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epistemological psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231127/view-from-the-penthouse-epistemological-bumps-and-emergent-metaphors-as-method-for-team-reflexivity
#1
Melissa Park, Hiba Zafran
Research in health care occurs within interdisciplinary teams that include clinician-researchers who have multiple epistemological orientations. Rigor in collaborative projects requires reflexive attention to how the paradigmatic questions raised by diverse epistemological orientations, and the ethical stances of each researcher, shape findings. This methodological article draws on three events during an ethnography of stigma in psychiatry to define and illustrate how we used double hermeneutics in data analysis...
December 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188350/-understanding-in-psychiatry-part%C3%A2-1-philosophical-sources-and-concept-analysis
#2
REVIEW
J Valdés-Stauber
BACKGROUND: The dichotomy comprehension/understanding vs. explanation has been initially developed with a legitimating intention for the humanities vis à vis the natural sciences. This investigation examines the different usages of understanding/comprehension in psychiatry and psychotherapy as well as its relevance for medical practice. METHOD: Critical discussion of the historical roots of the comprehension-explanation dichotomy and its introduction into the psychiatry by Jaspers...
November 29, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188349/-understanding-in-psychiatry-part%C3%A2-2-from-incomprehensibility-to-an-attitude-of-participative-communication
#3
REVIEW
J Valdés-Stauber
BACKGROUND: Starting from a systematic research of "incomprehensibility" we propose a turn from an epistemological analysis of "to understand" to an anthropological perspective relying on participative communication in a shared space of resonance. METHOD: We propose a systematization of the modes of understanding and of incomprehensibility based on a two-dimensional model combining epistemological and ontological perspectives. Finally, we outline "understanding" as a medical stance related to the healing relationship, which implies a disposition to get involved in a participative communication...
November 29, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941779/historical-and-conceptual-aspects-of-motor-disorders-in-the-psychoses
#4
German E Berrios, Ivana S Marková
Historical epistemology is a useful method to understand the longitudinal construction of the movement disorders in psychiatry. Four periods can be identified in such a process. The first, extending from Classical times to the work of Griesinger, included disorders such as catalepsy, crocidism, epilepsy and paralysis. The second period, stretching from Griesinger to Kahlbaum, concentrated on the study of melancholia attonita, stupor and catatonia. The third period, covering the time from Kahlbaum to WWI, witnessed important conceptual shifts such as: the transformation of madness into psychoses; the redefinition of movement and motility in psychiatry; the appearance of self-contained syndromes as dyskinesias, tics, akathisia, complex disorders like the cases of encephalitis lethargica, etc...
September 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826513/slicing-the-cortex-to-study-mental-illness-alois-alzheimer-s-pictures-of-equivalence
#5
Lara Keuck
Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915) was a German physician who specialized in psychiatry, and who is today known for the first description of a-in his own words-peculiar ailment (eigenartige Erkrankung), which was named after him. In his time, however, he was foremost recognized for his work in refining histopathological techniques and thereby contributing to the methodological arsenal for differential diagnosis in clinical psychiatry. In his laboratory that was based at the renowned Munich Psychiatric University Clinic led by Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), Alzheimer, his assistants, and students conserved, prepared, and studied slices of deceased patients' brains under the microscope...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529358/how-do-psychiatrists-in-india-construct-their-professional-identity-a-critical-literature-review
#6
Clement Bayetti, Sushrut Jadhav, Smita N Deshpande
Psychiatric practice in India is marked by an increasing gulf between largely urban-based mental health professionals and a majority rural population. Based on the premise that any engagement is a mutually constructed humane process, an understanding of the culture of psychiatry including social process of local knowledge acquisition by trainee psychiatrists is critical. This paper reviews existing literature on training of psychiatrists in India, the cultural construction of their professional identities and autobiographical reflections...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480739/translation-and-purification-ayurvedic-psychiatry-allopathic-psychiatry-spirits-and-occult-violence-in-kerala-south-india
#7
Claudia Lang
In this paper, the author traces two parallel movements of institutionalized Ayurvedic psychiatry, an emergent field of specialization in Kerala, India: the 'work of purification' and the 'work of translation' that Latour has described as characteristic of the 'modern constitution.' The author delineates these processes in terms of the relationship of Ayurvedic psychiatry to (1) allopathic psychiatry, (2) bhutavidya, a branch of textual Ayurveda dealing with spirits, and (3) occult violence. The aim is to offer a model of these open and hidden processes and of Ayurvedic psychiatry's positioning within a hierarchical mental health field characterized simultaneously by biopsychiatric hegemony and a persistent vernacular healing tradition...
