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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042520/-epilepsy-and-driving
#1
Shunsuke Takagi, Masato Matsuura
In Japan, the Road Traffic Act was amended in 2013, and the revision was enacted in 2014. This revision includes new rules such as the requirement that a driver declare medical conditions on licensing, with a penalty for false statements. There is also a new voluntary notification system that enables doctors to report unlawful drivers. At the same time, the new Criminal Law Act was enacted. This act provides a penalty for causing death or injury to other persons by driving under the influence of specific drugs or diseases, including epilepsy...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905731/what-does-health-justice-look-like-for-people-returning-from-incarceration
#2
Lisa Puglisi, Joseph P Calderon, Emily A Wang
Access to health care is a constitutional right in the United States correctional system, and many incarcerated adults are newly diagnosed with chronic diseases in prison. Despite this right, the quality of correctional health care is variable, largely unmeasured and unregulated, and characterized by patients' widespread distrust of a health system that is intimately tied to a punitive criminal justice system. Upon release, discontinuity of care is the norm, and when continuity is established, it is often hindered by distrust, discrimination, poor communication, and racism in the health system...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738789/the-impact-of-indigenous-cultural-identity-and-cultural-engagement-on-violent-offending
#3
Stephane M Shepherd, Rosa Hazel Delgado, Juanita Sherwood, Yin Paradies
BACKGROUND: Possessing a strong cultural identity has been shown to protect against mental health symptoms and buffer distress prompted by discrimination. However, no research to date has explored the protective influences of cultural identity and cultural engagement on violent offending. This paper investigates the relationships between cultural identity/engagement and violent recidivism for a cohort of Australian Indigenous people in custody. METHODS: A total of 122 adults from 11 prisons in the state of Victoria completed a semi-structured interview comprising cultural identification and cultural engagement material in custody...
July 24, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409716/gang-membership-links-to-violence-exposure-paranoia-ptsd-anxiety-and-forced-control-of-behavior-in-prison
#4
Jane Wood, Sophie Dennard
OBJECTIVE: Gang membership inherently links to violence, and violent experiences strongly relate to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and paranoia. Yet to date, gang members' mental health has received little attention, and their paranoia has not been examined. This study, using established measures, assessed street gang and nongang prisoners' levels of violence exposure, symptoms of PTSD, paranoia, and anxiety, forced behavioral control, and segregation in prison. METHOD: Participants were 65 (32 gang and 33 nongang) prisoners, recruited using opportunity sampling...
2017: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#5
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915259/-standing-outside-the-junkie-door-service-users-experiences-of-using-community-pharmacies-to-access-treatment-for-opioid-dependency
#6
Andrew Radley, Karen Melville, Phyllis Easton, Brian Williams, John F Dillon
AIM: To explore experiences of service users attending a community pharmacy to receive opiate replacement therapy (ORT). METHOD: Qualitative study involving seven focus groups undertaken within care centres and prison educational centre in Tayside, Scotland using 41 participants. Thematic analysis undertaken of experiences of different groups of service users and carers. RESULTS: Participants described the social context surrounding attendance at community pharmacies...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915076/men-presenting-with-sexual-thoughts-of-children-or-coercion-flights-of-fancy-or-plans-for-crime
#7
Tamara Turner-Moore, Mitch Waterman
INTRODUCTION: There is limited evaluation of clinical and theoretical claims that sexual thoughts of children and coercing others facilitate sexual offending. The nature of these thoughts (what they contain) also is unknown. AIM: To examine the relation between child or coercive sexual thoughts and sexual offending and to determine the nature of these thoughts and any differences among sexual offending (SO), non-sexual offending (NSO), and non-offending (NO) men...
