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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141835/structural-determinants-of-health-among-im-migrants-in-the-indoor-sex-industry-experiences-of-workers-and-managers-owners-in-metropolitan-vancouver
#1
Shira M Goldenberg, Andrea Krüsi, Emma Zhang, Jill Chettiar, Kate Shannon
BACKGROUND: Globally, im/migrant women are overrepresented in the sex industry and experience disproportionate health inequities. Despite evidence that the health impacts of migration may vary according to the timing and stage of migration (e.g., early arrival vs. long-term migration), limited evidence exists regarding social and structural determinants of health across different stages of migration, especially among im/migrants engaged in sex work. Our aim was to describe and analyze the evolving social and structural determinants of health and safety across the arrival and settlement process for im/migrants in the indoor sex industry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068977/alcohol-management-plans-in-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-indigenous-australian-communities-in-queensland-community-residents-have-experienced-favourable-impacts-but-also-suffered-unfavourable-ones
#2
Alan R Clough, Stephen A Margolis, Adrian Miller, Anthony Shakeshaft, Christopher M Doran, Robyn McDermott, Robert Sanson-Fisher, Valmae Ypinazar, David Martin, Jan A Robertson, Michelle S Fitts, Katrina Bird, Bronwyn Honorato, Simon Towle, Caryn West
BACKGROUND: In Australia, 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) provide the policy infrastructure for State and Commonwealth Governments to address problematic alcohol use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. We report community residents' experiences of AMPs in 10 of Queensland's 15 remote Indigenous communities. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a two-stage sampling strategy: N = 1211; 588 (48%) males, 623 (52%) females aged ≥18 years in 10 communities...
January 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991822/quick-delay-questionnaire-reliability-validity-and-relations-to-functional-impairments-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#3
Lisa B Thorell, Douglas Sjöwall, Gabry W Mies, Anouk Scheres
The Quick Delay Questionnaire (QDQ) is a self-report measure of delay-related behaviors in adults, and the present study aimed at investigating the psychometric properties of QDQ scores, how well they can discriminate between ADHD adults and both clinical and nonclinical controls, as well as their relations to measures of functional impairments. In the present study, QDQ ratings, a laboratory measure of delay discounting, and ratings of functional impairments were collected from adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 51), a clinical control group with other psychiatric disorders (n = 46), and a nonclinical control group (n = 105)...
December 19, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984802/microbial-soil-community-analyses-for-forensic-science-application-to-a-blind-test
#4
Sandrine Demanèche, Leif Schauser, Lorna Dawson, Laure Franqueville, Pascal Simonet
Soil complexity, heterogeneity and transferability make it valuable in forensic investigations to help obtain clues as to the origin of an unknown sample, or to compare samples from a suspect or object with samples collected at a crime scene. In a few countries, soil analysis is used in matters from site verification to estimates of time after death. However, up to date the application or use of soil information in criminal investigations has been limited. In particular, comparing bacterial communities in soil samples could be a useful tool for forensic science...
December 9, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890111/sex-estimation-of-the-tibia-in-modern-turkish-a-computed-tomography-study
#5
Oguzhan Ekizoglu, Ali Er, Mustafa Bozdag, Mustafa Akcaoglu, Ismail Ozgur Can, Julieta G García-Donas, Elena F Kranioti
The utilization of computed tomography is beneficial for the analysis of skeletal remains and it has important advantages for anthropometric studies. The present study investigated morphometry of left tibia using CT images of a contemporary Turkish population. Seven parameters were measured on 203 individuals (124 males and 79 females) within the 19-92-years age group. The first objective of this study was to provide population-specific sex estimation equations for the contemporary Turkish population based on CT images...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854440/experiencing-racial-microaggressions-influences-suicide-ideation-through-perceived-burdensomeness-in-african-americans
#6
David W Hollingsworth, Ashley B Cole, Victoria M O'Keefe, Raymond P Tucker, Chandra R Story, LaRicka R Wingate
Racial microaggressions are a contemporary form of subtle discrimination that occur in everyday exchanges, and are associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes, including suicide ideation. Previous work (e.g., Torres-Harding, Andrade, & Romero Diaz, 2012) has identified 6 dimensions of racial microaggressions: invisibility, criminality, low-achieving/undesirable culture, sexualization, foreigner/not belonging, and environmental invalidations. The current study examined whether the 6 dimensions of racial microaggressions were associated with increased suicide ideation through perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness among 135 African American young adults...
