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Jamie L Klinger, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Jane Witbrodt, Lee Ann Kaskutas
Background: Distance and travel time are barriers to attending and completing drug and alcohol treatment. Few studies have examined proximity to treatment in relation to long-term outcomes. Objectives: Aims were to examine effects of distance to treatment on alcohol consumption in the year after treatment intake; assess moderation of distance effects by treatment type; and test mediators of effects of distance to treatment on later alcohol use. Methods: Data from clients in inpatient and outpatient alcohol treatment programs in California (n=560) were used in linear regression models...
2018: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
Nuria Farré, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has emerged as a highly prevalent public health problem that imposes important mid-term and long-term consequences, namely cardiovascular, metabolic, cognitive and cancer-related alterations. OSA is characterized by increased upper airway resistance, alveolar hypoventilation, and recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. Recurrent collapse of the upper airway develops with sleep onset, and is associated with both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation. The microbiome is a vast and complex polymicrobial ecosystem that coexists with the human organism, and has been identified as playing significant roles in the development of host immunological phenotypes...
March 13, 2018: Chest
Bartosz Baran, Michał Krzyżowski, Mikołaj Cup, Jakub Janiec, Mateusz Grabowski, Jacek Francikowski
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a group of common metabolites and semiochemicals mediating information transfer between higher organisms and bacteria, either from microbiome or external environment. VFAs commonly occur among various insect orders. There are numerous studies exploring their influence on the behavior of different insect species. In relation to the papers published by J. E. McFarlane in 1985, we assessed the effects of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids on the spatial preference of the lesser mealworm ( Alphitobius diaperinus ), a common pest of stored food grain products and the poultry industry...
March 16, 2018: Insects
Xu Zhao, Lihua Dou, Zhong Su, Ning Liu
A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot's motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU)...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Wentao Jing, Mohsen Ramezani, Kun An, Inhi Kim
The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect...
2018: PloS One
Rachel R Horsley, Tomáš Páleníček, Jan Kolin, Karel Valeš
Short-term moderate doses of serotonergic and dissociative hallucinogens can be useful in the treatment of anxiety. Recently, a trend has developed for long-term intermittent 'microdosing' (usually one-tenth of a 'full' active dose), with reports of long-lasting relief from anxiety and related disorders; however, there is no scientific evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic microdosing nor to show its lasting effects. The objective of this study was to test for lasting effects on anxiety in rats after microdosing with ketamine or psilocin...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Andrew Gibbs, Laura Washington, Nwabisa Jama Shai, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Samantha Willan
Unconditional cash transfers have risen in prominence for their potential to improve the health of the world's most marginalised and bring them into a relationship with the state. Typically, challenges to accessing grants are described in terms of technical issues such as access to documents and distance to offices. This paper explores the challenges of 30 young, poor, black South African women in accessing the Child Support Grant (CSG), an unconditional cash transfer provided by the South African government...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
A Presotto, M P Verderane, L Biondi, O Mendonça-Furtado, N Spagnoletti, M Madden, P Izar
There is evidence that wild animals are able to recall key locations and associate them with navigational routes. Studies in primate navigation suggest most species navigate through the route network system, using intersections among routes as locations of decision-making. Recent approaches presume that points of directional change may be key locations where animals decide where to go next. Over four consecutive years, we observed how a wild group of bearded capuchin monkeys used a route network system and Change Point locations (CPs) in the Brazilian ecotone of Cerrado-Caatinga...
March 12, 2018: Animal Cognition
Susan Bidwell, Andrea Copeland
INTRODUCTION Pegasus Health Charitable Ltd, a Christchurch Primary Health Organisation, is contracted by the Canterbury District Health Board to provide continuing professional development for primary care practitioners in the region. Rurally located health practitioners have largely been unable to participate because of the travel time and distances involved. AIM The initiative reported in this paper aimed to fill this gap by developing an accessible and high-quality multidisciplinary model of professional development for general practitioners, nurse practitioners, practice nurses and community pharmacists in rural areas of North Canterbury, New Zealand...
December 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Flora Tzelepis, Christine L Paul, Robert W Sanson-Fisher, H Sharon Campbell, Kenneth Bradstock, Mariko L Carey, Anna Williamson
Due to fewer cancer services in rural locations, rural survivors may have unique unmet needs compared to urban survivors. This study compared among rural and urban haematological cancer survivors the most common "high/very high" unmet supportive care needs and the unmet need scores for five domains (information, financial concerns, access and continuity of care, relationships and emotional health). Survivors' socio-demographics, rurality, cancer history and psychological factors associated with each unmet need domain were also explored...
