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involvement of central nervous system in acute leukemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035192/bacillus-cereus-bacteremia-with-central-nervous-system-involvement-a-neuropathological-study
#1
Jean Philippe Brouland, Nathalie Sala, Selin Tusgul, Caterina Rebecchini, Enikö Kovari
Bacillus cereus is a widely-distributed, gram-positive or variable, rod-shaped bacterium frequently considered a contaminant in clinical specimens. It is recognized as a potential pathogen inducing self-limiting emetic or diarrheal food poisoning or localized infection in immunocompetent patients. True B. cereus bacteremia is uncommon and mainly observed in fragile patients, notably in immunocompromised individuals. We report clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of a 64-year-old patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia who initially presented a fever while neutropenic after the induction of a second cycle of chemotherapy...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954350/-clinical-characteristics-of-6-patients-with-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm
#2
X Han, M Q Ouyang, Q Pei, M H Duan, X Y Jiang, D B Zhou
Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of patients with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Method: Clinical records of 6 patients diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm in our hospital from January 2008 to May 2016 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results: Six patients manifested with initial symptoms of skin lesions, other common symptoms included bone marrow involvement (5/6) , lymphadenectasis (4/6) , splenomegaly (4/6) , and hepatomegaly (3/6) ...
August 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943635/ng2-antigen-is-involved-in-leukemia-invasiveness-and-central-nervous-system-infiltration-in-mll-rearranged-infant-b-all
#3
C Prieto, B López-Millán, H Roca-Ho, R W Stam, D Romero-Moya, F J Rodríguez-Baena, A Sanjuan-Pla, V Ayllón, M Ramírez, M Bardini, P De Lorenzo, M G Valsecchi, M Stanulla, M Iglesias, P Ballerini, Á M Carcaboso, J Mora, F Locatelli, A Bertaina, L Padilla, J C Rodríguez-Manzaneque, C Bueno, P Menéndez
MLL-rearranged (MLLr) infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (iMLLr-B-ALL) has a dismal prognosis and is associated with a pro-B/mixed phenotype, therapy refractoriness and frequent central nervous system (CNS) disease/relapse. Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) is specifically expressed in MLLr leukemias and is used in leukemia immunophenotyping because of its predictive value for MLLr acute leukemias. NG2 is involved in melanoma metastasis and brain development; however, its role in MLL-mediated leukemogenesis remains elusive...
September 25, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927153/clinicoradiological-characteristics-management-and-prognosis-of-primary-myeloid-sarcoma-of-the-central-nervous-system-a-report-of-four-cases
#4
Bao Yang, Chenlong Yang, Jingyi Fang, Jun Yang, Yulun Xu
Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a localized tumor composed of premature precursors of granulocytic cells, which may occur in any organ and most commonly involves the soft tissue and musculoskeletal system. This malignancy may occur in the presence or absence of hematological disorders. Primary MS involving the central nervous system (CNS-MS) is rare, and has only been described in a small number of isolated case reports. The diagnosis of CNS-MS is challenging and strategies for its management are undefined. The present study describes 4 cases of CNS-MS...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872614/aberrant-signaling-pathways-in-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#5
REVIEW
Deborah Bongiovanni, Valentina Saccomani, Erich Piovan
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive disease caused by the malignant transformation of immature progenitors primed towards T-cell development. Clinically, T-ALL patients present with diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by immature T-cell blasts high blood cell counts, mediastinal involvement, and diffusion to the central nervous system. In the past decade, the genomic landscape of T-ALL has been the target of intense research. The identification of specific genomic alterations has contributed to identify strong oncogenic drivers and signaling pathways regulating leukemia growth...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870778/outcome-analysis-of-pediatric-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-treated-with-total-body-irradiation-free-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-comparison-of-patients-with-and-without-central-nervous-system-involvement
#6
Amir Ali Hamidieh, Seyed Mostafa Monzavi, Maryam Kaboutari, Maryam Behfar, Mohsen Esfandbod
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with a non-total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimen has proven feasible for treating patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, it is commonly believed that for extramedullary involvement of ALL in sanctuary sites, such as the central nervous system (CNS), TBI should not be abandoned. In this study, the outcomes of pediatric ALL patients with CNS involvement (CNS(+)) and without CNS involvement (CNS(-)) treated with TBI-free allogeneic HSCT were retrospectively compared...
September 1, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868277/extramedullary-relapse-of-acute-myelogenous-leukemia-presenting-as-a-large-serous-retinal-detachment
#7
Wesley Green, P Kumar Rao, George J Harocopos
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe the rare presentation of a large, unilateral, serous retinal detachment as an extramedullary manifestation of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) recurrence without bone marrow or central nervous system involvement after more than 1 year of follow-up. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A teenage patient with AML, previously treated with multiple courses of systemic chemotherapy, radiation, and bone marrow transplant, presented with acute vision loss...
