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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402827/structural-racism-and-health-inequities-in-the-usa-evidence-and-interventions
#1
REVIEW
Zinzi D Bailey, Nancy Krieger, Madina Agénor, Jasmine Graves, Natalia Linos, Mary T Bassett
Despite growing interest in understanding how social factors drive poor health outcomes, many academics, policy makers, scientists, elected officials, journalists, and others responsible for defining and responding to the public discourse remain reluctant to identify racism as a root cause of racial health inequities. In this conceptual report, the third in a Series on equity and equality in health in the USA, we use a contemporary and historical perspective to discuss research and interventions that grapple with the implications of what is known as structural racism on population health and health inequities...
April 8, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394731/media-representation-of-tongxinglian-in-china-a-case-study-of-the-people-s-daily
#2
Yixiong Huang
Over the past few decades, the worldwide lesbian and gay movements have diversified and increased their rights claims. The achievement of gay rights claims in society is the result of an interplay among various social factors and forces. Media is one of most influential players in building homosexual images and promoting mutual understanding. Chinese homosexuals were not treated as "criminals" or "mental illness patients" anymore in 1997 and 2001 respectively after decriminalisation and depathologisation. Thus, this article aims to explore how homosexuals were portrayed in the official media of China, particularly the People's Daily, to illustrate the changing perception of homosexuals in China's political and social spheres...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371726/risk-assessment-tools-in-criminal-justice-and-forensic-psychiatry-the-need-for-better-data
#3
T Douglas, J Pugh, I Singh, J Savulescu, S Fazel
Violence risk assessment tools are increasingly used within criminal justice and forensic psychiatry, however there is little relevant, reliable and unbiased data regarding their predictive accuracy. We argue that such data are needed to (i) prevent excessive reliance on risk assessment scores, (ii) allow matching of different risk assessment tools to different contexts of application, (iii) protect against problematic forms of discrimination and stigmatisation, and (iv) ensure that contentious demographic variables are not prematurely removed from risk assessment tools...
May 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355931/a-brief-measure-of-narcissism-among-female-juvenile-delinquents-and-community-youths
#4
Pedro Pechorro, João Maroco, James V Ray, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Cristina Nunes
Research on narcissism has a long tradition, but there is limited knowledge regarding its application among female youth, especially for forensic samples of incarcerated female youth. Drawing on 377 female adolescents (103 selected from forensic settings and 274 selected from school settings) from Portugal, the current study is the first to examine simultaneously the psychometric properties of a brief version of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-13) among females drawn from incarcerated and community settings...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318335/the-cognitive-affective-and-somatic-empathy-scales-cases-for-children
#5
Adrian Raine, Frances R Chen
Although the assessment of empathy has moved from general empathy to differentiating between cognitive and affective empathy, no instruments have assessed somatic (motor) empathy, and none have separated positive from negative affect empathy. The main objective of this study was to develop a 30-item self-report cognitive, affective, and somatic empathy scale (CASES) with positive and negative affect components for use with children and adolescents. A community sample of 428 male and female 11-year-olds completed the CASES together with validity questionnaires and were assessed on IQ...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282249/health-provider-views-on-improving-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-coastal-kenya
#6
Murugi Micheni, Bernadette K Kombo, Andrew Secor, Jane M Simoni, Don Operario, Elise M van der Elst, Peter Mugo, Jennifer Kanungi, Eduard J Sanders, Susan M Graham
HIV-positive Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM) are a highly stigmatized group facing barriers to care engagement and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Because care providers' views are important in improving outcomes, we sought the perspective of those serving MSM patients on how to optimize ART adherence in a setting where same-sex behavior is criminalized. We conducted 4 focus group discussions with a total of 29 healthcare workers (HCWs) experienced in providing HIV care to MSM. The semistructured, open-ended topic guide used was based on an access-information-motivation-proximal cues model of adherence, with added focus on trust in providers, stigma, and discrimination...
March 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273508/helping-to-distinguish-primary-from-secondary-transfer-events-for-trace-dna
#7
Duncan Taylor, Alex Biedermann, Lydie Samie, Ka-Man Pun, Tacha Hicks, Christophe Champod
DNA is routinely recovered in criminal investigations. The sensitivity of laboratory equipment and DNA profiling kits means that it is possible to generate DNA profiles from very small amounts of cellular material. As a consequence, it has been shown that DNA we detect may not have arisen from a direct contact with an item, but rather through one or more intermediaries. Naturally the questions arising in court, particularly when considering trace DNA, are of how DNA may have come to be on an item. While scientists cannot directly answer this question, forensic biological results can help in discriminating between alleged activities...
