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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862985/theory-analysis-of-the-dental-hygiene-human-needs-conceptual-model
#1
L MacDonald, D M Bowen
PURPOSE: Theories provide a structural knowing about concept relationships, practice intricacies, and intuitions and thus shape the distinct body of the profession. Capturing ways of knowing and being is essential to any professions' practice, education and research. This process defines the phenomenon of the profession - its existence or experience. Theory evaluation is a systematic criterion-based assessment of a specific theory. This study presents a theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DH HNCM)...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862249/a-critical-caring-theory-of-protection-for-migrants-and-seasonal-farmworkers
#2
Jennifer E Shearer
Pesticide exposures represent inequities among a vulnerable population of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. A social justice theory synthesized from an environmental health research framework, a middle range theory of critical caring, and literature on pesticide exposure is presented as a situation-specific public health practice theory. Concepts from the physiological, epistemological, vulnerability, and health protection domains are related to concepts of critical caring revealing protective strategies for vulnerable populations exposed to pesticides...
November 14, 2016: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836557/social-impact-assessment-sia-from-a-multidimensional-paradigmatic-perspective-challenges-and-opportunities
#3
Antonio Aledo-Tur, J Andrés Domínguez-Gómez
The literature specialized in Social Impact Assessment (SIA) concurs that there is still much work to do in the discussion and thorough grounding of its theories and conceptual bases. The authors of this paper consider that the understanding of SIA as a paradigm may prove useful as a foundation on which more robust and better grounded SIA knowledge production may be built. Further, we suggest that the application of the concept of the paradigm in the terms expressed here may offer a comprehensive guide to practice in SIA studies...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831656/why-is-it-so-difficult-to-integrate-ethics-in-health-technology-assessment-hta-the-epistemological-viewpoint
#4
P Refolo, D Sacchini, L Brereton, A Gerhardus, B Hofmann, K B Lysdahl, K Mozygemba, W Oortwijn, M Tummers, G J van der Wilt, P Wahlster, A G Spagnolo
Ethics has been identified as a key element in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) since its conception. However, ethical issues are still not frequently addressed explicitly in HTA. Several valuable reasons have been identified. The basis of the article is the claim that ethics is often not part of HTA for "epistemological reasons". Hence, the main aim of the contribution is to explore in more details and emphasize them by using the fact/value dichotomy. Our conclusion is that current HTA configuration is predominantly based on the comparison among objective and empirically testable "facts", whilst ethics is not empirically testable...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697237/determination-of-death-metaphysical-and-biomedical-discourse
#5
Irayda Jakušovaitė, Žydrunė Luneckaitė, Eimantas Peičius, Živilė Bagdonaitė, Olga Riklikienė, Edgaras Stankevičius
The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676958/conceptualizing-disability-to-inform-rehabilitation-historical-and-epistemological-perspectives
#6
Alain Leplege, Catherine Barral, Katherine Mc Pherson
In order to rethink rehabilitation - it is vital that we think about current rehabilitation - what it looks like and why. The dominant models that have emerged to guide development and practice, the frameworks that underpin compensation policies, funding for services, and indeed research, all have historical and political roots. If we better understand these models, their basis or foundation, their strengths and also their weaknesses, then perhaps we can better understand how to contribute to progress in the future...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666083/searching-for-wisdom-in-oncology-care-a-scoping-review
#7
Helen Butlin, Elizabeth Anne Kinsella, Carla Garcia, Glenn Bauman
OBJECTIVE: The concept of "wisdom" is beginning to emerge in the oncology literature, raising questions concerning: (1) how the concept of wisdom is used in oncology literature; (2) the ways in which wisdom has been a focus of inquiry within oncology care; and (3) how wisdom is characterized when the term is used. METHOD: A scoping review, using Arksey and O'Malley's five-step framework, was undertaken to address these questions. In consultation with oncology reference librarians, "wisdom"- and "oncology"-related search terms were identified, and four electronic databases were searched: CINAHL, SocINDEX, PubMed, and PsychINFO...
September 26, 2016: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649992/from-the-anticipatory-corpse-to-the-participatory-body
#8
M Therese Lysaught
Jeffrey Bishop's The Anticipatory Corpse demonstrates how death is present in and cloaked by contemporary practices of end-of-life care. A key to Bishop's argument is that for modern medicine the cadaver has become epistemologically normative and that a metaphysics shorn of formal and final causes now shapes contemporary healthcare practices. The essays of this symposium laud and interrogate Bishop's argument in three ways. First, they raise critical methodological challenges from the perspectives of human rights, Charles Taylor's concept of social imaginaries, and economics...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645228/from-ecological-records-to-big-data-the-invention-of-global-biodiversity
#9
Vincent Devictor, Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent
This paper is a critical assessment of the epistemological impact of the systematic quantification of nature with the accumulation of big datasets on the practice and orientation of ecological science. We examine the contents of big databases and argue that it is not just accumulated information; records are translated into digital data in a process that changes their meanings. In order to better understand what is at stake in the 'datafication' process, we explore the context for the emergence and quantification of biodiversity in the 1980s, along with the concept of the global environment...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641705/staying-theoretically-sensitive-when-conducting-grounded-theory-research
#10
Gudrun Reay, Shelley Raffin Bouchal, James A Rankin
Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT...
