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epistemological conceptions

Andrew Mawdsley, Sarah Willis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lack of consensus regarding the benefits of an integrated curriculum, and ambiguity concerning what is being integrated within a pharmacy curriculum exists, but how an integrated curriculum is viewed, epistemologically, and subsequently incorporated into teaching practice has not been investigated. This study explores how educators conceptualize, experience and enact curricula integration both pedagogically and organizationally. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: In-depth qualitative interviews with faculty members purposively sampled for maximum variation in disciplinary background and teaching experience were undertaken at a single site...
March 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Torstein Nielsen Hole
This study aimed to discern sociocultural processes through which students learn in field excursions. To achieve this aim, short-term ethnographic techniques were employed to examine how undergraduate students work and enact knowledge (or knowing) during a specific field excursion in biology. The students participated in a working practice that employed research methods and came to engage with various biological phenomena over the course of their work. A three-level analysis of the students' experiences focused on three processes that emerged: participatory appropriation, guided participation, and apprenticeship...
June 2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
Dimitrios Stamovlasis, George Papageorgiou, Georgios Tsitsipis, Themistoklis Tsikalas, Julie Vaiopoulou
This paper illustrates two psychometric methods, latent class analysis (LCA) and taxometric analysis (TA) using empirical data from research probing children's mental representation in science learning. LCA is used to obtain a typology based on observed variables and to further investigate how the encountered classes might be related to external variables, where the effectiveness of classification process and the unbiased estimations of parameters become the main concern. In the step-wise LCA, the class membership is assigned and subsequently its relationship with covariates is established...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Martin Phillips, Darren P Smith
The epistemologies and politics of comparative research are prominently debated within urban studies, with 'comparative urbanism' emerging as a contemporary lexicon of urban studies. The study of urban gentrification has, after some delay, come to engage with these debates, which can be seen to pose a major challenge to the very concept of gentrification. To date, similar debates or developments have not unfolded within the study of rural gentrification. This article seeks to address some of the challenges posed to gentrification studies through an examination of strategies of comparison and how they might be employed within a comparative study of rural gentrification...
March 2018: Dialogues in Human Geography
Rachel M Tindall, Magenta B Simmons, Kelly Allott, Bridget E Hamilton
AIM: Early intervention services (EISs) for first-episode psychosis (FEP) have been established internationally, however, service disengagement is a recurrent concern resulting in unplanned treatment cessation. The implications of this are far-reaching due to the financial and personal costs associated with untreated symptoms. The aim of this meta-synthesis was to collect, interpret and synthesize qualitative research about how engagement is experienced within EISs for FEP. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid Emcare from date of conception to November 2016...
April 6, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Danielle Peers
In this article, I explore the concept of axiology in the context of adapted physical activity research and analyze its connection to the more commonly discussed paradigmatic assumptions of epistemology and ontology. Following methodological scholars, I argue for an acknowledgment of the pivotal role that axiology already plays in adapted physical activity research and for the potential interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary opportunities that could be enabled by engaging with axiology in more explicit ways...
March 25, 2018: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
Matthew Jon Links, Tim Wilkinson, Craig Campbell
Professionalism is a contested concept and different discourses have differed by scope and epistemology. The theory of communicative action integrates epistemology (knowledge interests) with that of scope (lifeworld). AIM: To pragmatically inform learning of professionalism. METHODS: apply the theory of communicative action to professionalism discourses. RESULTS: Previous professionalism discourses translated into four frames: technical; communicative; improvement, and critical...
March 26, 2018: Medical Teacher
Carlos E León
We present an important advance in psychiatry regarding the phenomenon of recovery. Comparative studies between Open Dialogue (OD) and current treatments of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses point to an important difference in short and long-term results in favor of this approach developed in Western Lapland. This suggests that OD treatment enhances durable recovery. The prognosis of recovery would depend mainly on the treatment received, and would not be necessarily partial or dependent on a mysterious personal quality...
September 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Hans Magnus Solli, António Barbosa da Silva
BACKGROUND: The article defines a comprehensive concept of cognitive objectivity (CCCO) applied to embodied subjects in health care. The aims of this study were: (1) to specify some necessary conditions for the definition of a CCCO that will allow objective descriptions and assessments in health care, (2) to formulate criteria for application of such a CCCO, and (3) to investigate the usefulness of the criteria in work disability assessments in medical certificates from health care provided for social security purposes...
