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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332696/a-comparison-of-plastic-cable-ties-based-on-physical-chemical-and-stable-isotopic-measurements
#1
Lisa M Nienaber, Sarah L Cresswell, James F Carter, Tony Peter
Plastic cable ties can be utilised in a range of serious criminal activities and a comparison of cable ties, or fragments, may form part of the physical evidence presented to a Court of law. This research assessed the potential value of evidence based on the analysis of plastic cable ties. Twenty packets of black coloured plastic cable ties (nominally 200mm×4.8mm) were purchased in pack sizes ranging from 25 to 100 individual cable ties (Brisbane, Australia, March 2015). Representative samples from each packet were visually examined, compared and tested to determine their physical dimensions, chemical compositions and stable isotopic compositions (δ2H, δ13C and δ15N)...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332431/validation-of-the-ceredigion-youth-screening-tool
#2
Gareth Norris, Gwyn Griffith, Megan West
Evidence suggests that only a small minority of youth offenders will continue their behaviour in the longer term and largely independent of any interventions they may receive (Bateman, 2011; Haines & Case, 2015). Hence, "screening out" this larger low-risk cohort could have a positive impact upon the individual through a reduction in stigmatisation/labelling and free up resources for higher risk clients. This article outlines development of the Ceredigion Youth Screening Tool (CYSTEM)-developed and tested to address the two facets of criminality and vulnerability-closely aligned to the eight key risk indicators identified in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (R-N-R) literature (Andrews & Bonta, 2010)...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279896/association-of-childhood-blood-lead-levels-with-criminal-offending
#3
Amber L Beckley, Avshalom Caspi, Jonathan Broadbent, Honalee Harrington, Renate M Houts, Richie Poulton, Sandhya Ramrakha, Aaron Reuben, Terrie E Moffitt
Importance: Lead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure and criminal offending. Objective: To test the hypothesis that a higher childhood blood lead level (BLL) is associated with greater risk of criminal conviction, recidivism (repeat conviction), conviction for violent offenses, and variety of self-reported criminal offending in a setting where BLL was not associated with low socioeconomic status...
December 26, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278823/the-relationship-between-cross-sectional-shapes-and-ftir-profiles-in-synthetic-wig-fibers-and-their-discriminating-abilities-an-evidential-value-perspective
#4
Theresa A Joslin Yogi, Michael Penrod, Melinda Holt, Patrick Buzzini
Wig fragments or fibers may occasionally be recognized as potential physical evidence during criminal investigations. While analytical methods traditionally adopted for the examination of textile fibers are utilized for the characterizations and comparisons of wig specimens, it is essential to understand in deeper detail the valuable contribution of features of these non-routine evidentiary materials as well as the relationship of the gathered analytical data. This study explores the dependence between the microscopic features of cross-sectional shapes and the polymer type gathered by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
December 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216969/legal-issues-for-transgender-people-a-review-of-persistent-threats
#5
Jamison Green
Background The legal status of transgender (trans) people is in constant flux. Over the past 70 years, gradually increasing transgender visibility, national and global advocacy, and, more recently, widespread Internet access, communication, and broadening support from allies, have all contributed to successful campaigns that have improved transgender lives and legitimised transgender. Still, traumatic interactions with the legal system or policing agencies remain plentiful. This is a very general overview of the most common legal issues confronting trans people...
October 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213302/a-comprehensive-review-of-hiv-sti-prevention-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-services-among-sex-workers-in-conflict-affected-settings-call-for-an-evidence-and-rights-based-approach-in-the-humanitarian-response
#6
REVIEW
Alyssa Ferguson, Kate Shannon, Jennifer Butler, Shira M Goldenberg
Background: While the conditions in emergency humanitarian and conflict-affected settings often result in significant sex work economies, there is limited information on the social and structural conditions of sex work in these settings, and the impacts on HIV/STI prevention and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for sex workers. Our objective was to comprehensively review existing evidence on HIV/STI prevention and access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings globally...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200395/-the-future-of-forensic-dna-analysis-for-criminal-justice
#7
François-Xavier Laurent, Geoffrey Vibrac, Aurélien Rubio, Marie-Thérèse Thévenot, Laurent Pène
In the criminal framework, the analysis of approximately 20 DNA microsatellites enables the establishment of a genetic profile with a high statistical power of discrimination. This technique gives us the possibility to establish or exclude a match between a biological trace detected at a crime scene and a suspect whose DNA was collected via an oral swab. However, conventional techniques do tend to complexify the interpretation of complex DNA samples, such as degraded DNA and mixture DNA. The aim of this review is to highlight the powerness of new forensic DNA methods (including high-throughput sequencing or single-cell sequencing) to facilitate the interpretation of the expert with full compliance with existing french legislation...