January 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798839/exploratory-factor-analysis-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-sexual-coercion-inventory
#7
Bryana H French, Han Na Suh, Brooke Arterberry
The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Sexual Coercion Inventory (SCI; Waldner, Vaden-Goad, & Sikka, 1999), revised by the authors (SCI-R). Overall, 514 high school and college students from a Midwestern state completed the SCI-R. To complete the SCI-R, high school participants completed paper-pencil surveys with those younger than 18 obtaining parental consent; college students older than 18 completed computer-based and paper-pencil surveys. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses were conducted to examine the validity of score interpretation and reliability of scores for the measure...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753117/the-view-from-inside-the-system-how-police-explain-their-response-to-sexual-assault
#8
Jessica Shaw, Rebecca Campbell, Debi Cain
Prior research has documented the problematic community response to sexual assault: the majority of sexual assaults reported to police are never prosecuted. Social dominance theory suggests that this response is a form of institutional discrimination, intended to maintain existing social structures, and that police personnel likely draw upon shared ideologies to justify their decision-making in sexual assault case investigations. This study drew upon social dominance theory to examine how police justified their investigatory decisions to identify potential leverage points for change...
December 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708178/pattern-recognition-assisted-infrared-library-searching-of-the-paint-data-query-database-to-enhance-lead-information-from-automotive-paint-trace-evidence
#9
Barry K Lavine, Collin G White, Matthew D Allen, Andrew Weakley
Multilayered automotive paint fragments, which are one of the most complex materials encountered in the forensic science laboratory, provide crucial links in criminal investigations and prosecutions. To determine the origin of these paint fragments, forensic automotive paint examiners have turned to the paint data query (PDQ) database, which allows the forensic examiner to compare the layer sequence and color, texture, and composition of the sample to paint systems of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM)...
October 5, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692615/tardily-accelerated-neurologic-deterioration-in-two-step-thallium-intoxication
#10
Hiroshi Kuroda, Yoshiyuki Mukai, Shuhei Nishiyama, Takayuki Takeshita, Maki Tateyama, Atsushi Takeda, Masashi Aoki
Thallium intoxication was reported in cases with accidental ingestion, suicide attempt, and criminal adulteration. Reported cases were mostly one-time ingestion, therefore, the clinical course of divisional ingestion has not been fully known. Here, we report a case with two-step thallium intoxication manifesting as tardily accelerated neurologic deterioration. A 16-year-old adolescent was cryptically poisoned with thallium sulfate twice at an interval of 52days. After the first ingestion, neurologic symptoms including visual loss, myalgia, and weakness in legs developed about 40days after the development of acute gastrointestinal symptoms and alopecia...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680316/implicit-racial-bias-in-medical-school-admissions
#11
Quinn Capers, Daniel Clinchot, Leon McDougle, Anthony G Greenwald
PROBLEM: Implicit white race preference has been associated with discrimination in the education, criminal justice, and health care systems and could impede the entry of African Americans into the medical profession, where they and other minorities remain underrepresented. Little is known about implicit racial bias in medical school admissions committees. APPROACH: To measure implicit racial bias, all 140 members of the Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSUCOM) admissions committee took the black-white implicit association test (IAT) prior to the 2012-2013 cycle...
September 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662886/heightened-early-attentional-stimulus-orienting-and-impulsive-action-in-men-with-antisocial-personality-disorder
#12
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598563/gender-risk-assessment-and-sanctioning-the-cost-of-treating-women-like-men
#13
Jennifer Skeem, John Monahan, Christopher Lowenkamp
Increasingly, jurisdictions across the United States are using risk assessment instruments to scaffold efforts to unwind mass incarceration without compromising public safety. Despite promising results, critics oppose the use of these instruments to inform sentencing and correctional decisions. One argument is that the use of instruments that include gender as a risk factor will discriminate against men in sanctioning. On the basis of a sample of 14,310 federal offenders, we empirically test the predictive fairness of an instrument that omits gender, the Post Conviction Risk Assessment (PCRA)...
October 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586687/development-and-validation-of-a-brief-measure-of-violent-thoughts-the-violent-ideations-scale-vis
#14
Aja Louise Murray, Manuel Eisner, Denis Ribeaud
Violent ideations (VIs) have potential significance across clinical, forensic, and research contexts. They feature in dominant theories of violence, are a candidate risk factor in violence prediction, and are a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Given this, there is a need for multi-item psychometrically supported measures of VIs. We report on the development and validation of the "Violent Ideations Scale" (VIS): a brief measure of VIs. In a normative sample of N = 1,276 older adolescents, we evaluated the dimensionality, sex invariance, concurrent validity, and discriminative power of the VIS...
