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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333886/anaemia-worsens-early-functional-outcome-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-preliminary-study
#1
N Scott Litofsky, Douglas C Miller, Zhenzhou Chen, Agnes Simonyi, Diana Klakotskaia, Andrew Giritharan, Qi Feng, Diane McConnell, Jiankun Cui, Zezong Gu
OBJECTIVE: To determine early effects on outcome from traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) associated with anaemia in mice. HYPOTHESIS: Outcome from TBI with concomitant anaemia would be worse than TBI without anaemia. METHODS: CCI was induced with electromagnetic impaction in four groups of C57BL/6J mice: sham, sham+anaemia; TBI; and TBI+anaemia. Anaemia was created by withdrawal of 30% of calculated intravascular blood volume and saline replacement of equal volume...
January 15, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330073/the-association-of-clinic-based-mobility-tasks-and-measures-of-community-performance-and-risk
#2
M L Callisaya, J Verghese
INTRODUCTION: Gait speed is recognized as an important predictor of adverse outcomes in older people. However, it is unknown if other more complex mobility tasks are better predictors of such outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine a range of clinic-based mobility tests and determine which were most strongly associated with measures of community performance and risk (CP&R). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: Central Control Mobility and Aging Study, Westchester County, New York PARTICIPANTS: Aged ≥ 65 years (n=424) METHODS: Clinic-based mobility measures included gait speed measured during normal and dual-task conditions, the Floor Maze Immediate and Delay tasks, and stair ascending and descending...
January 9, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329678/apelin-13-ameliorates-cognitive-impairments-in-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-substantia-nigra-lesion-in-rats
#3
Elham Haghparast, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Vahid Sheibani
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra...
January 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329502/energetic-costs-precision-and-transport-efficiency-of-molecular-motors
#4
Wonseok Hwang, Changbong Hyeon
An efficient molecular motor would deliver cargos to the target site at a high speed and in a punctual manner while consuming a minimal amount of energy. According to a recently formulated thermodynamic principle, referred to as the thermodynamic uncertainty relation, the travel distance of a motor and its variance are, however, constrained by the free energy being consumed. Here we use the principle underlying the uncertainty relation to quantify the transport efficiency of molecular motors for varying ATP concentration ([ATP]) and applied load (f)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329396/patient-level-benefits-associated-with-decentralization-of-antiretroviral-therapy-services-to-primary-health-facilities-in-malawi-and-uganda
#5
George Abongomera, Levison Chiwaula, Paul Revill, Travor Mabugu, Edward Tumwesige, Misheck Nkhata, Fabian Cataldo, J van Oosterhout, Robert Colebunders, Adrienne K Chan, Cissy Kityo, Charles Gilks, James Hakim, Janet Seeley, Diana M Gibb, Deborah Ford
Background: The Lablite project captured information on access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at larger health facilities ('hubs') and lower-level health facilities ('spokes') in Phalombe district, Malawi and in Kalungu district, Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among patients who had transferred to a spoke after treatment initiation (Malawi, n=54; Uganda, n=33), patients who initiated treatment at a spoke (Malawi, n=50; Uganda, n=44) and patients receiving treatment at a hub (Malawi, n=44; Uganda, n=46)...
January 10, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329015/modelling-of-road-traffic-fatalities-in-india
#6
Rahul Goel
Passenger modes in India include walking, cycling, buses, trains, intermediate public transport modes (IPT) such as three-wheeled auto rickshaws or tuk-tuks, motorised two-wheelers (2W) as well as cars. However, epidemiological studies of traffic crashes in India have been limited in their approach to account for the exposure of these road users. In 2011, for the first time, census in India reported travel distance and mode of travel for workers. A Poisson-lognormal mixture regression model is developed at the state level to explore the relationship of road deaths of all the road users with commute travel distance by different on-road modes...
January 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325943/neurosurgical-care-availability-and-access-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#7
Maria Punchak, Swagoto Mukhopadhyay, Sonal Sachdev, Ya-Ching Hung, Sophie Peeters, Abbas Rattani, Michael Dewan, Walter D Johnson, Kee B Park
BACKGROUND: An estimated 5 billion people worldwide lack access to basic surgical care. In particular, the vast majority of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) currently struggle to provide adequate neurosurgical services. Significant barriers exist, including limited access to trained medical, nursing and allied health staff, lack of equipment, and availability of services at reasonable distance and at reasonable cost to patients. An accurate assessment of current neurosurgical capacity in LIMCs is an essential first step in tackling this deficit...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325715/orexin-knockout-mice-exhibit-impaired-spatial-working-memory
#8
Ruozhi Dang, Qiuhan Chen, Jie Song, Chao He, Jun Zhang, Jianxia Xia, Zhian Hu
Orexins play a crucial role in the maintenance of arousal and are involved in the modulation of diverse physiological process, including cognitive function. Recent data have suggested that orexins are involved in learning and memory processes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of orexin deficiency on working memory. A delayed non-matching-to-place T-maze task was used to evaluate spatial working memory in mice lacking orexin prepro-peptide (orexin knockout; KO) and wild-type controls. We demonstrated that the number of correct choices in the orexin KO mice became lower than that of the controls over training...
