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discrimination prisoners

Yan Li, Ruiping Wang, Zhen Cui, Shiguang Shan, Xilin Chen
We address the problem of face video retrieval in TV-series which searches video clips based on the presence of specific character, given one face track of his/her. This is tremendously challenging because on one hand, faces in TV-series are captured in largely uncontrolled conditions with complex appearance variations, and on the other hand retrieval task typically needs efficient representation with low time and space complexity. To handle this problem, we propose a compact and discriminative representation for the huge body of video data, named Compact Video Code (CVC)...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Débora Raquel Soares Guedes Trigueiro, Sandra Aparecida de Almeida, Aline Aparecida Monroe, Gilka Paiva Oliveira Costa, Valéria Peixoto Bezerra, Jordana de Almeida Nogueira
OBJECTIVE: To graspthe AIDS social representations built by freedom-deprived women. METHOD: Descriptive study with a quali-quantitative approach that involved 174 convicted women in a women's prison in a capital city of the Brazilian northeastern region. Aword-association test was applied in October and November 2014, using AIDS as a stimulus. The corpuswas processed usingIramuteq software. Descending Hierarchical Classification and Correspondence Factor Analysis were applied...
July 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
Leonard S Rubenstein, Joseph J Amon, Megan McLemore, Patrick Eba, Kate Dolan, Rick Lines, Chris Beyrer
Worldwide, a disproportionate burden of HIV, tuberculosis, and hepatitis is present among current and former prisoners. This problem results from laws, policies, and policing practices that unjustly and discriminatorily detain individuals and fail to ensure continuity of prevention, care, and treatment upon detention, throughout imprisonment, and upon release. These government actions, and the failure to ensure humane prison conditions, constitute violations of human rights to be free of discrimination and cruel and inhuman treatment, to due process of law, and to health...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
Pedro M Medina García, Rosa M Baños Rivera
BACKGROUND: Attempts to predict prison recidivism based on the personality have not been very successful. This study aims to provide data on recidivism prediction based on the scores on a personality questionnaire. For this purpose, a predictive model combining the actuarial procedure with a posteriori probability was developed, consisting of the probabilistic calculation of the effective verification of the event once it has already occurred. METHOD: Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional (CPS; Fernández, Seisdedos, & Mielgo, 1998) was applied to 978 male inmates classified as recidivists or non-recidivists...
May 2016: Psicothema
Seena Fazel, Zheng Chang, Thomas Fanshawe, Niklas Långström, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Susan Mallett
BACKGROUND: More than 30 million people are released from prison worldwide every year, who include a group at high risk of perpetrating interpersonal violence. Because there is considerable inconsistency and inefficiency in identifying those who would benefit from interventions to reduce this risk, we developed and validated a clinical prediction rule to determine the risk of violent offending in released prisoners. METHODS: We did a cohort study of a population of released prisoners in Sweden...
June 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Angus R McCormack, Campbell K Aitken, Lucinda A Burns, Shelley Cogger, Paul M Dietze
Needle and syringe program (NSP) coverage is commonly used to assess NSP effectiveness. However, existing measures don't capture whether persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) stockpile syringes, an important and novel aspect of NSP coverage. In this study, we determine the extent of stockpiling in a sample of Australian PWIDs and assess whether including stockpiling enhances NSP coverage measures. As part of the Illicit Drug Reporting System study, PWIDs reported syringes procured and given away, total injections in the last month, and syringes currently stockpiled in 2014...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Emmanuel Stip
Background On numerous islands of the Pacific, under various names, there are people considered to be neither men nor women but half-men/half-women. In French Polynesia, there is a sociological and anthropological condition called RaeRae or Mahu. A RaeRae is a man who behaves as and considers himself to be a woman. RaeRae and Mahu are good examples of culture-bound transsexuality or cross-dressing. Being Mahu has a cultural meaning, recognized in the history of Polynesian society, and cannot be considered as a medical or psychiatric condition...
2015: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Sabine Hildebrandt
The Anatomical Institute at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg is among the anatomical departments for which a comprehensive account of its history during National Socialism (NS) is still missing. Previous investigations (such as in: Grün et al., 2002) have revealed the political activities of some anatomists, but, in the absence of relevant body-registers, a more comprehensive examination of the anatomical body procurement has not been attempted. The inspection of records in university and municipal archives allows insight into the activities in the institute within the historical context...
May 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
S Young, R A González, L Mutch, I Mallet-Lambert, L O'Rourke, N Hickey, P Asherson, G H Gudjonsson
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented in prison, making it imperative to identify a screening tool that can be quickly applied to efficiently detect the disorder. We explored the discrimination ability of a widely used ADHD screen, the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale (BAARS-IV), against a clinical diagnostic interview. A brief version of the screen was then developed in order to simplify its use in the prison context, and maximize its diagnostic properties...
