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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331868/zinc-supplementation-alleviates-the-progression-of-diabetic-nephropathy-by-inhibiting-the-overexpression-of-oxidative-stress-mediated-molecular-markers-in-streptozotocin-induced-experimental-rats
#1
Susmita Barman, Seetur R Pradeep, Krishnapura Srinivasan
Zinc deficiency during diabetes projects a role for zinc nutrition in the management of diabetic nephropathy. The current study explored whether zinc supplementation protects against diabetic nephropathy through modulation of kidney oxidative stress and stress-induced expression related to the inflammatory process in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Groups of hyperglycemic rats were exposed to dietary interventions for 6 weeks with zinc supplementation (5 times and 10 times the normal level). Supplemental-zinc-fed diabetic groups showed a significant reversal of increased kidney weight and creatinine clearance...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330847/interchangeability-of-generic-drugs-a-non-parametric-pharmacokinetic-model-of-gabapentin-generic-drugs
#2
P J Glerum, Y Yu, W M Yamada, M N Neely, M Maliepaard, D M Burger, C Neef
Substitution by generic drugs is allowed when bioequivalence to the originator drug has been established. However, it is known that similarity in exposure may not be achieved at every occasion for all individual patients when switching between formulations. The ultimate aim of our research is to investigate if pharmacokinetic subpopulations exist when subjects are exposed to bioequivalent formulations. For that purpose, we developed a pharmacokinetic model for gabapentin, based on data from a previously conducted bioavailability study comparing gabapentin exposure following administration of the gabapentin originator and three generic gabapentin formulations in healthy subjects...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329247/a-simple-method-to-measure-renal-function-in-swine-by-the-plasma-clearance-of-iohexol
#3
Sergio Luis-Lima, Consolación García-Contreras, Marta Vázquez-Gómez, Susana Astiz, Fabiola Carrara, Flavio Gaspari, Natalia Negrín-Mena, Alejandro Jiménez-Sosa, Hugo Jiménez-Hernández, Antonio González-Bulnes, Esteban Porrini
There is no simple method to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in swine, an established model for studying renal disease. We developed a protocol to measure GFR in conscious swine by using the plasma clearance of iohexol. We used two groups, test and validation, with eight animals each. Ten milliliters of iohexol (6.47 g) was injected into the marginal auricular vein and blood samples (3 mL) were collected from the orbital sinus at different points after injection. GFR was determined using two models: two-compartment (CL2: all samples) and one-compartment (CL1: the last six samples)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324897/serum-galactose-deficient-iga1-and-igg-autoantibodies-correlate-in-patients-with-iga-nephropathy
#4
William J Placzek, Hiroyuki Yanagawa, Yuko Makita, Matthew B Renfrow, Bruce A Julian, Dana V Rizk, Yusuke Suzuki, Jan Novak, Hitoshi Suzuki
IgA nephropathy is an autoimmune disease characterized by IgA1-containing glomerular immune deposits. We previously proposed a multi-hit pathogenesis model in which patients with IgA nephropathy have elevated levels of circulatory IgA1 with some O-glycans deficient in galactose (Gd-IgA1, autoantigen). Gd-IgA1 is recognized by anti-glycan IgG and/or IgA autoantibodies, resulting in formation of pathogenic immune complexes. Some of these immune complexes deposit in the kidney, activate mesangial cells, and incite glomerular injury leading to clinical presentation of IgA nephropathy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324683/pentoxifylline-and-methylprednisolone-additively-alleviate-kidney-failure-and-prolong-survival-of-rats-after-renal-warm-ischemia-reperfusion
#5
Grzegorz Wystrychowski, Wojciech Wystrychowski, Władysław Grzeszczak, Andrzej Więcek, Robert Król, Antoni Wystrychowski
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) induces local inflammation leading to kidney damage. Since pentoxifylline (PTX) and steroids have distinct immunomodulatory properties, we aimed to evaluate for the first time their combined use in IRI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. In two experiments, PTX (100 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously) was administered 90 min prior to renal IRI or/and methylprednisolone (MP; 100 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly) was infused 60 min after reperfusion of a solitary kidney (AKI model: 45 min ischemia, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats) or one kidney with excision of contralateral kidney 2 weeks later (CKD model: 90 min ischemia, 38 rats)...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322928/constraint-based-perturbation-analysis-with-cluster-newton-method-a-case-study-of-personalized-parameter-estimations-with-irinotecan-whole-body-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model
#6
Shun Asami, Daisuke Kiga, Akihiko Konagaya
BACKGROUND: Drug development considering individual varieties among patients becomes crucial to improve clinical development success rates and save healthcare costs. As a useful tool to predict individual phenomena and correlations among drug characteristics and individual varieties, recently, whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WB- PBPK) models are getting more attention. WB-PBPK models generally have a lot of drug-related parameters that need to be estimated, and the estimations are difficult because the observed data are limited...
