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epistemological conceptions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926777/experience-as-knowledge-disability-distillation-and-reprogenetic-decision-making
#1
Felicity K Boardman
'Experiential knowledge' is increasingly recognised as an important influence on reproductive decision-making. 'Experiential knowledge of disability' in particular is a significant resource within prenatal testing/screening contexts, enabling prospective parents to imagine and appraise future lives affected by disability. However, the concept of 'experiential knowledge' has been widely critiqued for its idiosyncrasy, its impermanence and consequently its perceived inferiority to (medical) knowledge. This paper explores some of these key critiques of experiential knowledge through an analysis of its constitution and uses in the context of reproductive decision-making...
September 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845827/non-conventional-practice-versus-evidence-based-medicine-a-scientific-and-ethical-analysis-of-the-italian-regulation
#2
Sara Patuzzo, Rosagemma Ciliberti
BACKGROUND: The current lack of scientific validation of non-conventional treatments in medicine, whose epistemological foundations lie in scientific evidence and experimentation, raises significant questions regarding the costs and benefits of alternative-treatment forms. Nonetheless, in the last few decades non-conventional treatments have been increasingly recognised by the Italian medical profession, with one regional healthcare administration adopting some non-conventional practices as part of its conventional healthcare services...
August 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809178/how-can-health-information-technologies-contribute-to-improve-health-care-services-for-high-need-patients
#3
Christian Nøhr, Lars Botin, Xinxin Zhu
This paper discusses how health information technologies like tele-care, tele-health and tele-medicine can improve the condition for high-need patients, specifically in relation to access. The paper addresses specifically the values of timeliness and equity and how tele technological solutions can support and enhance these values. The paper introduces to the concept of scaffolding, which constitutes the framework for dynamic, appropriate, caring and embracing approaches for engaging and involving high-need patients that are vulnerable and exposed...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761017/social-behavioural-epistemology-and-the-scientific-community
#4
Milind Watve
The progress of science is influenced substantially by social behaviour of and social interactions within the scientific community. Similar to innovations in primate groups, the social acceptance of an innovation depends not only upon the relevance of the innovation but also on the social dominance and connectedness of the innovator. There are a number of parallels between many well-known phenomena in behavioural evolution and various behavioural traits observed in the scientific community. It would be useful, therefore, to use principles of behavioural evolution as hypotheses to study the social behaviour of the scientific community...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757490/the-philosophical-genealogy-of-taylor-s-social-imaginaries-a-complex-history-of-ideas-and-predecessors
#5
Guido M Vanheeswijck
The deepest sources of Charles Taylor's use of the concept "social imaginaries" are often related to political philosophy or social anthropology (Anderson, Castoriadis). The purpose of this article is to show that they also form part of Taylor's struggle to overcome the epistemological construal in modern philosophy and culture. Taylor locates the concept "social imaginaries" in the Kantian tradition, identifying their role to that of transcendental schemes. However, there remains a central difference between Kant's transcendental schemes and Taylor's social imaginaries...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743302/cognition-culture-and-utility-plant-classification-by-paraguayan-immigrant-farmers-in-misiones-argentina
#6
Monika Kujawska, N David Jiménez-Escobar, Justin M Nolan, Daniel Arias-Mutis
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted in three rural communities of small farmers of Paraguayan origin living in the province of Misiones, Argentina. These Criollos (Mestizos) hail chiefly from departments located in the east of Paraguay, where the climate and flora have similar characteristics as those in Misiones. These ecological features contribute to the continuation and maintenance of knowledge and practices related to the use of plants. METHODS: Fieldwork was conducted between September 2014 and August 2015...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730911/important-learning-factors-in-high-and-low-achieving-students-in-undergraduate-biomechanics
#7
ChengTu Hsieh, Duane Knudson