November 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161680/prediction-of-violent-crime-on-discharge-from-secure-psychiatric-hospitals-a-clinical-prediction-rule-fovox
#8
A Wolf, T R Fanshawe, A Sariaslan, R Cornish, H Larsson, S Fazel
BACKGROUND: Current approaches to assess violence risk in secure hospitals are resource intensive, limited by accuracy and authorship bias and may have reached a performance ceiling. This study seeks to develop scalable predictive models for violent offending following discharge from secure psychiatric hospitals. METHODS: We identified all patients discharged from secure hospitals in Sweden between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2013. Using multiple Cox regression, pre-specified criminal, sociodemographic, and clinical risk factors were included in a model that was tested for discrimination and calibration in the prediction of violent crime at 12 and 24 months post-discharge...
August 4, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134854/prediction-of-recidivism-with-the-youth-level-of-service-case-management-inventory-reduced-version-in-a-sample-of-young-spanish-offenders
#9
Keren Cuervo, Lidón Villanueva
Intervention in youth recidivism is critical in helping prevent young people from continuing their criminal career into adulthood, on a life-course-persistent trajectory. Andrews and Bonta attempt to provide an explanation of risk and protective factors using a conversion of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI), which predicts recidivism. In this study, scores have been obtained from 382 adolescents ( M age = 16.33 years) from the juvenile court, to check the ability of a reduced version of the YLS/CMI, to predict recidivism...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131992/cross-validation-of-the-personality-assessment-inventory-chronic-suicide-risk-index-s_chron-in-a-large-sample-of-offenders
#10
John F Edens, Kevin S Douglas
Recently, Sinclair et al. (2016) reported on the development of a new Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) index designed to identify individuals with histories of multiple suicide attempts (Chronic Suicide Risk Index: S_Chron). We evaluated this new index in a sample of over 1000 criminal offenders who had been administered the PAI as part of a more extensive research project. The S_Chron meaningfully discriminated between those with multiple prior suicide attempts and those with 0-1 attempts, similar to what Sinclair et al...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078161/an-evaluation-of-the-discriminating-power-of-an-integrated-ballistics-identification-system-%C3%A2-heritage%C3%A2-system-with-the-nist-standard-cartridge-case-standard-reference-material-2461
#11
Keith B Morris, Eric F Law, Roger L Jefferys, Elizabeth C Dearth, Emily B Fabyanic
Through analysis and comparison of firing pin, breech face, and ejector impressions, where appropriate, firearm examiners may connect a cartridge case to a suspect firearm with a certain likelihood in a criminal investigation. When a firearm is not present, an examiner may use the Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS(®)), an automated search and retrieval system coupled with the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN), a database of images showing the markings on fired cartridge cases and bullets from crime scenes along with test fired firearms...
October 14, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073514/propellant-s-differentiation-using-ftir-photoacoustic-detection-for-forensic-studies-of-improvised-explosive-devices
#12
Ángela Álvarez, Jorge Yáñez, David Contreras, Renato Saavedra, Pedro Sáez, Dulasiri Amarasiriwardena
The use of propellant for making improvised explosive devices (IED) is an incipient criminal practice. Propellant can be used as initiator in explosive mixtures along with other components such as coal, ammonium nitrate, sulfur, etc. The identification of the propellant's brand used in homemade explosives can provide additional forensic information of this evidence. In this work, four of the most common propellant brands were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) which is a non-destructive micro-analytical technique...