September 1, 2016: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518836/alcohol-control-policies-in-indigenous-communities-a-qualitative-study-of-the-perceptions-of-their-effectiveness-among-service-providers-stakeholders-and-community-leaders-in-queensland-australia
#15
Alan R Clough, Stephen A Margolis, Adrian Miller, Anthony Shakeshaft, Christopher M Doran, Robyn McDermott, Rob Sanson-Fisher, Simon Towle, David Martin, Valmae Ypinazar, Jan A Robertson, Michelle S Fitts, Katrina Bird, Bronwyn Honorato, Caryn West
BACKGROUND: Favourable impacts are reported from complex alcohol control strategies, known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) implemented 14 years ago in 19 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) communities in Queensland (Australia). However, it is not clear that all communities benefited and that positive impacts were sustained. Service providers, key stakeholders and community leaders provided insights about issues and impacts. METHODS: Participants (N=382) were recruited from knowledgeable and experienced persons using agency lists and by recommendation across sectors which have a mandate for managing alcohol-related issues and consequences of AMP policies in communities...
October 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442625/fear-of-adverse-mental-health-treatment-experiences-initial-psychometric-properties-of-a-brief-self-report-measure
#16
Stephania L Hayes, Steven P Segal
Many are apprehensive about mental health care, which potentially affects engagement in recovery processes as well as health outcomes. This article introduces a tool to assess fear of adverse mental health treatment experiences from the client's perspective. In a sample of 656 adults receiving mental health services at community agencies, this study is an initial exploration into the validity of a scale assessing fears associated with commonly experienced coercive or disorganized interventions. Factor analyses supported the construct validity of the 10-item Fear of Adverse Treatment Experiences Scale...
July 21, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427457/hiv-prisoners-and-human-rights
#17
REVIEW
Leonard S Rubenstein, Joseph J Amon, Megan McLemore, Patrick Eba, Kate Dolan, Rick Lines, Chris Beyrer
Worldwide, a disproportionate burden of HIV, tuberculosis, and hepatitis is present among current and former prisoners. This problem results from laws, policies, and policing practices that unjustly and discriminatorily detain individuals and fail to ensure continuity of prevention, care, and treatment upon detention, throughout imprisonment, and upon release. These government actions, and the failure to ensure humane prison conditions, constitute violations of human rights to be free of discrimination and cruel and inhuman treatment, to due process of law, and to health...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416269/quantifying-randomly-acquired-characteristics-on-outsoles-in-terms-of-shape-and-position
#18
Jacqueline A Speir, Nicole Richetelli, Michael Fagert, Michael Hite, William J Bodziak
Footwear evidence has tremendous forensic value; it can focus a criminal investigation, link suspects to scenes, help reconstruct a series of events, or otherwise provide information vital to the successful resolution of a case. When considering the specific utility of a linkage, the strength of the connection between source footwear and an impression left at the scene of a crime varies with the known rarity of the shoeprint itself, which is a function of the class characteristics, as well as the complexity, clarity, and quality of randomly acquired characteristics (RACs) available for analysis...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405660/hiv-care-nurses-knowledge-of-hiv-criminalization-a-feasibility-study
#19
J Craig Phillips, Jean-Laurent Domingue, Mary Petty, Michael A Coker, Terry Howard, Shari Margolese
HIV-related criminal laws in some jurisdictions may hamper population health efforts to manage HIV and bring about an AIDS-free generation. HIV care nurses have an instrumental role to play in ensuring equitable care and health for all in a context of HIV. The purpose of our study was to determine HIV care nurses' knowledge of HIV-related criminal laws. Ecosocial theory and content expert opinion guided development of a questionnaire to assess nurses' knowledge of HIV-related criminal laws. A total of 174 HIV care nurses from Canada (n = 23) and the United States (n = 151) completed the questionnaire...
June 11, 2016: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404407/drunk-person-screening-using-eye-thermal-signatures
#20
Georgia Koukiou, Vassilis Anastassopoulos
Temperature distribution on the eyes of drunk persons is studied by means of thermal infrared images. The sclera and the iris are of the same temperature for the sober person, while for the intoxicated person, the sclera temperature increases. Consequently, only the thermal images from the drunk persons are necessary for intoxication screening. Forty-one participants drank in a controlled alcohol consumption procedure. Their breath alcohol concentration was above the threshold of 0.2 mg/L of exhaled air, which corresponds to about 0...
January 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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