The purpose of the present study was to document crucial factors associated with students' learning of biomechanical concepts, particularly between high- and-low achieving students. Students (N = 113) from three introductory biomechanics classes at two public universities volunteered for the study. Two measures of students' learning were obtained, final course grade and improvement on the Biomechanics Concept Inventory version 3 administered before and after the course. Participants also completed a 15-item questionnaire documenting student learning characteristics, effort, and confidence...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714437/the-pragmatic-utility-of-watson-based-caring-measures
#8
Huda Atiyeh, Muayyad Ahmad, Eman Tariq Alslman, Manar Ali Bani Hani
PURPOSE: This study aims to clarify the caring concept with emphasis on the pragmatic utility of caring measures. METHOD: The Morse et al. (Morse, Hupcey, Mitcham, & Lenz, 1996; Morse, Mitcham, Hupcey, & Tasón, 1996) criteria for concept maturity were used as a framework. A literature review of Watson-based caring concept was undertaken to evaluate the logical, epistemological, linguistical, and pragmatic parameters. RESULTS: The concept of caring as conceptualized by Watson and operationalized through different measures appeared mature...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570380/rigor-or-reliability-and-validity-in-qualitative-research-perspectives-strategies-reconceptualization-and-recommendations
#9
Brigitte S Cypress
Issues are still raised even now in the 21st century by the persistent concern with achieving rigor in qualitative research. There is also a continuing debate about the analogous terms reliability and validity in naturalistic inquiries as opposed to quantitative investigations. This article presents the concept of rigor in qualitative research using a phenomenological study as an exemplar to further illustrate the process. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Lincoln and Guba, strategies congruent with qualitative perspective for ensuring validity to establish the credibility of the study are described...
July 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567025/a-proposal-for-a-scientifically-informed-and-instrumentalist-account-of-free-will-and-voluntary-action
#10
Eric Racine
The ability to choose freely is captured under the umbrella concept of "free will," which designates an ability that plays a crucial role in most understandings of autonomy and responsibility and, thus, bears significance for moral practice and moral theory. Some claim that neuroscience research challenges the existence of free will/voluntary action while some who adopt stronger eliminativist stances have gone as far as describing free will as an illusion. Contrary to that, those relying on realist stances have restated the foundational value and role of folk psychological concepts of voluntary action and free will in, for example, the domains of ethics and law...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543705/empirical-and-pragmatic-adequacy-of-grounded-theory-advancing-nurse-empowerment-theory-for-nurses-practice
#11
Sonia A Udod, Louise Racine
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Drawing on the findings of a grounded theory study aimed at exploring how power is exercised in nurse-manager relationships in the hospital setting, this paper examines the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory as a methodology to advance the concept of empowerment in the area of nursing leadership and management. BACKGROUND: The evidence on staff nurse empowerment has highlighted the magnitude of individual and organizational outcomes, but has not fully explicated the micro-level processes underlying how power is exercised, shared or created within the nurse-manager relationship...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503832/the-voluntary-nature-of-decision-making-in-addiction-static-metaphysical-views-versus-epistemologically-dynamic-views
#12
Eric Racine, Simon Rousseau-Lesage
The degree of autonomy present in the choices made by individuals with an addiction, notably in the context of research, is unclear and debated. Some have argued that addiction, as it is commonly understood, prevents people from having sufficient decision-making capacity or self-control to engage in choices involving substances to which they have an addiction. Others have criticized this position for being too radical and have counter-argued in favour of the full autonomy of people with an addiction. Aligning ourselves with middle-ground positions between these two extremes, we flesh out an account of voluntary action that makes room for finer-grained analyses than the proposed all-or-nothing stances, which rely on a rather static metaphysical understanding of the nature of the voluntariness of action...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497196/an-objective-view-of-biological-diversity-how-history-and-epistemology-shaped-current-treatment
#13
Anderson A Eduardo, Ricardo Carmo
The concept of biological diversity has inspired important discussions throughout the history of ecology. Although its meaning and usefulness have been questioned, it is currently one of the key artifacts of ecology. One way to try to understand why such a concept has undergone so many discussions is to examine its emergence and history from the epistemology perspective. In the present work, we investigated how the emergence of mechanical objectivity (as an epistemic virtue) and trained judgment affected how ecologists address the concept of biological diversity...
