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epistemological conceptions

Carlos E León
We present an important advance in psychiatry regarding the phenomenon of recovery. Comparative studies between Open Dialogue (OD) and current treatments of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses point to an important difference in short and long-term results in favor of this approach developed in Western Lapland. This suggests that OD treatment enhances durable recovery. The prognosis of recovery would depend mainly on the treatment received, and would not be necessarily partial or dependent on a mysterious personal quality...
September 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Hans Magnus Solli, António Barbosa da Silva
BACKGROUND: The article defines a comprehensive concept of cognitive objectivity (CCCO) applied to embodied subjects in health care. The aims of this study were: (1) to specify some necessary conditions for the definition of a CCCO that will allow objective descriptions and assessments in health care, (2) to formulate criteria for application of such a CCCO, and (3) to investigate the usefulness of the criteria in work disability assessments in medical certificates from health care provided for social security purposes...
March 2, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Jana Uher
Models and constructs of individual differences are numerous and diverse. But detecting commonalities, differences and interrelations is hindered by the common abstract terms (e.g. 'personality', 'temperament', 'traits') that do not reveal the particular phenomena denoted. This article applies a transdisciplinary paradigm for research on individuals that builds on complexity theory and epistemological complementarity. Its philosophical, metatheoretical and methodological frameworks provide concepts to differentiate various kinds of phenomena (e...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Muayyad M Ahmad, Ruba Musallam, Abla Habeeb Allah, Laila Al-Daken, Hana Abu-Snieneh, Ghadeer Al-Dweik
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the maturity level of stigma as a concept in nursing and its relationship to care provided for patients with cancer. Methods: The four principles of Morse and his colleagues were used to evaluate the maturity level of the stigma concept: epistemological, logical, pragmaticl, and linguistic. Analysis was conducted with the literature published between 2006 and 2016. Results: The findings of this study suggest that the concept of stigma in nursing is immature, defined inconsistently, and measured with different instruments...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Terry L Smith
Beginning in the 1950s, B. F. Skinner made increasing reference to an analogy between operant conditioning and natural selection. This analogy is the basis of an argument that, in contrast to Skinner's other critiques of cognitive science, is neither epistemological nor pragmatic. Instead, it is based on the claim that ontogenetic adaptation is due to a special mode of causation he called "selection by consequences." He argued that this mode of causation conflicts with explanations that attribute action to an autonomous agent with reasons for acting...
February 17, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Vural Özdemir, Simon Springer
Diversity is increasingly at stake in early 21st century. Diversity is often conceptualized across ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, sexual preference, and professional credentials, among other categories of difference. These are important and relevant considerations and yet, they are incomplete. Diversity also rests in the way we frame questions long before answers are sought. Such diversity in the framing (epistemology) of scientific and societal questions is important for they influence the types of data, results, and impacts produced by research...
February 12, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Gustavo Hawes, Ana María Rojas-Serey, Mónica Espinoza, Sandra Oyarzo, Silvana Castillo-Parra, Manuel Castillo, Luis Romero
We herein describe the conceptual dimension of the curricular innovation process carried out in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. We describe the context of innovation. The theoretical pertinence and relevance of a competence driven curriculum for health care professionals is discussed. The epistemological, ontological and didactic dimensions of the curricular innovation are examined. A main issue is the notion of competence and its significance in professional training. The curriculum is essentially considered as a moral endeavor, especially for health care professionals and their quest to improve the quality of life of the population...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Joseph G Grzywacz, Jeffrey W Allen
Family science has been doing translational science since before it came into vogue. Nevertheless, the field has been subjected to the same forces in the broader academy that have created a widening chasm between discovery and practice. Thus, the primary objective of this article is to translate the principles, concepts, and models of translational science to solidify an identity for family science and help the field move forward in broader academic, care delivery, and policy arenas. Alternative models of translational science, primarily from biomedicine but also from other disciplines, are reviewed and critically analyzed, and core concepts and principles are isolated, elaborated, and applied to family science...
October 2017: Family Relations
Luca Guzzardi
Argument According to a long-standing interpretation which traces back to Max Jammer's Concepts of Force (1957), Ruggiero G. Boscovich would have developed a concept of force in the tradition of Leibniz's dynamics. In his variation on the theme, basic properties of matter such as solidity or impenetrability would be derived from an interplay of some "active" force of attraction and repulsion that any primary element of nature ("point of matter" in Boscovich's theory) would possess. In the present paper I discuss many flaws of this interpretation and argue for an alternative point of view, according to which the crucial aspect in the development of Boscovich's natural philosophy is his early definition of forces as "mathematical determinations" to have a certain state of motion...
