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epistemological conceptions

Irayda Jakušovaitė, Žydrunė Luneckaitė, Eimantas Peičius, Živilė Bagdonaitė, Olga Riklikienė, Edgaras Stankevičius
The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death...
2016: Medicina
Alain Leplege, Catherine Barral, Katherine Mc Pherson
In order to rethink rehabilitation - it is vital that we think about current rehabilitation - what it looks like and why. The dominant models that have emerged to guide development and practice, the frameworks that underpin compensation policies, funding for services, and indeed research, all have historical and political roots. If we better understand these models, their basis or foundation, their strengths and also their weaknesses, then perhaps we can better understand how to contribute to progress in the future...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Helen Butlin, Elizabeth Anne Kinsella, Carla Garcia, Glenn Bauman
OBJECTIVE: The concept of "wisdom" is beginning to emerge in the oncology literature, raising questions concerning: (1) how the concept of wisdom is used in oncology literature; (2) the ways in which wisdom has been a focus of inquiry within oncology care; and (3) how wisdom is characterized when the term is used. METHOD: A scoping review, using Arksey and O'Malley's five-step framework, was undertaken to address these questions. In consultation with oncology reference librarians, "wisdom"- and "oncology"-related search terms were identified, and four electronic databases were searched: CINAHL, SocINDEX, PubMed, and PsychINFO...
September 26, 2016: Palliative & Supportive Care
M Therese Lysaught
Jeffrey Bishop's The Anticipatory Corpse demonstrates how death is present in and cloaked by contemporary practices of end-of-life care. A key to Bishop's argument is that for modern medicine the cadaver has become epistemologically normative and that a metaphysics shorn of formal and final causes now shapes contemporary healthcare practices. The essays of this symposium laud and interrogate Bishop's argument in three ways. First, they raise critical methodological challenges from the perspectives of human rights, Charles Taylor's concept of social imaginaries, and economics...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Vincent Devictor, Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent
This paper is a critical assessment of the epistemological impact of the systematic quantification of nature with the accumulation of big datasets on the practice and orientation of ecological science. We examine the contents of big databases and argue that it is not just accumulated information; records are translated into digital data in a process that changes their meanings. In order to better understand what is at stake in the 'datafication' process, we explore the context for the emergence and quantification of biodiversity in the 1980s, along with the concept of the global environment...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Gudrun Reay, Shelley Raffin Bouchal, James A Rankin
Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT...
September 2016: Nurse Researcher
Srdjan Kesić
This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Helmuth Trischler
In 2000, when atmospheric chemist Paul J. Crutzen and limnologist Eugene F. Stoermer proposed to introduce a new geological era, the Anthropocene, they could not have foreseen the remarkable career of the new term. Within a few years, the geological community began to investigate the scientific evidence for the concept and established the Anthropocene Working Group. While the Working Group has started to examine possible markers and periodizations of the new epoch, scholars from numerous other disciplines have taken up the Anthropocene as a cultural concept...
August 27, 2016: NTM
Barnabas Africanus Mbogo, Deborah McGill
BACKGROUND: Globally, about 150 million people experience catastrophic healthcare expenditure services annually. Among low and middle income countries, out-of-pocket expenditure pushes about 100 million people into poverty annually. In Botswana, 83 % of the general population and 58 % of employed individuals do not have medical aid coverage. Moreover, inequity allocation of financial resources between health services suggests marginalization of population-based health care services (i...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Candace B Jaruzel, Teresa J Kelechi
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze and clarify the concept of providing relief from anxiety using complementary therapies in the perioperative period utilizing the epistemological, pragmatic, linguistic and logical principles of a principle-based concept analysis to examine the state of the science. BACKGROUND: The majority of patients scheduled for surgery experience anxiety in the perioperative period. Anxiety has the potential to limit a patient's ability to participate in his or her care throughout their hospitalization...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Michalis Kyratsous, Abdi Sanati
Miranda Fricker's concept of epistemic injustice has been quite a novel idea in epistemology. It brings something new to the fields of epistemology and ethics. Fricker draws our attention to a distinctive species of injustice, the epistemic injustice, in which someone is specifically wronged in his capacity as a knower. There has been a significant amount of work done in epistemic injustice, both in race and gender studies. The application of the concept in the context of mental health is less explored. Here, we aim to apply the concept of epistemic injustice in attributing responsibility to patients with borderline personality disorder...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Anik Waldow
In his 1785-review of the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, Kant objects to Herder's conception of nature as being imbued with active forces. This attack is usually evaluated against the background of Kant's critical project and his epistemological concern to caution against the "metaphysical excess" of attributing immanent properties to matter. In this paper I explore a slightly different reading by investigating Kant's pre-critical account of creation and generation. The aim of this is to show that Kant's struggle with the forces of matter has a long history and revolves around one central problem: that of how to distinguish between the non-purposive forces of nature and the intentional powers of the mind...
