genetic-coding
#12
Charles W Carter, Peter R Wills
Genetic coding is generally thought to have required ribozymes whose functions were taken over by polypeptide aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS). Two discoveries about aaRS and their interactions with tRNA substrates now furnish a unifying rationale for the opposite conclusion: that the key processes of the Central Dogma of molecular biology emerged simultaneously and naturally from simple origins in a peptide•RNA partnership, eliminating the epistemological utility of a prior RNA world. First, the two aaRS classes likely arose from opposite strands of the same ancestral gene, implying a simple genetic alphabet...
October 24, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063995/psychology-as-a-science-of-subject-and-comportment-beyond-the-mind-and-behavior
#13
Marino Pérez-Álvarez
The turn of qualitative inquiry suggests a more open, plural conception of psychology than just the science of the mind and behavior as it is most commonly defined. Historical, ontological and epistemological binding of this conception of psychology to the positivist method of natural science may have exhausted its possibilities, and after having contributed to its prestige as a science, has now become an obstacle. It is proposed that psychology be reconceived as a science of subject and comportment in the framework of a contextual hermeneutic, social, human behavioral science...
October 24, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048196/using-intersectionality-responsibly-toward-critical-epistemology-structural-analysis-and-social-justice-activism
#14
Bonnie Moradi, Patrick R Grzanka
The increasing popularity of the concept of intersectionality in the social sciences, including in psychology, represents an opportunity to reflect on the state of stewardship of this concept, its roots, and its promise. In this context, the authors aim to promote responsible stewardship of intersectionality and to tip the momentum of intersectionality's flourishing toward fuller use and engagement of its roots and promise for understanding and challenging dynamics of power, privilege, and oppression. To this end, this article provides a set of guidelines for reflection and action...
October 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038652/hierarchical-recursive-organization-and-the-free-energy-principle-from-biological-self-organization-to-the-psychoanalytic-mind
#15
Patrick Connolly, Vasi van Deventer
The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization) provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a) Free Energy Principle (FEP) for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033228/epigenetics-a-way-to-bridge-the-gap-between-biological-fields
#16
Antonine Nicoglou, Francesca Merlin
The concept of epigenetics has evolved since Waddington defined it from the late 1930s as the study of the causal mechanisms at work in development. It has become a multi-faceted notion with different meanings, depending on the disciplinary context it is used. In this article, we first analyse the transformations of the concept of epigenetics, from Waddington to contemporary accounts, in order to identify its different meanings and traditions, and to come up with a typology of epigenetics throughout its history...
October 13, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958214/conceptualizing-suffering-and-pain
#17
Noelia Bueno-Gómez
BACKGROUND: This article aims to contribute to a better conceptualization of pain and suffering by providing non-essential and non-naturalistic definitions of both phenomena. Contributions of classical evidence-based medicine, the humanistic turn in medicine, as well as the phenomenology and narrative theories of suffering and pain, together with certain conceptions of the person beyond them (the mind-body dichotomy, Cassel's idea of persons as "intact beings") are critically discussed with such purpose...
September 29, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956412/clinical-judgment-is-a-schema-conceptual-proposals-and-training-perspectives
#18
Marc Nagels
Clinical judgment is a critical concept for the development of nursing and nursing education. Its theoretical origins are multiple and its definition is not yet consensus. The analysis of the scientific and professional literature shows heterogeneous and dispersed points of views, notably on the role of intuition, on its cognitive and metacognitive dimensions, and on its proximity to other concepts. Between professional stakes and epistemological constructions, clinical judgment is still an emerging concept...
August 17, 2017: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956071/-an-archive-for-science-state-and-nation-climatological-data-practices-in-switzerland-1860-1914
#19
Franziska Hupfer
In the second half of the nineteenth century, most European countries began to finance weather observation networks. As a result, climatological data practices changed fundamentally. Using the example of Switzerland, this paper examines the political, institutional and methodological dimensions of national data archives. The institutionalization of data collection within the national framework meant, on the one hand, that more observations were systematically made and published. On the other hand, it also meant that the monitoring was connected to state boundaries...
December 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944638/-unknown-title
#20
(no author information available yet)
Clinical judgment is a critical concept for the development of nursing and nursing education. Its theoretical origins are multiple and its definition is not yet consensus. The analysis of the scientific and professional literature shows heterogeneous and dispersed points of views, notably on the role of intuition, on its cognitive and metacognitive dimensions, and on its proximity to other concepts. Between professional stakes and epistemological constructions, clinical judgment is still an emerging concept...
August 17, 2017: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
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