March 10, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Fiona Katherine McCurdie, Joanne Moffatt, Kevin Jones
Kitovu Hospital in Masaka, Uganda, is a leading obstetric fistula repair centre in the country with the highest rates of fistula in the world. In this retrospective case review, the regional incidence and causative factors were studied in patients with vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) who were admitted at Kitovu Hospital. Fistula history included severity (ICIQ score), causes and outcomes of VVF were measured. Women suffered with symptoms of VVF for an average of 4.97 years with an average ICIQ severity score of 7...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Soichi Otsuki
The reduced effective Mueller matrices of forward scattering from birefringent turbid slab media were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation and were factorized in two dimensions by the Lu-Chipman polar decomposition. For a slab medium with the birefringence axis parallel to the y axis, the polarization parameters have second- or fourth-order rotational symmetry. Especially, the absolute value of linear retardance |δ| shows a characteristic variation; it becomes maximal at the azimuths of 0° and 180° but minimal at 90° and 270°...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Helen Convey, Janet Holt, Barbara Summers
AIMS: This study explored the feasibility of using Construal Level Theory to analyse proxy decision maker thinking about a hypothetical ethical dilemma, relating to a person who has dementia. BACKGROUND: Proxy decision makers make decisions on behalf of individuals who are living with dementia when dementia affects that individual's decision making ability. Ethical dilemmas arise because there is a need to balance the individual's past and contemporary values and views...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Heiko Schmaljohann
Faster migration in spring than in autumn seems to be a common pattern in birds. This has been ultimately explained by seasonally different selection pressures. Variation in migration speed is proximately caused by adjusting travel speed (distance covered during flight) and/or stopover duration (times when birds rest and refuel). Yet, it remains unclear whether individual seasonal differences in migration speed match the common pattern and what the precise role of the proximate, behavioural mechanisms for adjusting migration speed is...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew Adams, Carilynne Yarascavitch, Carlos Quiñonez, Amir Azarpazhooh
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess barriers to the use of deep sedation/general anesthesia (DS/GA) identified by dentists in Ontario. METHODS: An email invitation to a web-based survey was distributed to all licensed dentists and specialists who have provided an email address to the provincial regulator (n = 5507). Descriptive and regression analyses were performed to explore practice and demographic factors associated with the use of DS/GA. RESULTS: The response rate was 18...
July 2017: Journal—Canadian Dental Association, Journal de L'Association Dentaire Canadienne
Daniel S Lark, Jamie R Kwan, P Mason McClatchey, Merrygay N James, Freyja D James, John R B Lighton, Louise Lantier, David H Wasserman
Exercise alone is often ineffective for treating obesity despite the associated increase in metabolic requirements. Decreased nonexercise physical activity has been implicated in this resistance to weight loss, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We quantified the metabolic cost of nonexercise activity, or "off-wheel" activity (OWA), and voluntary wheel running (VWR) and examined whether changes in OWA during VWR altered energy balance in chow-fed C57BL/6J mice ( n = 12). Energy expenditure (EE), energy intake, and behavior (VWR and OWA) were continuously monitored for 4 days with locked running wheels followed by 9 days with unlocked running wheels...
March 6, 2018: Diabetes
Anthony Pham, Becky Lee, Eric L Chang
Brain metastases are the most common intracranial tumors in the adult population and have been historically treated with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). However, as medical advances improve life expectancy, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has replaced WBRT as the standard of care for limited (one to three) brain metastases due to the relative sparing of neurocognitive function (NCF) and therefore quality of life (QoL). The use of SRS has been less documented in the case of multiple (four or more) brain metastases, with literature limited to non-randomized studies showing comparable survival and local control...
December 28, 2017: Curēus
Florian Müller, Cas Eikenaar, Zoe J Crysler, Philip D Taylor, Heiko Schmaljohann
1.Most migratory songbirds travel between their breeding areas and wintering grounds through a series of nocturnal flights. The timing of their departures defines the potential flight duration and thus the distance covered during a migratory night. Yet, migratory songbirds show substantial variation in their nocturnal departure timing. 2.With this study we aim to assess whether the respective challenges of the migration route, namely its distance and nature, help to explain this variation. 3.At a stopover site, we caught Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) of two subspecies that differ in distance and nature of their onward migration route in spring, but not in autumn...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Loukas Dimitriou, Katerina Stylianou, Mohamed A Abdel-Aty
Rear-end crashes are one of the most frequently occurring crash types, especially in urban networks. An understanding of the contributing factors and their significant association with rear-end crashes is of practical importance and will help in the development of effective countermeasures. The objective of this study is to assess rear-end crash potential at a microscopic level in an urban environment, by investigating vehicle-by-vehicle interactions. To do so, several traffic parameters at the individual vehicle level have been taken into consideration, for capturing car-following characteristics and vehicle interactions, and to investigate their effect on potential rear-end crashes...
March 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Christian Selbach, Robert Poulin
The transmission from one host to another constitutes a challenging obstacle for parasites and is a key determinant of their fitness. Due to their complex life histories involving several different hosts, the free-living dispersal stages (cercariae) of digenean trematodes show a huge diversity in morphology and behaviour. On a finer scale, we still have an extremely limited understanding of the inter- and intraspecific variation in transmission strategies of many trematode species. Here, we present a novel method to study the movement patterns of cercariae of four New Zealand trematode species (Coitocaecum parvum, Maritrema poulini, Apatemon sp...
March 5, 2018: Parasitology
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