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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230239/common-evolutionary-trends-underlie-the-four-bar-linkage-systems-of-sunfish-and-mantis-shrimp
#1
Yinan Hu, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Philip S L Anderson
Comparative biomechanics offers an opportunity to explore the evolution of disparate biological systems that share common underlying mechanics. Four-bar linkage modelling has been applied to various biological systems such as fish jaws and crustacean appendages to explore the relationship between biomechanics and evolutionary diversification. Mechanical sensitivity states that the functional output of a mechanical system will show differential sensitivity to changes in specific morphological components. We document similar patterns of mechanical sensitivity in two disparate four-bar systems from different phyla: the opercular four-bar system in centrarchid fishes and the raptorial appendage of stomatopods...
February 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229024/modafinil-decreases-anxiety-like-behaviour-in-zebrafish
#2
Adrian Johnson, Trevor James Hamilton
Modafinil (2-((diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl)acetamide), a selective dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, is most commonly prescribed for narcolepsy but has gained recent interest for treating a variety of disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are becoming a model of choice for pharmacological and behavioural research. To investigate the behavioural effects of modafinil on anxiety, we administered doses of 0, 2, 20, and 200 mg/L for 30 minutes then tested zebrafish in the novel approach test. In this test, the fish was placed into a circular arena with a novel object in the center and motion-tracking software was used to quantify the time the fish spent in the outer area of the arena (thigmotaxis zone), middle third of the arena (transition zone) and center of the arena, as well as total distance traveled, immobility and meandering...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227185/estimation-of-walked-distance-using-inertial-sensors-under-real-conditions
#3
Martin Cerny, Norbert Noury, Martin Cerny, Norbert Noury, Norbert Noury, Martin Cerny
This paper focuses on the comparison of the three most cited algorithms for calculation of walked distance in human, from accelerations measured by inertial sensors placed near the center of mass of human body. The algorithms were tested in real conditions during short walk travels, up to 10 meters, which are typical distances inside the flat. We used two different sensors-one included in a smart phone and our own developed sensor. Results show the differences between tested algorithms in real conditions and their possibilities in real applications, and show better results obtained with the model of the inverted pendulum...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225480/nmda-receptor-subunit-and-camkii-changes-in-rat-hippocampus-by-congenital-hcmv-infection-a-mechanism-for-learning-and-memory-impairment
#4
De Wu, Li Yang, Xiaosong Bu, Jiulai Tang, Xiaocheng Fan
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of congenital human cytomegalovirus infection on the expression levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NRs) and Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the hippocampal neurons of neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant SD rats were divided into an experimental group and a control group (n=10 in each group). Spatial learning and memory of the offspring of SD rats were evaluated using the Morris water-maze test. Pathological studies of hippocampus sections were carried out...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224341/enhanced-transportability-of-zero-valent-iron-nanoparticles-in-aquifer-sediments-surface-modifications-reactivity-and-particle-traveling-distances
#5
Naresh Kumar, Jérôme Labille, Nathan Bossa, Mélanie Auffan, Pierre Doumenq, Jérôme Rose, Jean-Yves Bottero
In this study, we assessed the transportability of zero valent iron nanoparticles (nano-Fe(0)) coated with different organics (carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), poly acrylic acid (PAA), and xanthan gum) in standard porous sand and in real aquifer sediments. Our results suggest that the organic surface coatings optimized for nano-Fe(0) in porous sand media do not necessarily reflect the same transportability in real field aquifer sediment. Xanthan gum-coated nano-Fe(0) showed highest transportability in standard porous sand, but the performance was much lower in real aquifer sediment, whereas the PAA-coated nano-Fe(0) particle showed better transportability both in aquifer sediment and in porous sand media...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221887/soil-type-soil-moisture-and-field-slope-influence-the-horizontal-movement-of-salmonella-enterica-and-citrobacter-freundii-from-floodwater-through-soil
#6
Mary Theresa Callahan, Shirley A Micallef, Robert L Buchanan
Pathogens in soil are readily mobilized by infiltrating water to travel downward through the soil. However, limited data are available on the horizontal movement of pathogens across a field. This study used a model system to evaluate the influence of soil type, initial soil moisture content, and field slope on the movement of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport across a horizontal plane of soil under flooding conditions. Three soil types of varying clay content were moistened to 40, 60, or 80% of their maximum water-holding capacities and flooded with water containing 6 log CFU/ml Salmonella Newport and Citrobacter freundii , the latter being evaluated as a potential surrogate for S...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216220/stemi-care-in-poland-and-the-united-states-both-have-some-distance-yet-to-travel
#7
EDITORIAL
Peter B Berger, Molly Perini, Lance B Becker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216142/astrocytic-calcium-waves-signal-brain-injury-to-neural-stem-and%C3%A2-progenitor%C3%A2-cells
#8
Anna Kraft, Eduardo Rosales Jubal, Ruth von Laer, Claudia Döring, Adriana Rocha, Moyo Grebbin, Martin Zenke, Helmut Kettenmann, Albrecht Stroh, Stefan Momma
Brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, induce neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to a neurogenic response. Very little is known about the molecular cues that signal tissue damage, even over large distances, to the SVZ. Based on our analysis of gene expression patterns in the SVZ, 48 hr after an ischemic lesion caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, we hypothesized that the presence of an injury might be transmitted by an astrocytic traveling calcium wave rather than by diffusible factors or hypoxia...