February 20, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249201/genome-wide-screening-for-highly-discriminative-snps-for-personal-identification-and-their-assessment-in-world-populations
#8
Liming Li, Yi Wang, Shuping Yang, Mingying Xia, Yajun Yang, Jiucun Wang, Daru Lu, Xingwei Pan, Teng Ma, Pei Jiang, Ge Yu, Ziqin Zhao, Yuan Ping, Huaigu Zhou, Xueying Zhao, Hui Sun, Bing Liu, Dongtao Jia, Chengtao Li, Rile Hu, Hongzhou Lu, Xiaoyang Liu, Wenqing Chen, Qin Mi, Fuzhong Xue, Yongdong Su, Li Jin, Shilin Li
The applications of DNA profiling aim to identify perpetrators, missing family members and disaster victims in forensic investigations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based forensic applications are emerging rapidly with a potential to replace short tandem repeats (STRs) based panels which are now being used widely, and there is a need for a well-designed SNP panel to meet such challenge for this transition. Here we present a panel of 175 SNP markers (referred to as Fudan ID Panel or FID), selected from ∼3...
February 16, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#9
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216766/forensic-psychiatry-in-india-past-present-and-future
#10
REVIEW
S Nambi, Siva Ilango, Lakshmi Prabha
Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry, in which scientific and clinical expertise is applied to legal issues in legal contexts embracing civil, criminal, correctional, or legislative matters. Forensic psychiatry is still in an infant stage in India and other developing countries. Law is the sanctioning discipline, and Psychiatry is the therapeutic discipline. Due to various reasons, Forensic Psychiatry is reared as Cinderella in our country; "which is much neglected, ignored, misinterpreted, and misunderstood...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141835/structural-determinants-of-health-among-im-migrants-in-the-indoor-sex-industry-experiences-of-workers-and-managers-owners-in-metropolitan-vancouver
#11
Shira M Goldenberg, Andrea Krüsi, Emma Zhang, Jill Chettiar, Kate Shannon
BACKGROUND: Globally, im/migrant women are overrepresented in the sex industry and experience disproportionate health inequities. Despite evidence that the health impacts of migration may vary according to the timing and stage of migration (e.g., early arrival vs. long-term migration), limited evidence exists regarding social and structural determinants of health across different stages of migration, especially among im/migrants engaged in sex work. Our aim was to describe and analyze the evolving social and structural determinants of health and safety across the arrival and settlement process for im/migrants in the indoor sex industry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068977/alcohol-management-plans-in-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-indigenous-australian-communities-in-queensland-community-residents-have-experienced-favourable-impacts-but-also-suffered-unfavourable-ones
#12
Alan R Clough, Stephen A Margolis, Adrian Miller, Anthony Shakeshaft, Christopher M Doran, Robyn McDermott, Robert Sanson-Fisher, Valmae Ypinazar, David Martin, Jan A Robertson, Michelle S Fitts, Katrina Bird, Bronwyn Honorato, Simon Towle, Caryn West
BACKGROUND: In Australia, 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) provide the policy infrastructure for State and Commonwealth Governments to address problematic alcohol use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. We report community residents' experiences of AMPs in 10 of Queensland's 15 remote Indigenous communities. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a two-stage sampling strategy: N = 1211; 588 (48%) males, 623 (52%) females aged ≥18 years in 10 communities...
January 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991822/quick-delay-questionnaire-reliability-validity-and-relations-to-functional-impairments-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#13
Lisa B Thorell, Douglas Sjöwall, Gabry W Mies, Anouk Scheres
The Quick Delay Questionnaire (QDQ) is a self-report measure of delay-related behaviors in adults, and the present study aimed at investigating the psychometric properties of QDQ scores, how well they can discriminate between ADHD adults and both clinical and nonclinical controls, as well as their relations to measures of functional impairments. In the present study, QDQ ratings, a laboratory measure of delay discounting, and ratings of functional impairments were collected from adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 51), a clinical control group with other psychiatric disorders (n = 46), and a nonclinical control group (n = 105)...