December 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322215/-assessment-of-kidney-function-creatinine-is-not-the-whole-story
#7
REVIEW
U Huynh-Do, M Fiedler, B Vogt
Chronic renal insufficiency has a high prevalence and leads not only to a severe impairment in the quality of life but also to a higher mortality, mainly due to cardiovascular complications; however, in the early stages where there is still a chance for a therapeutic intervention, it is often underestimated because depending on endogenous factors (e.g. age and muscle mass), serum creatinine could falsely remain in the normal range while kidney function is already impaired. An exact measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using radionuclide techniques is cumbersome and usually confined to rare cases, such as in clinical studies...
January 10, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319126/autophagy-activation-promotes-removal-of-damaged-mitochondria-and-protects-against-renal-tubular-injury-induced-by-albumin-overload
#8
Jin Tan, Miaohong Wang, Shuling Song, Shuling Miao, Qiang Zhang
Proteinuria (albuminuria) is an important cause of aggravating tubulointerstitial injury. Previous studies have shown that autophagy activation can alleviate renal tubular epithelial cell injury caused by urinary protein, but the mechanism is not clear. Here, we investigated the role of clearance of damaged mitochondria in this protective effect. We found that albumin overload induces a significant increase in turnover of LC3-II and decrease in p62 protein level in renal proximal tubular (HK-2) cells in vitro...
January 10, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316452/renal-clearable-quaternary-chalcogenide-nanocrystal-for-photoacoustic-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-tumor-photothermal-therapy
#9
Longfei Tan, Jing Wan, Weisheng Guo, Caizhang Ou, Tianlong Liu, Changhui Fu, Qiang Zhang, Xiangling Ren, Xing-Jie Liang, Jun Ren, Laifeng Li, Xianwei Meng
Ultrasmall Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals with high near infrared (NIR) photothermal conversion abilities and peroxidase-mimic properties are synthesized and functionalized with bovine serum albumin (BSA) for rapid clearance multifunctional theranostic platform. Due to the presence of Cu (I) of CZTS@BSA, H2O2 could be decomposed to produce highly reactive oxygen species (ROS), catalyzed by intrinsic peroxidase like activity of CZTS. The CZTS@BSA possesses high NIR absorption and excellent photoacoustic (PA) imaging abilities...
January 2, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315212/higher-protein-intake-is-not-associated-with-decreased-kidney-function-in-pre-diabetic-older-adults-following-a-one-year-intervention-a-preview-sub-study
#10
Grith Møller, Jens Rikardt Andersen, Christian Ritz, Marta P Silvestre, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Elli Jalo, Pia Christensen, Elizabeth Simpson, Moira Taylor, J Alfredo Martinez, Ian Macdonald, Nils Swindell, Kelly A Mackintosh, Gareth Stratton, Mikael Fogelholm, Thomas M Larsen, Sally D Poppitt, Lars O Dragsted, Anne Raben
Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre-diabetic men and women, aged 55 years and older. Analyses were based on baseline and one-year data in a sub-group of 310 participants included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World)...
January 9, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311069/meropenem-vaborbactam-single-dose-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-in-subjects-with-chronic-renal-impairment
#11
Christopher M Rubino, Sujata M Bhavnani, Jeffery S Loutit, Brooke Lohse, Michael N Dudley, David C Griffith
Vaborbactam is a member of a new class of β-lactamase inhibitors with inhibitory activity against serine carbapenemases (e.g. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) that has been developed in combination with meropenem. Pharmacokinetics of the combination were evaluated in 41 subjects with chronic renal impairment in a Phase 1, open-label, single-dose study. Subjects were assigned to one of five groups based on renal function: normal (creatinine clearance ≥90 mL/min), mild (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 60-89 mL/min/1...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310825/potassium-intake-modulates-the-thiazide-sensitive-sodium-chloride-cotransporter-ncc-activity-via-the-kir4-1-potassium-channel
#12
Ming-Xiao Wang, Catherina A Cuevas, Xiao-Tong Su, Peng Wu, Zhong-Xiuzi Gao, Dao-Hong Lin, James A McCormick, Chao-Ling Yang, Wen-Hui Wang, David H Ellison
Kir4.1 in the distal convoluted tubule plays a key role in sensing plasma potassium and in modulating the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). Here we tested whether dietary potassium intake modulates Kir4.1 and whether this is essential for mediating the effect of potassium diet on NCC. High potassium intake inhibited the basolateral 40 pS potassium channel (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the distal convoluted tubule, decreased basolateral potassium conductance, and depolarized the distal convoluted tubule membrane in Kcnj10flox/flox mice, herein referred to as control mice...