September 2016: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579007/systems-biology-emergence-and-antireductionism
#11
Srdjan Kesić
This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567637/the-anthropocene-a-challenge-for-the-history-of-science-technology-and-the-environment
#12
Helmuth Trischler
In 2000, when atmospheric chemist Paul J. Crutzen and limnologist Eugene F. Stoermer proposed to introduce a new geological era, the Anthropocene, they could not have foreseen the remarkable career of the new term. Within a few years, the geological community began to investigate the scientific evidence for the concept and established the Anthropocene Working Group. While the Working Group has started to examine possible markers and periodizations of the new epoch, scholars from numerous other disciplines have taken up the Anthropocene as a cultural concept...
August 27, 2016: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543136/-perspectives-on-financing-population-based-health-care-towards-universal-health-coverage-among-employed-individuals-in-ghanzi-district-botswana-a-qualitative-study
#13
Barnabas Africanus Mbogo, Deborah McGill
BACKGROUND: Globally, about 150 million people experience catastrophic healthcare expenditure services annually. Among low and middle income countries, out-of-pocket expenditure pushes about 100 million people into poverty annually. In Botswana, 83 % of the general population and 58 % of employed individuals do not have medical aid coverage. Moreover, inequity allocation of financial resources between health services suggests marginalization of population-based health care services (i...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502794/relief-from-anxiety-using-complementary-therapies-in-the-perioperative-period-a-principle-based-concept-analysis
#14
Candace B Jaruzel, Teresa J Kelechi
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze and clarify the concept of providing relief from anxiety using complementary therapies in the perioperative period utilizing the epistemological, pragmatic, linguistic and logical principles of a principle-based concept analysis to examine the state of the science. BACKGROUND: The majority of patients scheduled for surgery experience anxiety in the perioperative period. Anxiety has the potential to limit a patient's ability to participate in his or her care throughout their hospitalization...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491561/epistemic-injustice-and-responsibility-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#15
Michalis Kyratsous, Abdi Sanati
Miranda Fricker's concept of epistemic injustice has been quite a novel idea in epistemology. It brings something new to the fields of epistemology and ethics. Fricker draws our attention to a distinctive species of injustice, the epistemic injustice, in which someone is specifically wronged in his capacity as a knower. There has been a significant amount of work done in epistemic injustice, both in race and gender studies. The application of the concept in the context of mental health is less explored. Here, we aim to apply the concept of epistemic injustice in attributing responsibility to patients with borderline personality disorder...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474187/natural-history-and-the-formation-of-the-human-being-kant-on-active-forces
#16
Anik Waldow
In his 1785-review of the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, Kant objects to Herder's conception of nature as being imbued with active forces. This attack is usually evaluated against the background of Kant's critical project and his epistemological concern to caution against the "metaphysical excess" of attributing immanent properties to matter. In this paper I explore a slightly different reading by investigating Kant's pre-critical account of creation and generation. The aim of this is to show that Kant's struggle with the forces of matter has a long history and revolves around one central problem: that of how to distinguish between the non-purposive forces of nature and the intentional powers of the mind...
August 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469007/beyond-objectivity-and-subjectivity-the-intersubjective-foundations-of-psychological-science
#17
Michael F Mascolo
The question of whether psychology can properly be regarded as a science has long been debated (Smedslund in Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50, 185-195, 2016). Science is typically understood as a method for producing reliable knowledge by testing falsifiable claims against objective evidence. Psychological phenomena, however, are traditionally taken to be "subjective" and hidden from view. To the extent that science relies upon objective observation, is a scientific psychology possible? In this paper, I argue that scientific psychology does not much fail to meet the requirements of objectivity as much as the concept of objectivity fails as a methodological principle for psychological science...
December 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463619/research-in-psychiatry-concepts-and-conceptual-analysis
#18
Ivana S Marková, German E Berrios
Current research in psychiatry is increasingly focused on empirical studies with methods and technologies adopted from medicine. This paper argues that psychiatry has a different epistemological basis from medicine, and it is on account of this that research in psychiatry demands a different approach, one that perforce focuses on the clarification of concepts central to psychiatric practice. This means undertaking conceptual analysis and conceptual history and only then moving on to empirical study. This paper highlights the crucial epistemological differences between the practice of medicine and psychiatry, showing that the latter is enacted at the level of language and communication...
2016: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365029/definitions-foundations-and-associations-of-physical-literacy-a-systematic-review
#19
Lowri C Edwards, Anna S Bryant, Richard J Keegan, Kevin Morgan, Anwen M Jones
BACKGROUND: The concept of physical literacy has stimulated increased research attention in recent years-being deployed in physical education, sport participation, and the promotion of physical activity. Independent research groups currently operationalize the construct differently. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to conduct a systematic review of the physical literacy construct, as reflected in contemporary research literature. METHODS: Five databases were searched using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews...
June 30, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339891/research-philosophy-in-pharmacy-practice-necessity-and-relevance
#20
Win Winit-Watjana
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacy practice has gradually evolved with the paradigm shifted towards patient-focused practice or medicines optimisation. The advancement of pharmacy-related research has contributed to this progression, but the philosophy of research remained unexplored. This review was thus aimed to outline the succinct concept of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. KEY FINDINGS: Research philosophy has been introduced to offer an alternative way to think about problem-driven research that is normally conducted...
December 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
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