May 8, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393994/-psychiatry-and-occupational-diseases-act-in-chile-historical-and-critical-review-of-a-complex-relationship
#8
Juan C Almonte, Cristián Mena, Sofía Ortiz, Juan P Osorio
The Work Accidents and Occupational Diseases Act exists in Chile since 1968. It uses a single model for the understanding and management of both somatic diseases like silicosis and psychiatric disorders. During the last decade in Chile, the consultation rates due to psychiatric conditions of probable labor origin has rose over 1,000%, a factor that underscored the deficiencies of this model. The aim of this paper is to analyze the consequences of the application of this act in the psychiatric field for almost 50 years after its promulgation...
December 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165286/the-erudite-humility-of-the-historian-the-critical-epistemology-of-georges-lant%C3%A3-ri-laura
#9
Elisabetta Basso Lorini
This paper analyses the historical and epistemological work of the French psychiatrist Georges Lantéri-Laura (1930-2004) within the context of the French 'tradition' of history and philosophy of sciences, with special reference to Georges Canguilhem and Michel Foucault. After an introduction devoted to a critical survey of the most recent works on the history and historiography of psychiatry in French, the paper outlines Lantéri-Laura's approach by focusing especially on the role played by the methodological concept of 'semiology' as regards the relation between medicine and psychiatry...
June 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992050/the-simulators-truth-and-power-in-the-psychiatry-of-jos%C3%A3-ingenieros
#10
Sandra Caponi
Using Michel Foucault's lectures on "Psychiatric power" as its starting point, this article analyzes the book Simulación de la locura (The simulation of madness), published in 1903 by the Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros. Foucault argues that the problem of simulation permeates the entire history of modern psychiatry. After initial analysis of José Ingenieros's references to the question of simulation in the struggle for existence, the issue of simulation in pathological states in general is examined, and lastly the simulation of madness and the problem of degeneration...
October 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550461/-the-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-reductionism-and-clinical-psychiatry
#11
Luc Faucher, Simon Goyer
The focus of the advocates of the Research Domain Critria (RDoC) on faulty brain circuits has led some to suspect it of being a reductionist enterprise. And because RDoC will eventually impact clinical psychiatry, some have feared that it will transform clinical psychiatry in a mindless and applied neurobehavioral science. We argue that if RDoC is officially endorsing a kind of reductionism, the particular kind of reductionism it endorses is not suffering from the shortcomings of more classical forms of reductionism...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550459/-philosophy-of-psychiatry-and-phenomenology-of-everyday-life-the-disruptions-of-ordinary-experience-in-schizophrenia
#12
Sarah Troubé
The paper considers the philosophy of psychiatry from the perspective of everyday life, as a particular structure of experience. We outline some questions raised by disturbances typical of psychotic disorders with regard to a phenomenology of the everyday and common sense. As a link between philosophy and clinical psychopathology, this phenomenology implies a transcendental point of view, embedded in concrete and practical forms of ordinary experience, along with social norms. This opens the possibility of a mutual questioning between philosophy and psychiatry, drawing on its clinical, epistemological, and ethical dimensions...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510925/disappearing-the-asylum-modernizing-psychiatry-and-generating-manpower-in-india
#13
Saiba Varma
In recent years, the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) and the World Health Organization have worked closely with governments across the global South to redress major treatment gaps to improve access to mental health services. In India, recent reforms include transforming public psychiatric institutions from sites of treatment to research and training institutes, known as "Centres of Excellence," to combat acute manpower shortages and modernize psychiatry. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork at a public psychiatric hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir, one of the institutions selected to be a future "Centre of Excellence," this article focuses on how these reforms have affected psychiatric institutions themselves...