May 11, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467331/an-analysis-of-the-changes-in-communication-techniques-in-the-italian-codes-of-medical-deontology
#14
Andrea Alberto Conti
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: The code of deontology of the Italian National Federation of the Colleges of Physicians, Surgeons and Dentists (FNOMCeO) contains the principles and rules to which the professional medical practitioner must adhere. This work identifies and analyzes the medical-linguistic choices and the expressive techniques present in the different editions of the code, and evaluates their purpose and function, focusing on the first appearance and the subsequent frequency of key terms...
April 28, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452162/bridging-international-relations-and-disaster-studies-the-case-of-disaster-conflict-scholarship
#15
Simon Hollis
International relations and disaster studies have much to gain by thinking critically about their respective theoretical and epistemological assumptions. Yet, few studies to date have sought to assess the potential value of linking these two disciplines. This paper begins to address this shortfall by examining the relationship between disasters and conflict as a research sphere that intersects international relations and disaster studies. Through an analysis of whether or not disasters contribute to intra-national and international conflict, this paper not only provides a review of the state of the art, but also serves to invite scholars to reflect on related concepts from other fields to strengthen their own approaches to the study of disasters in an international setting...
April 28, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436780/truth-axes-and-the-transformation-of-self
#16
Shlomit Yadlin-Gadot
Freud adhered to the idea that psychoanalysis is a science and that truth is one. The transition from a realistic epistemology to an epistemology of subjective idealism in psychoanalytic thought was accompanied by the splintering of the "one" realistic truth into a multiplicity of truths: realistic-correspondent, ideal, subjective-existential, intersubjective, coherent, and pragmatic truths. The present paper, employing the concept of "truth axes," explores these truths as they relate to basic human needs, self- states, and the structuring of subjectivity...
April 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419738/academic-voice-on-feminism-presence-and-objectivity-in-writing
#17
Kim M Mitchell
Academic voice is an oft-discussed, yet variably defined concept, and confusion exists over its meaning, evaluation, and interpretation. This paper will explore perspectives on academic voice and counterarguments to the positivist origins of objectivity in academic writing. While many epistemological and methodological perspectives exist, the feminist literature on voice is explored here as the contrary position. From the feminist perspective, voice is a socially constructed concept that cannot be separated from the experiences, emotions, and identity of the writer and, thus, constitutes a reflection of an author's way of knowing...
April 16, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359768/on-the-science-of-consciousness-epistemological-reflections-and-clinical-implications
#18
Enrico Facco, Daniela Lucangeli, Patrizio Tressoldi
Consciousness has been one of the most important and tantalizing issues ever since the origin of philosophy and medicine. The concept of consciousness and the so-called "hard problem" (i.e., the mind-brain relationship) are highly complex topics that have yet to be elucidated, involving the realms of both science and philosophy with profound epistemological implications. In the lively debate on the foundations of the science of consciousness there are several potential biases of an essentially philosophical nature, such as those related to the paradigm and axioms adopted, and the ostensible logical contradiction between monism and dualism...
May 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358566/use-of-tools-and-misuse-of-embodied-cognition-reply-to-buxbaum-2017
#19
François Osiurak, Arnaud Badets
Osiurak and Badets (2016) examined the validity of the manipulation-based versus the reasoning-based approaches to tool use in light of studies in experimental psychology and neuropsychology. They concluded that the reasoning-based approach seems to be more promising than the manipulation-based approach for understanding the current literature. Buxbaum (2017) questioned this conclusion and raised certain theoretical limitations with regard to the reasoning-based approach. She also suggested that this approach is not well-equipped to integrate the existing psychological and neuroanatomical data in the tool use domain...
April 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239195/who-is-the-scientist-subject-a-critique-of-the-neo-kantian-scientist-subject-in-lorraine-daston-and-peter-galison-s-objectivity
#20
REVIEW
Esha Shah
The main focus of this essay is to closely engage with the role of scientist-subjectivity in the making of objectivity in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison's book Objectivity, and Daston's later and earlier works On Scientific Observation and The Moral Economy of Science. I have posited four challenges to the neo-Kantian and Foucauldian constructions of the co-implication of psychology and epistemology presented in these texts. Firstly, following Jacques Lacan's work, I have argued that the subject of science constituted by the mode of modern science suffers from paranoia...
2017: Minerva
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