December 2017: Science in Context
Fady Girgis, Darrin J Lee, Amir Goodarzi, Jochen Ditterich
Piaget's genetic epistemology has provided the constructivist approach upon which child developmental theories were founded, in that infants are thought to progress through distinct cognitive stages until they reach maturity in their early 20's. However, it is now well established that cognition continues to develop after early adulthood, and several "neo-Piagetian" theories have emerged in an attempt to better characterize adult cognitive development. For example, Kegan's Constructive Developmental Theory (CDT) argues that the thought processes used by adults to construct their reality change over time, and reaching higher stages of cognitive development entails becoming objectively aware of emotions and beliefs that were previously in the realm of the subconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Enrique Eduardo Burguete Miguel
The implementing of gender ideology in the imaginary of current welfare-state societies owes much to a long process in the history of thought, which has culminated in an accommodation of post-feminist discourse. This paper sets out the epistemological principles that are present in gender ideology, as a response to both its recent and more-remote antecedents. It is furthermore framed by an urge for emancipation that began with medieval scholasticism, the latest manifestation of which lies in the post-structuralist deconstructionism that outlines the concept of queer...
January 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Preetha Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision making is a fundamental aspect of nurses' clinical practice and has a direct impact on the health and well-being of each patient. METHOD: An exploratory analysis of the concept of clinical decision making in nursing will be provided from the two predominant theoretical perspectives: the systematic-positivist model and the intuitive-humanistic model. The origin, aim, value, ontology and epistemology, assumptions, communicability, and context specificity of these two models are discussed...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
Leonardo Viniegra-Velázquez
Part II is focused on participatory education (PE), a distinctive way to understand and practice education in contrast to passive education. The core of PE is to develop everyone's own cognitive potentialities frequently mutilated, neglected or ignored. Epistemological and experiential basis of PE are defined: the concept of incisive and creative criticism, the idea of knowledge as each person's own construct and life experience as the main focus of reflection and cognition. The PE aims towards individuals with unprecedented cognitive and creative faculties, capable of approaching a more inclusive and hospitable world...
July 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Gabriella Nilsson, Kristofer Hansson, Irén Tiberg, Inger Hallström
BACKGROUND: In 2013-14, the evidence based care model Hospital-based Home Care for children newly diagnosed with diabetes was implemented at a large paediatric diabetes care facility in the south of Sweden. The first step of the implementation was to promote readiness for change among the professionals within the diabetes team through regular meetings. The aim was to analyse the implicit facilitators and barriers evident on a cultural micro level in discussions during the course of these meetings...
January 30, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Kyriakos Theodoridis
This essay addresses the problem of the essentiality of nursing knowledge and what kind of theory, if any, is essential to nursing practice. The overarching aim of the essay was to argue for the thesis that nursing may be described as a kind of philosophical activity, and, consequently, that philosophy is the kind of "theory" that is essential to nursing practice and to the nursing discipline at large. The essay consists of two papers. The present paper, Part I, is a critical examination of Mark Risjord's discussion of the problem of the theory-practice gap in his Nursing Knowledge: Practice, Science, Philosophy, from 2010...
December 26, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
Luciano Mendes, Heliani Berlato Dos Santos, Elisa Yoshie Ichikawa
Background: The objective of this article is to make some analysis on the process of work and accidents occurring in slaughterhouses, evidenced in the Brazilian documentary film called Flesh and Bone. As such, it was necessary to discuss an alternative theoretical concept in relation to theories about health and safety at work. This alternative discussion focuses on the concepts of biopower and biopolitics. Methods: The use of audiovisual elements in research is not new, and there is already a branch of studies with methodological and epistemological variations...
December 2017: Safety and Health At Work
Luiz Fernando Dias Duarte
A concise but broad-based review is presented of the circulation of knowledge and practices from psychoanalysis in the social sciences, especially anthropology. The different contexts in which the concepts and conceptions of psychoanalysis have been read, refuted, or appropriated by different national schools of thought and intellectual traditions and the ways psychoanalysis itself has interacted with anthropological knowledge and its incorporations of psychoanalytical knowledge are explored. The interpretations of these two major groups of knowledge are referred to as participating in a common cultural horizon with a common epistemological orientation, and the sources of the frequent mistaken beliefs occurring in this interplay are also addressed...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Marian C Turkel, Jean Watson, Joseph Giovannoni
The concepts caring science and science of caring have different meanings; however, they are often used interchangeably. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the synthesis of the scholarly literature on the definitions of the science of caring and caring science and to affirm the authors' perspective relating to the language of caring science. Caring science advances the epistemology and ontology of caring. Ideas related to caring science inquiry are presented, and the authors acknowledge the future of caring science as unitary caring science...
January 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
Predrag Slijepcevic
Numerous studies in microbiology, eukaryotic cell biology, plant biology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and philosophy of science appear to support the principles of the epistemological theory inspired by evolution, also known as "Evolutionary Epistemology", or EE. However, that none of the studies acknowledged EE suggests that its principles have not been formulated with sufficient clarity and depth to resonate with the interests of the empirical research community. In this paper I review evidence in favor of EE, and also reformulate EE principles to better inform future research...
January 2018: Bio Systems
Nadine de Courtenay, Fabien Grégis
The way metrologists conceive of measurement has undergone a major shift in the last two decades. This shift can in great part be traced to a change in the statistical methods used to deal with the expression of measurement results, and, more particularly, with the calculation of measurement uncertainties. Indeed, as we show, the incapacity of the frequentist approach to the calculus of uncertainty to deal with systematic errors has prompted the replacement of the customary frequentist methods by fully Bayesian procedures...
October 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
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