July 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809129/effect-of-methotrexate-vitamin-b12-on-dna-methylation-as-a-potential-factor-in-leukemia-treatment-related-neurotoxicity
#8
Victoria J Forster, Alex McDonnell, Rachel Theobald, Jill A McKay
Methotrexate (MTX) is administered to treat childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It acts by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase which reduces methyltetrahydrofolate, a key component in one carbon metabolism, thus reducing cell proliferation. Further perturbations to one carbon metabolism, such as reduced vitamin B12 levels via the use of nitrous oxide for sedation during childhood ALL treatment, may increase neurotoxicity risk. With B12 as an enzymatic cofactor, methyltetrahydrofolate is essential to produce methionine, which is critical for DNA methylation...
September 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749114/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-admitted-for-intensive-care-a-single-centre-experience
#9
Shafaq Maqsood, Farhana Badar, Abdul Hameed
Background and Purpose: Patients with hematological malignancies admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) generally have a high mortality rate. The aim of our study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of such patients and to identify factors predicting ICU mortality. Material and Methods: This retrospective chart review was conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre over a period of 5 years, from January 2010 to January 2015. Results: Characteristics :A total of 213 patients were included in this study...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666906/craniospinal-irradiation-prior-to-stem-cell-transplant-for-hematologic-malignancies-with-cns-involvement-effectiveness-and-toxicity-after-photon-or-proton-treatment
#10
Jillian R Gunther, Ahmad R Rahman, Wenli Dong, Zeinab Abou Yehia, Partow Kebriaei, Gabriela Rondon, Chelsea C Pinnix, Sarah A Milgrom, Pamela K Allen, Bouthaina S Dabaja, Grace L Smith
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) improves local control of leukemia/lymphoma with central nervous system (CNS) involvement; however, for adult patients anticipating stem cell transplant (SCT), cumulative treatment toxicity is a major concern. We evaluated toxicities and outcomes for patients receiving proton or photon CSI before SCT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified 37 consecutive leukemia/lymphoma patients with CNS involvement who received CSI before SCT at our institution...
May 10, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649769/higher-rate-of-central-nervous-system-involvement-by-flow-cytometry-than-morphology-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#11
J Dass, A Dayama, P C Mishra, M Mahapatra, T Seth, S Tyagi, H P Pati, R Saxena
INTRODUCTION: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is diagnosed traditionally by cytopathology (CP) of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Role of flow cytometry (FC) to diagnose CNS involvement has not been extensively investigated. METHODS: We aimed to detect CNS involvement in 42 ALL patients (33 B-ALL, nine T-ALL) at diagnosis by FC and comparing it with CP and to correlate it with known risk factors for CNS disease like Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)...
October 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628558/genetics-of-pleiotropic-effects-of-dexamethasone
#12
Laura B Ramsey, Stan Pounds, Cheng Cheng, Xueyuan Cao, Wenjian Yang, Colton Smith, Seth E Karol, Chengcheng Liu, John C Panetta, Hiroto Inaba, Jeffrey E Rubnitz, Monika L Metzger, Raul C Ribeiro, John T Sandlund, Sima Jeha, Ching-Hon Pui, William E Evans, Mary V Relling
OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone have pleiotropic effects, including desired antileukemic, anti-inflammatory, or immunosuppressive effects, and undesired metabolic or toxic effects. The most serious adverse effects of dexamethasone among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are osteonecrosis and thrombosis. To identify inherited genomic variation involved in these severe adverse effects, we carried out genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by analyzing 14 pleiotropic glucocorticoid phenotypes in 391 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
August 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598536/characteristics-and-outcome-in-patients-with-central-nervous-system-involvement-treated-in-european-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia-study-groups
#13
Ursula Creutzig, Michael N Dworzak, Martin Zimmermann, Dirk Reinhardt, Lucie Sramkova, Jan Pierre Bourquin, Henrik Hasle, Jonas Abrahamsson, Gertjan Kaspers, Mary M van den Heuvel, Ardine M J Reedijk, Barbara De Moerloose, Franco Locatelli, Riccardo Masetti
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on the treatment for pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia and initial central nervous system (CNS) involvement. METHODS: To evaluate different CNS-directed treatment options (intrathecal [IT] therapy, CNS irradiation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HSCT]), 261 patients (excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia) with initial CNS involvement treated in trials with similar intensive chemotherapy by four cooperative European study groups (1998-2013) were studied and compared with CNS-negative patients from the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster group...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550041/central-nervous-system-involvement-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-is-mediated-by-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#14
Vera Münch, Luca Trentin, Julia Herzig, Salih Demir, Felix Seyfried, Johann M Kraus, Hans A Kestler, Rolf Köhler, Thomas F E Barth, Geertruy Te Kronnie, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Lüder H Meyer
In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), central nervous system (CNS) involvement is a major clinical concern. Despite nondetectable CNS leukemia in many cases, prophylactic CNS-directed conventional intrathecal chemotherapy is required for relapse-free survival, indicating subclinical CNS manifestation in most patients. However, CNS-directed therapy is associated with long-term sequelae, including neurocognitive deficits and secondary neoplasms. Therefore, molecular mechanisms and pathways mediating leukemia-cell entry into the CNS need to be understood to identify targets for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions and develop alternative CNS-directed treatment strategies...