February 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215744/cart-peptide-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-regulates-psychostimulants-correlations-between-psychostimulant-and-cart-peptide-effects
#9
Martin O Job, Michael J Kuhar
In this study, we reexamined the effect of CART peptide on psychostimulant (PS)-induced locomotor activity (LMA) in individual rats. The Methods utilized were as previously published. The PS-induced LMA was defined as the distance traveled after PS administration (intraperitoneal), and the CART peptide effect was defined as the change in the PS-induced activity after bilateral intra-NAc administration of CART peptide. The experiments included both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, and varying the CART peptide dose and the PS dose...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215199/activities-of-some-stress-enzymes-as-indicators-of-slaughter-cattle-welfare-and-their-relationship-with-physico-chemical-characteristics-of-beef
#10
A-Y Chulayo, V Muchenje
The study determined the activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in transported cattle as indicators of welfare and how they relate to beef quality. A total of 219 (n=219) (85 Beefmaster, 48 Charolaise, 32 Holstein-Friesian and 54 nondescript) cattle brought to the abattoir for slaughter were used in the study. Disposable vacutainer tubes with anticoagulant (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) were used to collect 4 ml of blood samples to determine the activities of CK and LDH. The measurements of pHu and colour coordinates (L*, a* and b*) were carried out at 48 h after slaughter on the representative samples of muscularis longissimuss thoracis et...
February 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214771/future-oriented-mental-time-travel-in-individuals-with-disordered-gambling
#11
Xavier Noël, Mélanie Saeremans, Charles Kornreich, Nematollah Jaafari, Arnaud D'Argembeau
This study investigated the ability of individuals with disordered gambling to imagine future events. Problem gamblers (n=35) and control participants (n=35) were asked to imagine positive and negative future events for three temporal distances (one week, one year, 5-10years). Then, a variety of phenomenological aspects of their future thoughts (e.g., sensory and contextual details, autonoetic consciousness) were rated. Compared to control subjects, problem gamblers generated fewer positive and negative events across all temporal distances, an impairment that was correlated to verbal fluency scores...
February 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214540/cognitive-performance-of-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice-after-repetitive-concussive-brain-injuries
#12
Alexander G Velosky, Laura B Tucker, Amanda H Fu, Jiong Liu, Joseph T McCabe
In contact sports, repetitive concussive brain injury (rCBI) is the prevalent form of head injury seen in athletes. The need for effective treatment is urgent as rCBI has been associated with a host of cognitive, behavioral and neurological complaints. There has been a growing trend in the use of female animals in pre-clinical research, but few studies have investigated possible sex differences following rCBI. The goal of the current study was to determine any differences between male and female C57BL/6J mice on assessments of learning and memory after repetitive concussive injury...
February 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214432/degree-of-target-utilization-influences-the-location-of-movement-endpoint-distributions
#13
Andrew B Slifkin, Jeffrey R Eder
According to dominant theories of motor control, speed and accuracy are optimized when, on the average, movement endpoints are located at the target center and when the variability of the movement endpoint distributions is matched to the width of the target (viz., Meyer, Abrams, Kornblum, Wright & Smith, 1988). The current study tested those predictions. According to the speed-accuracy trade-off, expanding the range of variability to the amount permitted by the limits of the target boundaries allows for maximization of movement speed while centering the distribution on the target center prevents movement errors that would have occurred had the distribution been off center...
