Read by QxMD icon Read

discrimination criminals

Jessica Shaw, Rebecca Campbell, Debi Cain
Prior research has documented the problematic community response to sexual assault: the majority of sexual assaults reported to police are never prosecuted. Social dominance theory suggests that this response is a form of institutional discrimination, intended to maintain existing social structures, and that police personnel likely draw upon shared ideologies to justify their decision-making in sexual assault case investigations. This study drew upon social dominance theory to examine how police justified their investigatory decisions to identify potential leverage points for change...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
Barry K Lavine, Collin G White, Matthew D Allen, Andrew Weakley
Multilayered automotive paint fragments, which are one of the most complex materials encountered in the forensic science laboratory, provide crucial links in criminal investigations and prosecutions. To determine the origin of these paint fragments, forensic automotive paint examiners have turned to the paint data query (PDQ) database, which allows the forensic examiner to compare the layer sequence and color, texture, and composition of the sample to paint systems of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM)...
October 5, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Hiroshi Kuroda, Yoshiyuki Mukai, Shuhei Nishiyama, Takayuki Takeshita, Maki Tateyama, Atsushi Takeda, Masashi Aoki
Thallium intoxication was reported in cases with accidental ingestion, suicide attempt, and criminal adulteration. Reported cases were mostly one-time ingestion, therefore, the clinical course of divisional ingestion has not been fully known. Here, we report a case with two-step thallium intoxication manifesting as tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration. A 16-year-old adolescent was cryptically poisoned with thallium sulfate twice at an interval of 52days. After the first ingestion, neurologic symptoms including visual loss, myalgia, and weakness in legs developed about 40days after the development of acute gastrointestinal symptoms and alopecia...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Quinn Capers, Daniel Clinchot, Leon McDougle, Anthony G Greenwald
PROBLEM: Implicit white race preference has been associated with discrimination in the education, criminal justice, and health care systems and could impede the entry of African Americans into the medical profession, where they and other minorities remain underrepresented. Little is known about implicit racial bias in medical school admissions committees. APPROACH: To measure implicit racial bias, all 140 members of the Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSUCOM) admissions committee took the black-white implicit association test (IAT) prior to the 2012-2013 cycle...
September 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Jennifer Skeem, John Monahan, Christopher Lowenkamp
Increasingly, jurisdictions across the United States are using risk assessment instruments to scaffold efforts to unwind mass incarceration without compromising public safety. Despite promising results, critics oppose the use of these instruments to inform sentencing and correctional decisions. One argument is that the use of instruments that include gender as a risk factor will discriminate against men in sanctioning. On the basis of a sample of 14,310 federal offenders, we empirically test the predictive fairness of an instrument that omits gender, the Post Conviction Risk Assessment (PCRA)...
October 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Aja Louise Murray, Manuel Eisner, Denis Ribeaud
Violent ideations (VIs) have potential significance across clinical, forensic, and research contexts. They feature in dominant theories of violence, are a candidate risk factor in violence prediction, and are a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Given this, there is a need for multi-item psychometrically supported measures of VIs. We report on the development and validation of the "Violent Ideations Scale" (VIS): a brief measure of VIs. In a normative sample of N = 1,276 older adolescents, we evaluated the dimensionality, sex invariance, concurrent validity, and discriminative power of the VIS...
September 1, 2016: Assessment
Alan R Clough, Stephen A Margolis, Adrian Miller, Anthony Shakeshaft, Christopher M Doran, Robyn McDermott, Rob Sanson-Fisher, Simon Towle, David Martin, Valmae Ypinazar, Jan A Robertson, Michelle S Fitts, Katrina Bird, Bronwyn Honorato, Caryn West
BACKGROUND: Favourable impacts are reported from complex alcohol control strategies, known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) implemented 14 years ago in 19 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) communities in Queensland (Australia). However, it is not clear that all communities benefited and that positive impacts were sustained. Service providers, key stakeholders and community leaders provided insights about issues and impacts. METHODS: Participants (N=382) were recruited from knowledgeable and experienced persons using agency lists and by recommendation across sectors which have a mandate for managing alcohol-related issues and consequences of AMP policies in communities...
October 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Stephania L Hayes, Steven P Segal
Many are apprehensive about mental health care, which potentially affects engagement in recovery processes as well as health outcomes. This article introduces a tool to assess fear of adverse mental health treatment experiences from the client's perspective. In a sample of 656 adults receiving mental health services at community agencies, this study is an initial exploration into the validity of a scale assessing fears associated with commonly experienced coercive or disorganized interventions. Factor analyses supported the construct validity of the 10-item Fear of Adverse Treatment Experiences Scale...