January 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740484/spatial-pyramid-covariance-based-compact-video-code-for-robust-face-retrieval-in-tv-series
#8
Yan Li, Ruiping Wang, Zhen Cui, Shiguang Shan, Xilin Chen
We address the problem of face video retrieval in TV-series which searches video clips based on the presence of specific character, given one face track of his/her. This is tremendously challenging because on one hand, faces in TV-series are captured in largely uncontrolled conditions with complex appearance variations, and on the other hand retrieval task typically needs efficient representation with low time and space complexity. To handle this problem, we propose a compact and discriminative representation for the huge body of video data, named Compact Video Code (CVC)...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680039/aids-and-jail-social-representations-of-women-in-freedom-deprivation-situations
#9
Débora Raquel Soares Guedes Trigueiro, Sandra Aparecida de Almeida, Aline Aparecida Monroe, Gilka Paiva Oliveira Costa, Valéria Peixoto Bezerra, Jordana de Almeida Nogueira
OBJECTIVE: To graspthe AIDS social representations built by freedom-deprived women. METHOD: Descriptive study with a quali-quantitative approach that involved 174 convicted women in a women's prison in a capital city of the Brazilian northeastern region. Aword-association test was applied in October and November 2014, using AIDS as a stimulus. The corpuswas processed usingIramuteq software. Descending Hierarchical Classification and Correspondence Factor Analysis were applied...
July 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427457/hiv-prisoners-and-human-rights
#10
REVIEW
Leonard S Rubenstein, Joseph J Amon, Megan McLemore, Patrick Eba, Kate Dolan, Rick Lines, Chris Beyrer
Worldwide, a disproportionate burden of HIV, tuberculosis, and hepatitis is present among current and former prisoners. This problem results from laws, policies, and policing practices that unjustly and discriminatorily detain individuals and fail to ensure continuity of prevention, care, and treatment upon detention, throughout imprisonment, and upon release. These government actions, and the failure to ensure humane prison conditions, constitute violations of human rights to be free of discrimination and cruel and inhuman treatment, to due process of law, and to health...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112818/psychometric-prediction-of-penitentiary-recidivism
#11
MULTICENTER STUDY
Pedro M Medina García, Rosa M Baños Rivera
BACKGROUND: Attempts to predict prison recidivism based on the personality have not been very successful. This study aims to provide data on recidivism prediction based on the scores on a personality questionnaire. For this purpose, a predictive model combining the actuarial procedure with a posteriori probability was developed, consisting of the probabilistic calculation of the effective verification of the event once it has already occurred. METHOD: Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional (CPS; Fernández, Seisdedos, & Mielgo, 1998) was applied to 978 male inmates classified as recidivists or non-recidivists...
May 2016: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086134/prediction-of-violent-reoffending-on-release-from-prison-derivation-and-external-validation-of-a-scalable-tool
#12
Seena Fazel, Zheng Chang, Thomas Fanshawe, Niklas Långström, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Susan Mallett
BACKGROUND: More than 30 million people are released from prison worldwide every year, who include a group at high risk of perpetrating interpersonal violence. Because there is considerable inconsistency and inefficiency in identifying those who would benefit from interventions to reduce this risk, we developed and validated a clinical prediction rule to determine the risk of violent offending in released prisoners. METHODS: We did a cohort study of a population of released prisoners in Sweden...
June 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049004/syringe-stockpiling-by-persons-who-inject-drugs-an-evaluation-of-current-measures-for-needle-and-syringe-program-coverage
#13
Angus R McCormack, Campbell K Aitken, Lucinda A Burns, Shelley Cogger, Paul M Dietze
Needle and syringe program (NSP) coverage is commonly used to assess NSP effectiveness. However, existing measures don't capture whether persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) stockpile syringes, an important and novel aspect of NSP coverage. In this study, we determine the extent of stockpiling in a sample of Australian PWIDs and assess whether including stockpiling enhances NSP coverage measures. As part of the Illicit Drug Reporting System study, PWIDs reported syringes procured and given away, total injections in the last month, and syringes currently stockpiled in 2014...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966855/-raerae-and-mahu-third-polynesian-gender
#14
Emmanuel Stip
Background On numerous islands of the Pacific, under various names, there are people considered to be neither men nor women but half-men/half-women. In French Polynesia, there is a sociological and anthropological condition called RaeRae or Mahu. A RaeRae is a man who behaves as and considers himself to be a woman. RaeRae and Mahu are good examples of culture-bound transsexuality or cross-dressing. Being Mahu has a cultural meaning, recognized in the history of Polynesian society, and cannot be considered as a medical or psychiatric condition...