February 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212441/depressive-disorder-and-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-after-myocardial-infarct-are-associated-with-abnormal-tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine-metabolism-in-rats
#14
Xiaofang Lu, Yuefen Wang, Chunyan Liu, Yangang Wang
In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211057/reproductive-energy-expenditure-and-changes-in-body-morphology-for-a-population-of-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha-with-a-long-distance-migration
#15
T E Bowerman, A Pinson-Dumm, C A Peery, C C Caudill
Energetic demands of a long freshwater migration, extended holding period, gamete development and spawning were evaluated for a population of stream-type Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Female and male somatic mass decreased by 24 and 21%, respectively, during migration and by an additional 18 and 12% during holding. Between freshwater entry and death after spawning, females allocated 14% of initial somatic energy towards gonad development and 78% for metabolism (46, 25 and 7% during migration, holding and spawning, respectively)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209264/patient-travel-for-bariatric-surgery-does-distance-matter
#16
J Hunter Mehaffey, Alex D Michaels, Mathew G Mullen, Max O Meneveau, John R Pender, Peter T Hallowell
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, patients are faced with greater travel distances to undergo bariatric surgery at high-volume centers. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the impact of travel distance on access to care and outcomes after bariatric surgery. SETTING: Patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at an academic bariatric surgery center from 1985 to 2004 were examined and stratified by patient travel distance. METHODS: Univariate analyses were performed for preoperative risk factors, 30-day complications, and long-term (10-yr) weight loss between "local," defined as<1 hour of travel time, and "regional," defined as>1 hour of travel time...
December 28, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208351/effects-of-burstiness-on-the-air-transportation-system
#17
Hidetaka Ito, Katsuhiro Nishinari
The effects of burstiness in complex networks have received considerable attention. In particular, the effects on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system are significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, the temporal distance of empirical U.S. flight schedule data is compared with that of regularized data without burstiness to analyze the effects of burstiness. The temporal distance is calculated by a graph analysis method considering flight delays, missed connections, flight cancellations, and congestion...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202583/acoustic-measurements-of-post-dive-cardiac-responses-in-southern-elephant-seals-mirounga-leonina-during-surfacing-at-sea
#18
Louise Day, Joffrey Jouma'a, Julien Bonnel, Christophe Guinet
Measuring physiological data in free-ranging marine mammals remains challenging, owing to their far-ranging foraging habitat. Yet, it is important to understand how these divers recover from effort expended underwater, as marine mammals can perform deep and recurrent dives. Among them, southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) are one of the most extreme divers, diving continuously at great depth and for long duration while travelling over large distances within the Southern Ocean. To determine how they manage post-dive recovery, we deployed hydrophones on four post-breeding female southern elephant seals...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202382/clinicians-and-researchers-perspectives-on-manual-wheelchair-data-loggers
#19
François Routhier, Josiane Lettre, William C Miller, Jaimie F Borisoff, Kate Keetch, Ian M Mitchell
Recent studies have employed data loggers to record a wide range of, sometimes differing, objective outcomes associated with the use of manual wheelchairs. To identify which outcomes are broadly perceived to be the most important to measure when objectively documenting manual wheelchair use, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with groups of researchers and clinicians in the field of wheeled mobility. We also surveyed the challenges these groups experienced when using data loggers. The survey was informed by a previous scoping review of the scientific and gray literature...
February 12, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199819/association-between-treatment-facility-volume-and-mortality-of-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#20
Ronald S Go, Adam C Bartley, Cynthia S Crowson, Nilay D Shah, Elizabeth B Habermann, Sara J Holton, David R Holmes
Purpose To determine the association between the number of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) treated annually at a treatment facility (volume) and all-cause mortality (outcome). Methods Using the National Cancer Database, we identified patients diagnosed with MM between 2003 and 2011. We classified the facilities by quartiles (Q; mean patients with MM treated per year): Q1: < 3.6; Q2: 3.6 to 6.1, Q3: 6.1 to 10.3, and Q4: > 10.3. We used random intercepts to account for clustering of patients within facilities and Cox regression to determine the volume-outcome relationship, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, race, ethnicity), socioeconomic (income, education, insurance type), geographic (area of residence, treatment facility location, travel distance), and comorbid (Charlson-Deyo score) factors and year of diagnosis...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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