July 21, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Leonard S Rubenstein, Joseph J Amon, Megan McLemore, Patrick Eba, Kate Dolan, Rick Lines, Chris Beyrer
Worldwide, a disproportionate burden of HIV, tuberculosis, and hepatitis is present among current and former prisoners. This problem results from laws, policies, and policing practices that unjustly and discriminatorily detain individuals and fail to ensure continuity of prevention, care, and treatment upon detention, throughout imprisonment, and upon release. These government actions, and the failure to ensure humane prison conditions, constitute violations of human rights to be free of discrimination and cruel and inhuman treatment, to due process of law, and to health...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
Jacqueline A Speir, Nicole Richetelli, Michael Fagert, Michael Hite, William J Bodziak
Footwear evidence has tremendous forensic value; it can focus a criminal investigation, link suspects to scenes, help reconstruct a series of events, or otherwise provide information vital to the successful resolution of a case. When considering the specific utility of a linkage, the strength of the connection between source footwear and an impression left at the scene of a crime varies with the known rarity of the shoeprint itself, which is a function of the class characteristics, as well as the complexity, clarity, and quality of randomly acquired characteristics (RACs) available for analysis...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
J Craig Phillips, Jean-Laurent Domingue, Mary Petty, Michael A Coker, Terry Howard, Shari Margolese
HIV-related criminal laws in some jurisdictions may hamper population health efforts to manage HIV and bring about an AIDS-free generation. HIV care nurses have an instrumental role to play in ensuring equitable care and health for all in a context of HIV. The purpose of our study was to determine HIV care nurses' knowledge of HIV-related criminal laws. Ecosocial theory and content expert opinion guided development of a questionnaire to assess nurses' knowledge of HIV-related criminal laws. A total of 174 HIV care nurses from Canada (n = 23) and the United States (n = 151) completed the questionnaire...
June 11, 2016: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Georgia Koukiou, Vassilis Anastassopoulos
Temperature distribution on the eyes of drunk persons is studied by means of thermal infrared images. The sclera and the iris are of the same temperature for the sober person, while for the intoxicated person, the sclera temperature increases. Consequently, only the thermal images from the drunk persons are necessary for intoxication screening. Forty-one participants drank in a controlled alcohol consumption procedure. Their breath alcohol concentration was above the threshold of 0.2 mg/L of exhaled air, which corresponds to about 0...
January 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
L Ugena, S Moncayo, S Manzoor, D Rosales, J O Cáceres
The detection of adulteration of fuels and its use in criminal scenes like arson has a high interest in forensic investigations. In this work, a method based on gas chromatography (GC) and neural networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the identification and discrimination of brands of fuels such as gasoline and diesel without the necessity to determine the composition of the samples. The study included five main brands of fuels from Spain, collected from fifteen different local petrol stations. The methodology allowed the identification of the gasoline and diesel brands with a high accuracy close to 100%, without any false positives or false negatives...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Nakia Lee-Foon, Shannon Ryan, Hope Ramsay
BACKGROUND: Stigma and discrimination harm the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and contribute to migration from contexts of sexual persecution and criminalization. Yet LGBT newcomers and refugees often face marginalization and struggles meeting the social determinants of health (SDOH) following immigration to countries such as Canada. Social isolation is a key social determinant of health that may play a significant role in shaping health disparities among LGBT newcomers and refugees...
2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Murat Serdar Gurses, Nursel Turkmen Inanir, Gokhan Gokalp, Recep Fedakar, Eren Tobcu, Gokhan Ocakoglu
Forensic age estimation, a recent topic of research in forensic medicine, is of primary importance to criminal and civil law. Previous studies indicate that the observation of medial clavicular ossification allows for age discrimination along the completed 18th and 21st years of life. Experts recommend that the Schmeling and Kellinghaus methods be used together. In this study, we used these staging methods to retrospectively analyze 725 case studies (385 males, 340 females) of thin-slice computed tomography (CT) images, ranging from 0...
September 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Norma Iris Caraballo, Julian Mendel, Howard Holness, Joel La Salvia, Tina Moroose, Brian Eckenrode, Rex Stockham, Kenneth Furton, DeEtta Mills
In criminal investigations, the collection of human scent often employs a non-contact, dynamic airflow device, known as the Scent Transfer Unit 100 (STU-100), to transfer volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an object/person onto a collection material that is subsequently presented to human scent discriminating canines. Human scent is theorized to be linked to epithelial skin cells that are shed at a relatively constant rate allowing both scent and cellular material to be deposited into the environment and/or onto objects...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Muzhen Guan, Xiaojing Li, Wei Xiao, Danmin Miao, Xufeng Liu
The present study explored implicit and explicit attitudes toward violence in crimes of passion. Criminals (n = 96) who had perpetrated crimes of passion and students (n = 100) participated in this study. Explicit attitudes toward violence were evaluated using the Abnormal Personality Risk Inventory (APRI), and implicit attitude toward violence was evaluated using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Results indicated that APRI scores of the perpetrators were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < ...
May 30, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Pamela Valera, Javier F Boyas, Camila Bernal, Victoria Briones Chiongbian, Yvonne Chang, Rachel C Shelton
While there is a growing body of literature on medical mistrust and its relevance to public health, research on formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men and their perception of mistrust toward medical providers and medical institutions remains scant. Very little is known about whether formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men mistrust medical and clinical providers given their previous experiences with the criminal justice system. It is important to determine whether medical mistrust play a key role in the health and health behaviors of released Black and Latino men...
May 4, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
Joana Antunes, Deborah S B S Silva, Kuppareddi Balamurugan, George Duncan, Clarice S Alho, Bruce McCord
The accurate identification of body fluids from crime scenes can aid in the discrimination between criminal and innocent intent. This research aimed to determine if the levels of DNA methylation in the locus PFN3A could be used to discriminate vaginal epithelia from other body fluids. In this work we bisulfite-modified and amplified DNA samples from blood, saliva, semen and vaginal epithelia using primers for PFN3A. Through pyrosequencing we were able to show that vaginal epithelia present distinct methylation levels when compared to other body fluids...
May 13, 2016: Electrophoresis
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"