May 2016: Psychological Medicine
Gabriel J Culbert, Valerie A Earnshaw, Ni Made Swasti Wulanyani, Martin P Wegman, Agung Waluyo, Frederick L Altice
In Indonesia, the syndemic nature of HIV, drug use, and incarceration may influence experiences of stigma for HIV-infected prisoners. This mixed-method study explores HIV stigma in prisoners living with HIV in Indonesia. Randomly selected male HIV-infected prisoners (n = 102) from two large prisons in Jakarta completed in-depth interviews and a structured HIV stigma survey. Quantitative results found four groups of HIV-infected prisoners with significantly higher HIV stigma levels, including those: (a) with drug-related offenses, (b) seeking help to decrease drug use, (c) diagnosed with HIV before the current incarceration, and (d) who had not disclosed their HIV status to family members or friends...
November 2015: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Andrés Marco, José J Antón, Joan Trujols, Pablo Saíz de la Hoya, José de Juan, Inmaculada Faraco, Joan A Caylà
BACKGROUND: The link between infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and personality disorders (PD) has not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of HCV treatment in prisoners with and without PD. METHODS: We performed a prospective multicentre study in inmates from 25 Spanish prisons who had been treated with pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin in 2011. PD diagnosis was based on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
D Wolfe, N Luhmann, M Harris, A Momenghalibaf, E Albers, J Byrne, T Swan
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) achieve adherence to and outcomes from hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment comparable to other patients. Nonetheless, this population has been excluded from treatment by regulation or practice. Approval of safer and more effective oral HCV medicines should offer greater treatment options for PWID, although high medicine prices have led to continued treatment rationing and exclusion in developed countries. In middle-income countries (MICS), treatment is largely unavailable and unaffordable for most PWID...
November 2015: International Journal on Drug Policy
Alexis C Dennis, Clare Barrington, Sayaka Hino, Michele Gould, David Wohl, Carol E Golin
Most HIV-infected inmates leave prison with a suppressed viral load; many, however, become disconnected from care and nonadherent to medications during reentry to community life. In this secondary data analysis of focus groups (n = 6) and in-depth interviews (n = 9) with 46 formerly incarcerated HIV-infected people during reentry, we used an inductive analytic approach to explore the interplay between individual, interpersonal, community, and structural factors and HIV management. Participants described barriers and facilitators to care engagement and adherence at each of these four levels, as well as a milieu of HIV and incarceration-related stigma and discrimination...
September 2015: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Ivan Y Sun, Haishan Luo, Yuning Wu, Wen-Hsu Lin
General strain theory (GST) has been one of the most frequently tested criminological theories. According to GST, strain tends to generate negative emotions, which create pressures for corrective action, such as crime and delinquency. Although GST has received strong empirical support, one under-addressed issue is the lack of diversity in sampling population in assessing the generalizability of the theory. Using survey data collected from 335 incarcerated women in four Chinese prisons, this study examined the impact of strain and negative emotions on the level of female criminality...
May 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Reinhard Eher, Mark E Olver, Isabelle Heurix, Frank Schilling, Martin Rettenberger
A Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-based diagnosis of pedophilia has so far failed to predict sexual reoffense in convicted child molesters, probably because of its broad and unspecific conceptualization. In this study, therefore, we investigated the prognostic value of the subtype exclusive pedophilia and a series of customary risk assessment instruments (SSPI, Static-99, Stable-2007, VRS:SO) and the PCL-R in a sample of prison released pedophilic sexual offenders. First, we examined the convergent validity of risk assessment instruments (N = 261)...
December 2015: Law and Human Behavior
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: AIDS Policy & Law
Steven Belenko, Richard Dembo, Michael Copenhaver, Matthew Hiller, Holly Swan, Carmen Albizu Garcia, Daniel O'Connell, Carrie Oser, Frank Pearson, Jennifer Pankow
With numerous HIV service gaps in prisons and jails, there has been little research on HIV stigma attitudes among correctional staff. Such attitudes may undermine HIV services for inmates at risk of or infected with HIV. This HIV stigma attitudes survey among 218 correctional staff in 32 US facilities (1) provides an overview of staff's stigma attitudes, (2) reports psychometric analyses of domains in Earnshaw and Chaudoir's HIV Stigma Framework (HSF), and (3) explores differences in stigma attitudes among different staff types...
January 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Stine Bjerrum Moeller, Raymond W Novaco, Vivian Heinola-Nielsen, Helle Hougaard
Anger has high prevalence in clinical and forensic settings, and it is associated with aggressive behavior and ward atmosphere on psychiatric units. Dysregulated anger is a clinical problem in Danish mental health care systems, but no anger assessment instruments have been validated in Danish. Because the Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI) has been extensively validated with different clinical populations and lends itself to clinical case formulation, it was selected for translation and evaluation in the present multistudy project...
October 2016: Assessment
Ismael Serrano Gracia, Oscar Deniz Suarez, Gloria Bueno Garcia, Tae-Kyun Kim
Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms...
2015: PloS One
Angela Kelly-Hanku, Thomas Kawage, Andrew Vallely, Agnes Mek, Bradley Mathers
To map the context of HIV in closed settings in Papua New Guinea (PNG), semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 56 prisoners and detainees and 60 key stakeholders. The nature of HIV-related risk differs for detained women and men, and reflects important gender-based issues present in PNG society more broadly. Women in detention are vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation and at greatest risk of HIV while detained in police holding cells, where they are typically supervised by male officers, in contrast to prisons, where they have little contact with male staff...
2015: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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