2015: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26965250/insights-into-the-freiburg-anatomical-institute-during-national-socialism-1933-1945
#15
Sabine Hildebrandt
The Anatomical Institute at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg is among the anatomical departments for which a comprehensive account of its history during National Socialism (NS) is still missing. Previous investigations (such as in: Grün et al., 2002) have revealed the political activities of some anatomists, but, in the absence of relevant body-registers, a more comprehensive examination of the anatomical body procurement has not been attempted. The inspection of records in university and municipal archives allows insight into the activities in the institute within the historical context...
May 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26867860/diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-brief-screening-tool-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-uk-prison-inmates
#16
S Young, R A González, L Mutch, I Mallet-Lambert, L O'Rourke, N Hickey, P Asherson, G H Gudjonsson
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented in prison, making it imperative to identify a screening tool that can be quickly applied to efficiently detect the disorder. We explored the discrimination ability of a widely used ADHD screen, the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale (BAARS-IV), against a clinical diagnostic interview. A brief version of the screen was then developed in order to simplify its use in the prison context, and maximize its diagnostic properties...
May 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26304049/correlates-and-experiences-of-hiv-stigma-in-prisoners-living-with-hiv-in-indonesia-a-mixed-method-analysis
#17
Gabriel J Culbert, Valerie A Earnshaw, Ni Made Swasti Wulanyani, Martin P Wegman, Agung Waluyo, Frederick L Altice
In Indonesia, the syndemic nature of HIV, drug use, and incarceration may influence experiences of stigma for HIV-infected prisoners. This mixed-method study explores HIV stigma in prisoners living with HIV in Indonesia. Randomly selected male HIV-infected prisoners (n = 102) from two large prisons in Jakarta completed in-depth interviews and a structured HIV stigma survey. Quantitative results found four groups of HIV-infected prisoners with significantly higher HIV stigma levels, including those: (a) with drug-related offenses, (b) seeking help to decrease drug use, (c) diagnosed with HIV before the current incarceration, and (d) who had not disclosed their HIV status to family members or friends...
November 2015: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26286450/personality-disorders-do-not-affect-treatment-outcomes-for-chronic-hcv-infection-in-spanish-prisoners-the-perseo-study
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Andrés Marco, José J Antón, Joan Trujols, Pablo Saíz de la Hoya, José de Juan, Inmaculada Faraco, Joan A Caylà
BACKGROUND: The link between infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and personality disorders (PD) has not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of HCV treatment in prisoners with and without PD. METHODS: We performed a prospective multicentre study in inmates from 25 Spanish prisons who had been treated with pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin in 2011. PD diagnosis was based on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+...
August 19, 2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26232055/human-rights-and-access-to-hepatitis-c-treatment-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#19
REVIEW
D Wolfe, N Luhmann, M Harris, A Momenghalibaf, E Albers, J Byrne, T Swan
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) achieve adherence to and outcomes from hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment comparable to other patients. Nonetheless, this population has been excluded from treatment by regulation or practice. Approval of safer and more effective oral HCV medicines should offer greater treatment options for PWID, although high medicine prices have led to continued treatment rationing and exclusion in developed countries. In middle-income countries (MICS), treatment is largely unavailable and unaffordable for most PWID...
November 2015: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26188413/-you-re-in-a-world-of-chaos-experiences-accessing-hiv-care-and-adhering-to-medications-after-incarceration
#20
Alexis C Dennis, Clare Barrington, Sayaka Hino, Michele Gould, David Wohl, Carol E Golin
Most HIV-infected inmates leave prison with a suppressed viral load; many, however, become disconnected from care and nonadherent to medications during reentry to community life. In this secondary data analysis of focus groups (n = 6) and in-depth interviews (n = 9) with 46 formerly incarcerated HIV-infected people during reentry, we used an inductive analytic approach to explore the interplay between individual, interpersonal, community, and structural factors and HIV management. Participants described barriers and facilitators to care engagement and adherence at each of these four levels, as well as a milieu of HIV and incarceration-related stigma and discrimination...
September 2015: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
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