December 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463619/research-in-psychiatry-concepts-and-conceptual-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Ivana S Marková, German E Berrios
Current research in psychiatry is increasingly focused on empirical studies with methods and technologies adopted from medicine. This paper argues that psychiatry has a different epistemological basis from medicine, and it is on account of this that research in psychiatry demands a different approach, one that perforce focuses on the clarification of concepts central to psychiatric practice. This means undertaking conceptual analysis and conceptual history and only then moving on to empirical study. This paper highlights the crucial epistemological differences between the practice of medicine and psychiatry, showing that the latter is enacted at the level of language and communication...
2016: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102381/psychiatry-and-humanism-in-argentina
#15
Alejandra Niño Amieva
The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social...
April 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26975653/-schizophrenia-pars-pro-toto-for-psychiatry-a-historical-essay-on-the-status-of-schizophrenia-in-psychiatric-discourse
#16
A Maatz, P Hoff
In the history of psychiatry, "schizophrenia" has often been portrayed as the discipline's pars pro toto, which prototypically represents mental illness as such and which draws together the fundamental questions concerning psychiatric epistemology and practice. Taking a conceptual history approach, this essay examines how "schizophrenia" is represented in psychiatric discourse and what aspects of its representation account for the pars pro toto status. Three such aspects are identified: a pragmatic, an existential and a justificatory aspect...
January 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954835/failures-of-imagination-the-refugee-s-narrative-in-psychiatry
#17
Laurence J Kirmayer
Refugees coming from war-torn areas sometimes face misunderstanding and frank incredulity when they encounter the psychiatric system. This failure of the clinical imagination reflects both reluctance to confront the enormity of patients' loss and cultural differences in self-presentation, self-understanding, memory and identity. This potential for incredulity is redoubled in the formal hearing before the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) where the claim for refugee status is adjudicated. Contemporary psychiatric practice is rooted in taking patients' stories at face value as accounts of their experience or reading through them to identify signs and symptoms of psychopathology...
2003: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26796559/-malaise-in-psychiatry-and-its-history
#18
REVIEW
S Chebili
The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry...
April 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26725413/-of-grand-intentions-and-opaque-structures-managing-the-hosp%C3%A3-cio-pedro-ii-during-brazil-s-second-empire-1852-90
#19
Manuella Meyer
This article chronicles contestations between religious actors, represented by the Brazilian Santa Casa de Misericórdia Catholic lay brotherhood and the French nun order, the Daughters of Charity, on one hand, and emergent psychiatrists, on the other, over the governance of the Hospício Pedro II, Brazil's first public asylum. It investigates how psychiatrists, as apostles of professional rationality, developed their ideas about reason and bureaucratic power in a contested site of religious charity during Brazil's Second Empire (1852-90)...
2015: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26672504/-research-in-psychopharmacology
#20
Alejandro Ferrero
Research in psychopharmacology began around 1950 with the description of antipsychotic effect of chlorpromazine followed shortly later with the mechanism of action of antidepressants. In these initial phases, pharmacy industry was open to knowledge and made efforts tending to the development to new drugs that showed efficacy and good safety profiles. In parallel development of theories attempting to find the etiology of psychiatric disorders acquired impulse. This review summarizes the new drugs for the treatment of psychiatric disorders currently under development and also presents a short list of the main biomarkers proposed for the diagnosis or the comprehension of the etiopathogeny in Psychiatry...
July 2015: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
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