August 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Michael F Mascolo
The question of whether psychology can properly be regarded as a science has long been debated (Smedslund in Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50, 185-195, 2016). Science is typically understood as a method for producing reliable knowledge by testing falsifiable claims against objective evidence. Psychological phenomena, however, are traditionally taken to be "subjective" and hidden from view. To the extent that science relies upon objective observation, is a scientific psychology possible? In this paper, I argue that scientific psychology does not much fail to meet the requirements of objectivity as much as the concept of objectivity fails as a methodological principle for psychological science...
December 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Ivana S Marková, German E Berrios
Current research in psychiatry is increasingly focused on empirical studies with methods and technologies adopted from medicine. This paper argues that psychiatry has a different epistemological basis from medicine, and it is on account of this that research in psychiatry demands a different approach, one that perforce focuses on the clarification of concepts central to psychiatric practice. This means undertaking conceptual analysis and conceptual history and only then moving on to empirical study. This paper highlights the crucial epistemological differences between the practice of medicine and psychiatry, showing that the latter is enacted at the level of language and communication...
2016: Psychopathology
Lowri C Edwards, Anna S Bryant, Richard J Keegan, Kevin Morgan, Anwen M Jones
BACKGROUND: The concept of physical literacy has stimulated increased research attention in recent years-being deployed in physical education, sport participation, and the promotion of physical activity. Independent research groups currently operationalize the construct differently. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to conduct a systematic review of the physical literacy construct, as reflected in contemporary research literature. METHODS: Five databases were searched using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews...
June 30, 2016: Sports Medicine
Win Winit-Watjana
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacy practice has gradually evolved with the paradigm shifted towards patient-focused practice or medicines optimisation. The advancement of pharmacy-related research has contributed to this progression, but the philosophy of research remained unexplored. This review was thus aimed to outline the succinct concept of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. KEY FINDINGS: Research philosophy has been introduced to offer an alternative way to think about problem-driven research that is normally conducted...
June 24, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Daniel Špelda
The article provides insight into the epistemological and anthropological aspect of the origination of the idea of scientific progress. It focuses on the relationship between individual's limited lifetime and the immensity of nature. The basic assumption is that the idea of scientific progress offers a solution of the epistemological problem stemming from the finding that there is no (teleological) coincidence between human cognitive abilities and the extent of nature. In order to facilitate the understanding of the origin of the idea of scientific progress, I propose distinction between the descriptive and prescriptive concepts of progress...
June 9, 2016: Annals of Science
Rodolfo Morrison
The objective of this manuscript is to contribute to the education of future occupational therapists within the current paradigm of the profession. To this purpose, some of the conceptual foundations of pragmatist epistemology and philosophical contributions of the philosopher Jane Addams are presented. Some pragmatist fundamentals such as the holistic vision of the human being, the paradox of separating "knowing from doing", and giving the usefulness of the activity and knowledge primacy in the process of human development, inspired the profession of Occupational Therapy in the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century...
June 1, 2016: Occupational Therapy International
Ines Hipolito
Several studies suggest that the disorders of the self include a disturbance of the most elementary component of self - the minimal self. Characterizing these disorders and understanding the mechanisms involved remain a challenge to medical epistemology and health care professionals. In the present work, I bring together concepts of different fields, such as neuroscience, epistemology and phenomenology. The main goal is to show that the second-person perspective can be used to point out particular features of social cognition and its related psychopathology...
August 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
B Carasevici
Although apparently easy to define, the suicidal act or attempt raises complex and difficult problems due to the multitude of conditions and situations that can lead to it. In all cases the suicide's definition has always centred on the intention of one person to deliberately cause his or her death in an active manner. Defining suicide has been consecutively the temptation of philosophers, sociologists, theologians, psychologists and psychiatrists. From an epistemological point of view the suicide is an open concept without precise borders, yet not incoherent...
January 2016: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
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