November 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065132/correlates-of-condomless-anal-sex-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-in-tijuana-mexico-the-role-of-public-sex-venues
#13
Shirley J Semple, Eileen V Pitpitan, David Goodman-Meza, Steffanie A Strathdee, Claudia V Chavarin, Gudelia Rangel, Karla Torres, Thomas L Patterson
Condomless anal sex between male partners is the primary risk factor for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Correlates of condomless anal sex have been well-studied in developed countries, but they have received less attention in lower-to-middle income countries (LMIC), where MSM are often subject to stigma, discrimination, intolerance, and even the criminalization of same sex behavior. In Mexico, a LMIC where traditional views on homosexuality are common, HIV prevalence among MSM is high (16...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042520/-epilepsy-and-driving
#14
Shunsuke Takagi, Masato Matsuura
In Japan, the Road Traffic Act was amended in 2013, and the revision was enacted in 2014. This revision includes new rules such as the requirement that a driver declare medical conditions on licensing, with a penalty for false statements. There is also a new voluntary notification system that enables doctors to report unlawful drivers. At the same time, the new Criminal Law Act was enacted. This act provides a penalty for causing death or injury to other persons by driving under the influence of specific drugs or diseases, including epilepsy...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022739/the-offender-job-search-self-efficacy-scale-development-and-initial-validation
#15
Femina P Varghese, Kendra M Anderson, Devon L Cummings, Erica Fitzgerald
The purpose of this study was to develop the Offender Job Search Self-Efficacy Scale (OFJSSE) for the specific job search needs of the criminal justice population. Participants were 249 male inmates within 2 years of release from a state correctional facility in the southern region of the United States who identified mostly as Caucasian (56.2%), single (62.2%), working-class (45.4%) men with a mean age of 36.27 years (SD = 10.38). Initial validation data are described, including results of an exploratory factor analysis...
October 12, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905731/what-does-health-justice-look-like-for-people-returning-from-incarceration
#16
Lisa Puglisi, Joseph P Calderon, Emily A Wang
Access to health care is a constitutional right in the United States correctional system, and many incarcerated adults are newly diagnosed with chronic diseases in prison. Despite this right, the quality of correctional health care is variable, largely unmeasured and unregulated, and characterized by patients' widespread distrust of a health system that is intimately tied to a punitive criminal justice system. Upon release, discontinuity of care is the norm, and when continuity is established, it is often hindered by distrust, discrimination, poor communication, and racism in the health system...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817579/the-link-between-bond-forfeiture-and-pretrial-release-mechanism-the-case-of-dallas-county-texas
#17
Stephen J Clipper, Robert G Morris, Amanda Russell-Kaplan
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of four pretrial jail release mechanisms (i.e., bond types) commonly used during the pretrial phase of the criminal justice process in terms of their ability to discriminate between defendants failing to appear in court (i.e., bond forfeiture). These include attorney bonds, cash bonds, commercial bail bonds, and release via a pretrial services agency. METHODS: A multi-treatment propensity score matching protocol was employed to assess between-release-mechanism differences in the conditional probability of failure to appear/bond forfeiture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809481/spectral-mining-for-discriminating-blood-origins-in-the-presence-of-substrate-interference-via-attenuated-total-reflection-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-postmortem-or-antemortem-blood
#18
Ayari Takamura, Ken Watanabe, Tomoko Akutsu, Hiroshi Ikegaya, Takeaki Ozawa
Often in criminal investigations, discrimination of types of body fluid evidence is crucially important to ascertain how a crime was committed. Compared to current methods using biochemical techniques, vibrational spectroscopic approaches can provide versatile applicability to identify various body fluid types without sample invasion. However, their applicability is limited to pure body fluid samples because important signals from body fluids incorporated in a substrate are affected strongly by interference from substrate signals...
August 28, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782335/elimination-of-hcv-as-a-public-health-concern-among-people-who-inject-drugs-by-2030-what-will-it-take-to-get-there
#19
REVIEW
Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Sébastien Morin, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Marina B Klein
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there is a considerable burden of HCV and HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) and transmission of both infections continues. Needle and syringe programme (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) coverage remains low, despite evidence demonstrating their prevention benefit. Direct-acting antiviral therapies (DAA) with HCV cure >95% among PWID provide an opportunity to reverse rising trends in HCV-related morbidity and mortality and reduce incidence...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630557/international-guidelines-on-human-rights-and-drug-control-a-tool-for-securing-women-s-rights-in-drug-control-policy
#20
Rebecca Schleifer, Luciana Pol
Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
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