January 6, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310327/prevalence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-pseudohypertension-in-elderly-patients-prepared-for-coronary-artery-angiography
#13
Xixi Dai, Haiya Wang, Ningyuan Fang
BACKGROUND: Pseudohypertension (PHT) can cause adverse effects in the elderly owing to administration of antihypertension therapy. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of PHT in the elderly and associated risk factors to investigate a noninvasive method of detection of PHT. METHODS: We recruited 151 patients (age ≥60 years) who underwent coronary angiography. Demographic and clinical data were collected from the patients. During coronary angiography, intrabrachial arterial pressure and indirect blood pressure were measured...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304404/stable-gadolinium-based-nanoscale-lyophilized-injection-for-enhanced-mr-angiography-with-efficient-renal-clearance
#14
Kun Liu, Liang Dong, Yunjun Xu, Xu Yan, Fei Li, Yang Lu, Wei Tao, Huangyong Peng, Yadong Wu, Yang Su, Daishun Ling, Tao He, Haisheng Qian, Shu-Hong Yu
There is a great demand to develop high-relaxivity nanoscale contrast agents for magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with high resolution. However, there should be more focus on stability, ion leakage and excretion pathway of the intravenously injected nanoparticles, which are closely related to their clinic potentials. Herein, uniform ultrasmall-sized NaGdF4 nanocrystal (sub-10 nm) was synthesized using a facile high temperature organic solution method, and the nanocrystals were modified by a ligand-exchange approach using PEG-PAA di-block copolymer...
December 28, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304210/overview-of-antifungal-dosing-in-invasive-candidiasis
#15
Federico Pea, Russell E Lewis
In the past, most antifungal therapy dosing recommendations for invasive candidiasis followed a 'one-size fits all' approach with recommendations for lowering maintenance dosages for some antifungals in the setting of renal or hepatic impairment. A growing body of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic research, however now points to a widespread 'silent epidemic' of antifungal underdosing for invasive candidiasis, especially among critically ill patients or special populations who have altered volume of distribution, protein binding and drug clearance...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301417/isolated-kidney-perfusion-the-influence-of-pulsatile-flow
#16
Charlotte von Horn, Thomas Minor
Within the scope of transplantation research, ex vivo kidney perfusion has been proven an attractive model to study ischemia-reperfusion and preservation injury. Renal perfusion techniques also occupy scientists with the aim to optimize organ reconditioning and preparation prior to transplantation. This study investigated the influence of a pulsatile perfusion pattern that brings flow conditions closer to physiological situations, on renal perfusion characteristic and kidney function in the isolated perfused kidney...
January 4, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299983/metabolic-enzyme-system-and-transport-pathways-in-chronic-kidney-diseases
#17
Bin Liu, Fangmei Luo, Xiuju Luo, Shaobin Duan, Zhicheng Gong, Jie Peng
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a global public health problem, affects numerous people worldwide, and the prevalence is rising. Results from animal experiments and clinical investigations have demonstrated that drug metabolic enzymes and transporters-mediated non-renal clearance is dramatically impaired in CKD, co-respondent with the alterations in the elimination of metabolized drugs. Accumulated uremic toxins may downregulate or directly inhibit the activity and/or the expression of drug metabolic enzymes and transporters, which may result in unintended alterations of drug exposure and response in cases when drugs dose are not adjusted for the renal dysfunction...
January 3, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299798/mild-renal-dysfunction-defined-by-creatinine-clearance-rate-has-limited-impact-on-clinical-outcomes-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#18
Shuntaro Ikegawa, Ken-Ichi Matsuoka, Tomoko Inomata, Naoto Ikeda, Hiroyuki Sugiura, Taiga Kuroi, Takeru Asano, Shohei Yoshida, Hisakazu Nishimori, Nobuharu Fujii, Eisei Kondo, Yoshinobu Maeda, Mitsune Tanimoto
Creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) is a more accurate indicator of renal function than serum creatinine. Data are sparse regarding the prognostic value of renal impairment calculated using Ccr in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We performed a retrospective analysis of 185 patients who underwent allo-HSCT. These patients were divided into two groups by Ccr (ml/min) before transplantation; one showed normal renal function (Ccr ≥ 60, n = 156) and the other showed mild renal dysfunction (30 ≤ Ccr < 60, n = 29), and transplant outcomes were compared between the groups...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299437/the-protective-effect-of-hydroalcoholic-extract-of-ginger-zingiber-officinale-rosc-against-iron-induced-functional-and-histological-damages-in-rat-liver-and-kidney
#19
Firouzeh Gholampour, Fatemeh Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Seyed Mohammad Owji, Jaafar Vatanparast
Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G...
November 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298785/secondary-stone-formation-over-a-suture-material-after-partial-nephrectomy
#20
Kumar Prem, Somesh Janoria, Pankaj Kumar
We hereby present the treatment of renal pelvic and lower pole stones of sizes 2.74×1 cm and 1.38×0.92 cm, respectively, forming over a nidus of non-absorbable suture, in a 50-year-old female patient with a history of open partial nephrectomy done for renal angiomyolipoma around 10 years back. She was successfully treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy technique under spinal anaesthesia. There was complete stone clearance, and she was discharged in stable condition within 40 hours of surgery without any stent...
January 3, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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