January 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324737/barriers-of-attendance-to-dog-rabies-static-point-vaccination-clinics-in-blantyre-malawi
#9
Stella Mazeri, Andrew D Gibson, Natascha Meunier, Barend M deC Bronsvoort, Ian G Handel, Richard J Mellanby, Luke Gamble
Rabies is a devastating yet preventable disease that causes around 59,000 human deaths annually. Almost all human rabies cases are caused by bites from rabies-infected dogs. A large proportion of these cases occur in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Annual vaccination of at least 70% of the dog population is recommended by the World Health Organisation in order to eliminate rabies. However, achieving such high vaccination coverage has proven challenging, especially in low resource settings. Despite being logistically and economically more feasible than door-to-door approaches, static point (SP) vaccination campaigns often suffer from low attendance and therefore result in low vaccination coverage...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322382/tandem-recruitment-and-foraging-in-the-ponerine-ant-pachycondyla-harpax-fabricius
#10
C Grüter, M Wüst, A P Cipriano, F S Nascimento
Tandem running is a common recruitment strategy in ant species with small colony sizes. During a tandem run, an informed leader guides a usually naïve nestmate to a food source or a nest site. Some species perform tandem runs only during house hunting, suggesting that tandem running does not always improve foraging success in species known to use tandem running as a recruitment strategy, but more natural history information on tandem running under natural conditions is needed to better understand the adaptive significance of tandem recruitment in foraging...
January 10, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321604/trophic-transfer-and-individual-impact-of-nano-sized-polystyrene-in-a-four-species-freshwater-food-chain
#11
Yooeun Chae, Dokyung Kim, Shin Woong Kim, Youn-Joo An
This study investigated the trophic transfer, individual impact, and embryonic uptake of fluorescent nano-sized polystyrene plastics (nanoplastics) through direct exposure in a freshwater ecosystem, with a food chain containing four species. The alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, water flea Daphnia magna, secondary-consumer fish Oryzias sinensis, and end-consumer fish Zacco temminckii were used as test species. In the trophic transfer test, algae were exposed to 50 mg/L nanoplastics, defined as plastic particles <100 nm in diameter; higher trophic level organisms were exposed through their diet...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320477/a-global-map-of-travel-time-to-cities-to-assess-inequalities-in-accessibility-in-2015
#12
D J Weiss, A Nelson, H S Gibson, W Temperley, S Peedell, A Lieber, M Hancher, E Poyart, S Belchior, N Fullman, B Mappin, U Dalrymple, J Rozier, T C D Lucas, R E Howes, L S Tusting, S Y Kang, E Cameron, D Bisanzio, K E Battle, S Bhatt, P W Gething
The economic and man-made resources that sustain human wellbeing are not distributed evenly across the world, but are instead heavily concentrated in cities. Poor access to opportunities and services offered by urban centres (a function of distance, transport infrastructure, and the spatial distribution of cities) is a major barrier to improved livelihoods and overall development. Advancing accessibility worldwide underpins the equity agenda of 'leaving no one behind' established by the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317529/chemical-waves-in-cell-and-developmental-biology
#13
REVIEW
Victoria E Deneke, Stefano Di Talia
Many biological events, such as the propagation of nerve impulses, the synchronized cell cycles of early embryogenesis, and collective cell migration, must be coordinated with remarkable speed across very large distances. Such rapid coordination cannot be achieved by simple diffusion of molecules alone and requires specialized mechanisms. Although active transport can provide a directed and efficient way to travel across subcellular structures, it cannot account for the most rapid examples of coordination found in biology...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312815/satellite-tagging-highlights-the-importance-of-productive-mozambican-coastal-waters-to-the-ecology-and-conservation-of-whale-sharks
#14
Christoph A Rohner, Anthony J Richardson, Fabrice R A Jaine, Michael B Bennett, Scarla J Weeks, Geremy Cliff, David P Robinson, Katie E Reeve-Arnold, Simon J Pierce
The whale shark Rhincodon typus is an endangered, highly migratory species with a wide, albeit patchy, distribution through tropical oceans. Ten aerial survey flights along the southern Mozambican coast, conducted between 2004-2008, documented a relatively high density of whale sharks along a 200 km stretch of the Inhambane Province, with a pronounced hotspot adjacent to Praia do Tofo. To examine the residency and movement of whale sharks in coastal areas around Praia do Tofo, where they may be more susceptible to gill net entanglement, we tagged 15 juveniles with SPOT5 satellite tags and tracked them for 2-88 days (mean = 27 days) as they dispersed from this area...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310485/enhanced-innate-fear-and-altered-stress-axis-regulation-in-vglut3-knockout-mice
#15
Diána Balázsfi, Anna Fodor, Bibiána Török, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, József Haller, Dóra Zelena
Glutamatergic neurons, characterized by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) provide the main excitation in the brain. Their disturbances have been linked to various brain disorders, which could be also modeled by the contextual fear test in rodents. We aimed to characterize the participation of VGluT3 in the development of contextual fear through its contribution to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) regulation using knockout (KO) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was induced by foot shock and mice were examined 1 and 7 d later in the same environment comparing wild type with KO...