December 19, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984802/microbial-soil-community-analyses-for-forensic-science-application-to-a-blind-test
#14
Sandrine Demanèche, Leif Schauser, Lorna Dawson, Laure Franqueville, Pascal Simonet
Soil complexity, heterogeneity and transferability make it valuable in forensic investigations to help obtain clues as to the origin of an unknown sample, or to compare samples from a suspect or object with samples collected at a crime scene. In a few countries, soil analysis is used in matters from site verification to estimates of time after death. However, up to date the application or use of soil information in criminal investigations has been limited. In particular, comparing bacterial communities in soil samples could be a useful tool for forensic science...
December 9, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890111/sex-estimation-of-the-tibia-in-modern-turkish-a-computed-tomography-study
#15
Oguzhan Ekizoglu, Ali Er, Mustafa Bozdag, Mustafa Akcaoglu, Ismail Ozgur Can, Julieta G García-Donas, Elena F Kranioti
The utilization of computed tomography is beneficial for the analysis of skeletal remains and it has important advantages for anthropometric studies. The present study investigated morphometry of left tibia using CT images of a contemporary Turkish population. Seven parameters were measured on 203 individuals (124 males and 79 females) within the 19-92-years age group. The first objective of this study was to provide population-specific sex estimation equations for the contemporary Turkish population based on CT images...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854440/experiencing-racial-microaggressions-influences-suicide-ideation-through-perceived-burdensomeness-in-african-americans
#16
David W Hollingsworth, Ashley B Cole, Victoria M O'Keefe, Raymond P Tucker, Chandra R Story, LaRicka R Wingate
Racial microaggressions are a contemporary form of subtle discrimination that occur in everyday exchanges, and are associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes, including suicide ideation. Previous work (e.g., Torres-Harding, Andrade, & Romero Diaz, 2012) has identified 6 dimensions of racial microaggressions: invisibility, criminality, low-achieving/undesirable culture, sexualization, foreigner/not belonging, and environmental invalidations. The current study examined whether the 6 dimensions of racial microaggressions were associated with increased suicide ideation through perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness among 135 African American young adults...
January 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798839/exploratory-factor-analysis-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-sexual-coercion-inventory
#17
Bryana H French, Han Na Suh, Brooke Arterberry
The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Sexual Coercion Inventory (SCI; Waldner, Vaden-Goad, & Sikka, 1999), revised by the authors (SCI-R). Overall, 514 high school and college students from a Midwestern state completed the SCI-R. To complete the SCI-R, high school participants completed paper-pencil surveys with those younger than 18 obtaining parental consent; college students older than 18 completed computer-based and paper-pencil surveys. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses were conducted to examine the validity of score interpretation and reliability of scores for the measure...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753117/the-view-from-inside-the-system-how-police-explain-their-response-to-sexual-assault
#18
Jessica Shaw, Rebecca Campbell, Debi Cain
Prior research has documented the problematic community response to sexual assault: the majority of sexual assaults reported to police are never prosecuted. Social dominance theory suggests that this response is a form of institutional discrimination, intended to maintain existing social structures, and that police personnel likely draw upon shared ideologies to justify their decision-making in sexual assault case investigations. This study drew upon social dominance theory to examine how police justified their investigatory decisions to identify potential leverage points for change...
December 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708178/pattern-recognition-assisted-infrared-library-searching-of-the-paint-data-query-database-to-enhance-lead-information-from-automotive-paint-trace-evidence
#19
Barry K Lavine, Collin G White, Matthew D Allen, Andrew Weakley
Multilayered automotive paint fragments, which are one of the most complex materials encountered in the forensic science laboratory, provide crucial links in criminal investigations and prosecutions. To determine the origin of these paint fragments, forensic automotive paint examiners have turned to the paint data query (PDQ) database, which allows the forensic examiner to compare the layer sequence and color, texture, and composition of the sample to paint systems of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM)...
March 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692615/tardily-accelerated-neurologic-deterioration-in-two-step-thallium-intoxication
#20
Hiroshi Kuroda, Yoshiyuki Mukai, Shuhei Nishiyama, Takayuki Takeshita, Maki Tateyama, Atsushi Takeda, Masashi Aoki
Thallium intoxication was reported in cases with accidental ingestion, suicide attempt, and criminal adulteration. Reported cases were mostly one-time ingestion, therefore, the clinical course of divisional ingestion has not been fully known. Here, we report a case with two-step thallium intoxication manifesting as tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration. A 16-year-old adolescent was cryptically poisoned with thallium sulfate twice at an interval of 52days. After the first ingestion, neurologic symptoms including visual loss, myalgia, and weakness in legs developed about 40days after the development of acute gastrointestinal symptoms and alopecia...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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