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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746285/colourism-a-global-adolescent-health-concern
#1
Nadia Craddock, Ncoza Dlova, Phillippa C Diedrichs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colourism, a form of prejudice and discrimination based solely upon skin colour, stands to jeopardize the physical health, wellbeing and life chances of adolescents of colour, globally. RECENT FINDINGS: Research shows that adolescents can experience colourism at school and college, in the criminal justice system, at work and in the media they consume. It is therefore unsurprising that adolescents of colour often express a desire for lighter skin tones and/or are dissatisfied with their skin tone...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728877/infertilitism-unjustified-discrimination-of-assisted-reproduction-patients
#2
Ryan Tonkens
Current law in Victoria, Australia requires that all prospective assisted reproduction patients provide a criminal background check and child protection order check prior to being eligible for treatment. These presumptions against treatment stipulated in the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act ( http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/domino/web_notes/ldms/pubstatbook.nsf/f932b66241ecf1b7ca256e92000e23be/3ADFC9FBA2C0F526CA25751C0020E494/$FILE/08-076a.pdf , 2008) are discriminatory against all people that are infertile...
May 4, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728767/the-forensic-value-of-x-linked-markers-in-mixed-male-dna-analysis
#3
HaiJun He, Lagabaiyila Zha, JinHong Cai, Jian Huang
Autosomal genetic markers and Y chromosome markers have been widely applied in analysis of mixed stains at crime scenes by forensic scientists. However, true genotype combinations are often difficult to distinguish using autosomal markers when similar amounts of DNA are contributed by multiple donors. In addition, specific individuals cannot be determined by Y chromosomal markers because male relatives share the same Y chromosome. X-linked markers, possessing characteristics somewhere intermediate between autosomes and the Y chromosome, are less universally applied in criminal casework...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587256/protein-biomarkers-in-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Alexander V Karaulov, Victoria Garib, Firuz Garib, Rudolf Valenta
Asthma is a chronic disabling respiratory disease that can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, respiratory infections, psychological factors, occupational agents, exercise, atmospheric pollutants, and drugs. The asthma syndrome has been treated for decades according to a "one-fits-all" treatment strategy based on bronchodilators and steroids. With the availability of new forms of treatment targeting the different pathomechanisms of the asthma syndrome, such as anti-immunoglobulin E and cytokine-targeting therapies, the interest in biomarkers that can dis criminate different forms of asthma according to their pathomechanisms has increased...
2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584521/policy-and-legal-protection-for-breastfeeding-and-incarcerated-women-in-canada
#5
Martha Jane Paynter
Most incarcerated women in Canada are mothers. Because women are the fastest growing population in carceral facilities, protecting the rights of incarcerated women to breastfeed their children is increasingly important. There is considerable evidence that incarcerated women in Canada experience poor physical and mental health, isolation, and barriers to care. Incarcerated women and their children could benefit significantly from breastfeeding. This Insight in Policy explores policy and legal protection for breastfeeding in Canada as it relates to carceral facilities, considers key cases regarding breastfeeding rights among incarcerated women, and presents recommendations for policy development and advocacy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579379/an-mrm-tandem-mass-spectrometry-approach-for-the-identification-of-biological-fluids-on-crime-scene-investigations
#6
Anna Illiano, Valentina Arpino, Gabriella Pinto, Andrea Berti, Vincenzo Verdoliva, Giuseppe Peluso, Pietro Pucci, Angela Amoresano
Knowledge of the nature of biofluids at a crime scene is just as important as DNA test to link the nature of the biofluid, the criminal act and the dynamics of the crime. Identification of methods currently used for each biological fluid (blood, semen, saliva, urine) suffer from several limitations including instability of assayed biomolecules, and low selectivity and specificity; as an example of the latter issue, it is not possible to discriminate between alpha-amylase 1 (present in saliva) and alpha-amylase 2 (present in semen and vaginal secretion...
March 26, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552376/everyday-discrimination-among-african-american-men-the-impact-of-criminal-justice-contact
#7
Robert Joseph Taylor, Reuben Miller, Dawne Mouzon, Verna M Keith, Linda M Chatters
The present study examined the impact of criminal justice contact on experiences of everyday discrimination among a national sample of African American men. African American men have a high likelihood of being targets of major discrimination, as well as experiencing disproportionate contact with the criminal justice system. Few studies, however, examine everyday discrimination (e.g., commonplace social encounters of unfair treatment) among this group. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, we provide a descriptive assessment of different types of everyday discrimination among African American men...