March 2, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Jana Uher
Models and constructs of individual differences are numerous and diverse. But detecting commonalities, differences and interrelations is hindered by the common abstract terms (e.g. 'personality', 'temperament', 'traits') that do not reveal the particular phenomena denoted. This article applies a transdisciplinary paradigm for research on individuals that builds on complexity theory and epistemological complementarity. Its philosophical, metatheoretical and methodological frameworks provide concepts to differentiate various kinds of phenomena (e...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Muayyad M Ahmad, Ruba Musallam, Abla Habeeb Allah, Laila Al-Daken, Hana Abu-Snieneh, Ghadeer Al-Dweik
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the maturity level of stigma as a concept in nursing and its relationship to care provided for patients with cancer. Methods: The four principles of Morse and his colleagues were used to evaluate the maturity level of the stigma concept: epistemological, logical, pragmaticl, and linguistic. Analysis was conducted with the literature published between 2006 and 2016. Results: The findings of this study suggest that the concept of stigma in nursing is immature, defined inconsistently, and measured with different instruments...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Terry L Smith
Beginning in the 1950s, B.F. Skinner made increasing reference to an analogy between operant conditioning and natural selection. This analogy is the basis of an argument that, in contrast to Skinner's other critiques of cognitive science, is neither epistemological nor pragmatic. Instead, it is based on the claim that ontogenetic adaptation is due to a special mode of causation he called "selection by consequences." He argued that this mode of causation conflicts with explanations that attribute action to an autonomous agent with reasons for acting...
February 17, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Vural Özdemir, Simon Springer
Diversity is increasingly at stake in early 21st century. Diversity is often conceptualized across ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, sexual preference, and professional credentials, among other categories of difference. These are important and relevant considerations and yet, they are incomplete. Diversity also rests in the way we frame questions long before answers are sought. Such diversity in the framing (epistemology) of scientific and societal questions is important for they influence the types of data, results, and impacts produced by research...
March 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Gustavo Hawes, Ana María Rojas-Serey, Mónica Espinoza, Sandra Oyarzo, Silvana Castillo-Parra, Manuel Castillo, Luis Romero
We herein describe the conceptual dimension of the curricular innovation process carried out in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. We describe the context of innovation. The theoretical pertinence and relevance of a competence driven curriculum for health care professionals is discussed. The epistemological, ontological and didactic dimensions of the curricular innovation are examined. A main issue is the notion of competence and its significance in professional training. The curriculum is essentially considered as a moral endeavor, especially for health care professionals and their quest to improve the quality of life of the population...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Joseph G Grzywacz, Jeffrey W Allen
Family science has been doing translational science since before it came into vogue. Nevertheless, the field has been subjected to the same forces in the broader academy that have created a widening chasm between discovery and practice. Thus, the primary objective of this article is to translate the principles, concepts, and models of translational science to solidify an identity for family science and help the field move forward in broader academic, care delivery, and policy arenas. Alternative models of translational science, primarily from biomedicine but also from other disciplines, are reviewed and critically analyzed, and core concepts and principles are isolated, elaborated, and applied to family science...
October 2017: Family Relations
Luca Guzzardi
Argument According to a long-standing interpretation which traces back to Max Jammer's Concepts of Force (1957), Ruggiero G. Boscovich would have developed a concept of force in the tradition of Leibniz's dynamics. In his variation on the theme, basic properties of matter such as solidity or impenetrability would be derived from an interplay of some "active" force of attraction and repulsion that any primary element of nature ("point of matter" in Boscovich's theory) would possess. In the present paper I discuss many flaws of this interpretation and argue for an alternative point of view, according to which the crucial aspect in the development of Boscovich's natural philosophy is his early definition of forces as "mathematical determinations" to have a certain state of motion...
December 2017: Science in Context
Fady Girgis, Darrin J Lee, Amir Goodarzi, Jochen Ditterich
Piaget's genetic epistemology has provided the constructivist approach upon which child developmental theories were founded, in that infants are thought to progress through distinct cognitive stages until they reach maturity in their early 20's. However, it is now well established that cognition continues to develop after early adulthood, and several "neo-Piagetian" theories have emerged in an attempt to better characterize adult cognitive development. For example, Kegan's Constructive Developmental Theory (CDT) argues that the thought processes used by adults to construct their reality change over time, and reaching higher stages of cognitive development entails becoming objectively aware of emotions and beliefs that were previously in the realm of the subconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Enrique Eduardo Burguete Miguel
The implementing of gender ideology in the imaginary of current welfare-state societies owes much to a long process in the history of thought, which has culminated in an accommodation of post-feminist discourse. This paper sets out the epistemological principles that are present in gender ideology, as a response to both its recent and more-remote antecedents. It is furthermore framed by an urge for emancipation that began with medieval scholasticism, the latest manifestation of which lies in the post-structuralist deconstructionism that outlines the concept of queer...
January 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Preetha Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision making is a fundamental aspect of nurses' clinical practice and has a direct impact on the health and well-being of each patient. METHOD: An exploratory analysis of the concept of clinical decision making in nursing will be provided from the two predominant theoretical perspectives: the systematic-positivist model and the intuitive-humanistic model. The origin, aim, value, ontology and epistemology, assumptions, communicability, and context specificity of these two models are discussed...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
Leonardo Viniegra-Velázquez
Part II is focused on participatory education (PE), a distinctive way to understand and practice education in contrast to passive education. The core of PE is to develop everyone's own cognitive potentialities frequently mutilated, neglected or ignored. Epistemological and experiential basis of PE are defined: the concept of incisive and creative criticism, the idea of knowledge as each person's own construct and life experience as the main focus of reflection and cognition. The PE aims towards individuals with unprecedented cognitive and creative faculties, capable of approaching a more inclusive and hospitable world...
July 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
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