January 8, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306767/effects-of-concurrent-training-on-muscle-strength-in-older-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#16
Vania Fernanda Clemente Agner, Marcia Carvalho Garcia, Andre Andriolli Taffarel, Camila Baudini Mourão, Isabel Paulo da Silva, Sara Pereira da Silva, Maria Stella Peccin, Império Lombardi
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent among older adults. Concurrent training comprises muscle strengthening and aerobic exercise. OBJECTIVE: Determine the effects of a concurrent training program on muscle strength, walking function, metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk, use of medications and quality of life among older adults with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, blind, clinical trial was conducted in the city of Santos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, involving 41 male and female older adults...
December 24, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305205/associations-between-travel-distance-hospital-volume-and-outcomes-following-radical-cystectomy-in-patients-with-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#17
Leilei Xia, Benjamin L Taylor, Ronac Mamtani, John P Christodouleas, Thomas J Guzzo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between travel distance, hospital volume, and outcomes following radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) METHODS: The 2006 to 2013 National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried to identify patients with MIBC who underwent RC. Multivariable regressions alternately including travel distance, hospital volume, and both in the models were used. Travel distances and hospital volumes were categorized by quartiles. Outcomes of interest were overall survival and quality-of-care indicators...
January 2, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303392/examination-of-market-segmentation-among-medical-marijuana-dispensaries
#18
Alexis Cooke, Bridget Freisthler, Elycia Mulholland
BACKGROUND: As medical marijuana legislation becomes more common, concerns arise about the overconcentration of dispensaries, raising questions about the number of medicinal marijuana dispensaries (MMD) needed to serve medicinal users. OBJECTIVES: This paper applies niche-marketing theory-which suggests dispensaries market to specific types of people-to examine if MMDs might be targeting recreational users. Observed differences between dispensary populations and between dispensary clients and local residents may indicate that dispensaries are drawing in patients based on factors other than medical need...
January 5, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302958/crystal-growth-of-zif-8-zif-67-and-their-mixed-metal-derivatives
#19
Daniel Saliba, Manal Ammar, Moustafa Rammal, Mazen Al-Ghoul, Mohamad Hmadeh
A facile method to produce Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIF-8, ZIF-67 and solid-solution ZIFs (mixed Co and Zn)) is reported. ZIF crystals are produced via a reaction-diffusion framework (RDF) by diffusing an outer solution at a relatively high concentration of the 2-methyl imidazole linker (HmIm) into an agar gel matrix containing the divalent metal (zinc (II) and/or cobalt (II)) at room temperature. Accordingly, a propagating supersaturation wave, initiated at the interface between the outer solution and the gel matrix leads to a precipitation front endowed with a gradient of crystal sizes ranging between 100 nm and 55 m along the same reaction tube...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301762/inequalities-in-access-to-cardiac-rehabilitation-after-an-acute-coronary-syndrome-the-epiheart-cohort
#20
Marta Viana, Andreia Borges, Carla Araújo, Afonso Rocha, Ana I Ribeiro, Olga Laszczyńska, Paula Dias, Maria J Maciel, Ilídio Moreira, Nuno Lunet, Ana Azevedo
OBJECTIVES: To estimate cardiac rehabilitation (CR) referral and participation rates among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to identify their determinants, in two Portuguese regions. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients consecutively admitted to the cardiology department of two hospitals, one in the district of Porto and one in the north-east region (NER) of Portugal, were enrolled in the EPIHeart cohort and then followed up for 6 months...
January 3, 2018: BMJ Open
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