2018: Race and Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512033/assessement-of-awareness-of-concerns-and-attitudes-towards-hiv-related-court-case-sentences-in-france-in-a-representative-sample-of-people-living-with-hiv-anrs-vespa2-survey
#8
Marie Suzan-Monti, Michel Celse, Antoine Vilotitch, Baptiste Demoulin, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Patrick Yéni, France Lert, Bruno Spire
Some of the 12 criminal trials and sentences in France for HIV transmission in 1998-2011 attracted substantial public attention, with a possible negative impact on people living with HIV (PLWH) through reinforced stigma and discrimination. This analysis aimed to characterize PLWH enrolled in the representative ANRS-VESPA2 survey, aware of and concerned about convictions for HIV transmission. Being a migrant from Sub-Saharan Africa, having difficult socio-economic conditions, having unprotected sex with one's main partner and concealing one's HIV status were all factors statistically associated with concern about the sentences...
March 6, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446331/the-case-for-severe-mental-illness-as-a-disparities-category
#9
Matthew L Goldman, Brigitta Spaeth-Rublee, Harold Alan Pincus
Extensive evidence documents that people with severe mental illness have higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared with the general population and receive lower-quality and higher-cost health care. These trends, at least in part, stem from discrimination, exclusion, widespread stigma, and criminalization of individuals with mental illness. As such, severe mental illness should receive formal, national recognition as a disparities category. Such a designation would have multiple important implications in health policy, services and quality research, and advocacy...
February 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439939/need-for-gender-sensitive-health-system-responses-to-violence-against-women-and-children
#10
Adsa Fatima, Aarthi Chandrasekhar, Amita Pitre
Five years since Nirbhaya, and nearly as long since the Justice Verma Committee Report, amendments to the Criminal Law Amendment Act 2013, and the National guidelines and protocols on medico-legal care for survivors of sexual violence by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) 2014, we, concerned individuals, women's groups, health organisations, ethicists, and academicians, urgently demand the attention of the central and state governments - to the continuing injustice, violations and discrimination against survivors of gender-based violence (GBV)...
January 18, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428895/analysis-of-laser-printer-and-photocopier-toners-by-spectral-properties-and-chemometrics
#11
Neha Verma, Raj Kumar, Vishal Sharma
The use of printers to generate falsified documents has become a common practice in today's world. The examination and identification of the printed matter in the suspected documents (civil or criminal cases) may provide important information about the authenticity of the document. In the present study, a total number of 100 black toner samples both from laser printers and photocopiers were examined using diffuse reflectance UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The present research is divided into two parts; visual discrimination and discrimination by using multivariate analysis...
May 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423711/a-protocol-for-obtaining-dna-barcodes-from-plant-and-insect-fragments-isolated-from-forensic-type-soils
#12
Kelly A Meiklejohn, Megan L Jackson, Libby A Stern, James M Robertson
Soil is often collected from a suspect's tire, vehicle, or shoes during a criminal investigation and subsequently submitted to a forensic laboratory for analysis. Plant and insect material recovered in such samples is rarely analyzed, as morphological identification is difficult. In this study, DNA barcoding was used for taxonomic identifications by targeting the gene regions known to permit discrimination in plants [maturase K (matK) and ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (rbcL)] and insects [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI)]...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389161/the-role-of-estimator-variables-in-eyewitness-identification
#13
Carolyn Semmler, John Dunn, Laura Mickes, John T Wixted
Estimator variables are factors that can affect the accuracy of eyewitness identifications but that are outside of the control of the criminal justice system. Examples include (1) the duration of exposure to the perpetrator, (2) the passage of time between the crime and the identification (retention interval), (3) the distance between the witness and the perpetrator at the time of the crime. Suboptimal estimator variables (e.g., long distance) have long been thought to reduce the reliability of eyewitness identifications (IDs), but recent evidence suggests that this is not true of IDs made with high confidence and may or may not be true of IDs made with lower confidence...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332696/a-comparison-of-plastic-cable-ties-based-on-physical-chemical-and-stable-isotopic-measurements
#14
Lisa M Nienaber, Sarah L Cresswell, James F Carter, Tony Peter