August 3, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548878/immunophenotyping-of-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-as-a-prognostic-factor-at-diagnosis-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-children-and-adolescents
#15
Camila Silva Peres Cancela, Mitiko Murao, Juliana Godoy Assumpção, Marcelo Eduardo de Lima Souza, Antonio Vaz de Macedo, Marcos Borato Viana, Benigna Maria De Oliveira
This study aimed at evaluating the use of immunophenotyping (IMP) in the identification of blast cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Sixty-seven patients aged 18 years or younger were included. Fifty-five CSF samples were analyzed at initial diagnosis and 17 at the time of relapse. A cytological analysis (CA) was performed in all 72 samples, while IMP was done in 63. Blasts were identified in only three samples by CA, whereas all three samples were found negative by IMP, one of which had no isolation of nucleated cells after centrifugation...
March 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535095/managing-cns-disease-in-adults-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#16
Richard A Larson
The central nervous system (CNS) is an important site of involvement by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults. The prevalence is sufficiently high that prophylactic treatment is routinely given to this sanctuary site in order to eradicate occult disease that might otherwise lead to a relapse. A lumbar puncture should be routinely performed in all newly diagnosed patients with ALL. The risks of CNS leukemia vary by phenotype and genotype. Preventive treatment of the CNS during post-remission therapy has become an integral part of all current ALL treatment protocols...
May 23, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497710/the-complex-diagnostic-challenge-in-children-with-non-central-nervous-system-cancer-and-cerebellar-mutism
#17
Kathleen Helton, Amy L Patterson, Raja B Khan, Zsila Sadighi
Multiple etiologies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients with non-central nervous system cancer and viral infections who develop mutism. Acute cerebellitis, caused by infections or by neurotoxicity resulting from chemotherapy; paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration; atypical posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis may all cause mutism in such patients. This condition warrants prompt recognition and may require treatment with immunotherapy, as it may be an immune-mediated process...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453910/central-nervous-system-disease-in-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#18
Donna L Johnston, Todd A Alonzo, Robert B Gerbing, Richard Aplenc, William G Woods, Soheil Meshinchi, Alan S Gamis
BACKGROUND: The prognostic impact of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has varied in past trials, and controversy exists over the degree of involvement requiring intensified CNS therapy. Two recent Children's Oncology Group protocols, AAML03P1 and AAML0531, directed additional intrathecal (IT) therapy to patients with CNS2 (≤5 white blood cell [WBC] with blasts) or CNS3 (>5 WBC with blasts or CNS symptoms) disease at diagnosis...
April 28, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453871/elevated-cerebrospinal-fluid-tumour-necrosis-factor-is-associated-with-acute-and-long-term-neurocognitive-impairment-in-cerebral-malaria
#19
E Shabani, B J Ouma, R Idro, P Bangirana, R O Opoka, G S Park, A L Conroy, C C John
Systemic tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) by promoting endothelial activation and parasite sequestration. However, less is known about the role of central nervous system (CNS) TNF-α in CM. We assessed plasma (n=249) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n=167) TNF-α levels in Ugandan children with CM, plasma TNF-α in Ugandan community control children (n=198) and CSF TNF-α in North American control children who had recovered from leukaemia (n=13). Plasma and CSF TNF-α were measured by magnetic bead assay...
July 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435324/symptomatic-central-nervous-system-involvement-in-adult-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#20
Nael Alakel, Friedrich Stölzel, Brigitte Mohr, Michael Kramer, Uta Oelschlägel, Christoph Röllig, Martin Bornhäuser, Gerhard Ehninger, Markus Schaich
INTRODUCTION: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS). Little is known about the clinical course in adult AML patients since most studies examined pediatric patients. Therefore, this study analyzed the data of patients treated in three prospective trials of the "Study Alliance Leukemia" (SAL) study group for CNS involvement. METHODS: In all, 3,261 AML patients included in the prospective AML96, AML2003, and AML60+ trials of the SAL study group were analyzed...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
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