Plastic cable ties can be utilised in a range of serious criminal activities and a comparison of cable ties, or fragments, may form part of the physical evidence presented to a Court of law. This research assessed the potential value of evidence based on the analysis of plastic cable ties. Twenty packets of black coloured plastic cable ties (nominally 200mm×4.8mm) were purchased in pack sizes ranging from 25 to 100 individual cable ties (Brisbane, Australia, March 2015). Representative samples from each packet were visually examined, compared and tested to determine their physical dimensions, chemical compositions and stable isotopic compositions (δ2 H, δ13 C and δ15 N)...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332431/validation-of-the-ceredigion-youth-screening-tool
#15
Gareth Norris, Gwyn Griffith, Megan West
Evidence suggests that only a small minority of youth offenders will continue their behaviour in the longer term and largely independent of any interventions they may receive (Bateman, 2011; Haines & Case, 2015). Hence, "screening out" this larger low-risk cohort could have a positive impact upon the individual through a reduction in stigmatisation/labelling and free up resources for higher risk clients. This article outlines development of the Ceredigion Youth Screening Tool (CYSTEM)-developed and tested to address the two facets of criminality and vulnerability-closely aligned to the eight key risk indicators identified in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (R-N-R) literature (Andrews & Bonta, 2010)...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279896/association-of-childhood-blood-lead-levels-with-criminal-offending
#16
Amber L Beckley, Avshalom Caspi, Jonathan Broadbent, Honalee Harrington, Renate M Houts, Richie Poulton, Sandhya Ramrakha, Aaron Reuben, Terrie E Moffitt
Importance: Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure and criminal offending. Objective: To test the hypothesis that a higher childhood blood lead level (BLL) is associated with greater risk of criminal conviction, recidivism (repeat conviction), conviction for violent offenses, and variety of self-reported criminal offending in a setting where BLL was not associated with low socioeconomic status...
February 1, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278823/the-relationship-between-cross-sectional-shapes-and-ftir-profiles-in-synthetic-wig-fibers-and-their-discriminating-abilities-an-evidential-value-perspective
#17
Theresa A Joslin Yogi, Michael Penrod, Melinda Holt, Patrick Buzzini
Wig fragments or fibers may occasionally be recognized as potential physical evidence during criminal investigations. While analytical methods traditionally adopted for the examination of textile fibers are utilized for the characterizations and comparisons of wig specimens, it is essential to understand in deeper detail the valuable contribution of features of these non-routine evidentiary materials as well as the relationship of the gathered analytical data. This study explores the dependence between the microscopic features of cross-sectional shapes and the polymer type gathered by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
February 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216969/legal-issues-for-transgender-people-a-review-of-persistent-threats
#18
Jamison Green
Background The legal status of transgender (trans) people is in constant flux. Over the past 70 years, gradually increasing transgender visibility, national and global advocacy, and, more recently, widespread Internet access, communication, and broadening support from allies, have all contributed to successful campaigns that have improved transgender lives and legitimised transgender. Still, traumatic interactions with the legal system or policing agencies remain plentiful. This is a very general overview of the most common legal issues confronting trans people...
October 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213302/a-comprehensive-review-of-hiv-sti-prevention-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-services-among-sex-workers-in-conflict-affected-settings-call-for-an-evidence-and-rights-based-approach-in-the-humanitarian-response
#19
REVIEW
Alyssa Ferguson, Kate Shannon, Jennifer Butler, Shira M Goldenberg
Background: While the conditions in emergency humanitarian and conflict-affected settings often result in significant sex work economies, there is limited information on the social and structural conditions of sex work in these settings, and the impacts on HIV/STI prevention and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for sex workers. Our objective was to comprehensively review existing evidence on HIV/STI prevention and access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings globally...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200395/-the-future-of-forensic-dna-analysis-for-criminal-justice
#20
François-Xavier Laurent, Geoffrey Vibrac, Aurélien Rubio, Marie-Thérèse Thévenot, Laurent Pène
In the criminal framework, the analysis of approximately 20 DNA microsatellites enables the establishment of a genetic profile with a high statistical power of discrimination. This technique gives us the possibility to establish or exclude a match between a biological trace detected at a crime scene and a suspect whose DNA was collected via an oral swab. However, conventional techniques do tend to complexify the interpretation of complex DNA samples, such as degraded DNA and mixture DNA. The aim of this review is to highlight the powerness of new forensic DNA methods (including high-throughput sequencing or single-cell sequencing) to facilitate the interpretation of the expert with full compliance with existing french legislation...
November 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
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