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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634767/including-people-with-dementia-in-research-an-analysis-of-australian-ethical-and-legal-rules-and-recommendations-for-reform
#1
Nola M Ries, Katie A Thompson, Michael Lowe
Research is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In Australia, participation in research by people with cognitive impairment is governed by a national ethics statement and a patchwork of state and territorial laws that have widely varying rules...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630291/global-sustainable-development-priorities-500-y-after-luther-sola-schola-et-sanitate
#2
Wolfgang Lutz
Martin Luther succinctly summarized his theology in sola statements, such as sola scriptura, viewing the Bible (scriptura) as the only valid source of information about God rather than what he viewed as the extraneous, corrupting church doctrine of the time. As a secular side effect of this focus on individual reading skills, the Protestant territories were the first to acquire high literacy rates, which subsequently fostered health, economic growth, and good governance. Here I argue that a similar priority focus on empowerment of all segments of all populations through education and health (sola schola et sanitate) is needed today for sustainable development...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601585/prevalence-of-diabetes-and-prediabetes-in-15-states-of-india-results-from-the-icmr-indiab-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#3
Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Mohan Deepa, Rajendra Pradeepa, Jagadish Mahanta, Kanwar Narain, Hiranya Kumar Das, Prabha Adhikari, Paturi Vishnupriya Rao, Banshi Saboo, Ajay Kumar, Anil Bhansali, Mary John, Rosang Luaia, Taranga Reang, Somorjit Ningombam, Lobsang Jampa, Richard O Budnah, Nirmal Elangovan, Radhakrishnan Subashini, Ulagamathesan Venkatesan, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Ashok Kumar Das, Sri Venkata Madhu, Mohammed K Ali, Arvind Pandey, Rupinder Singh Dhaliwal, Tanvir Kaur, Soumya Swaminathan, Viswanathan Mohan
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state. METHODS: We used a stratified multistage design to obtain a community-based sample of 57 117 individuals aged 20 years or older. The sample population represented 14 of India's 28 states (eight from the mainland and six from the northeast of the country) and one union territory...
June 7, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588951/cholera-in-the-time-of-war-implications-of-weak-surveillance-in-syria-for-the-who-s-preparedness-a-comparison-of-two-monitoring-systems
#4
Annie Sparrow, Khaled Almilaji, Bachir Tajaldin, Nicholas Teodoro, Paul Langton
BACKGROUND: Public health breakdown from the Syrian government's targeting of healthcare systems in politically unsympathetic areas has yielded a resurgence of infectious diseases. Suspected cholera recently reappeared but conflict-related constraints impede laboratory confirmation. Given the government's previous under-reporting of infectious outbreaks and the reliance of the WHO on government reporting, we sought to assess the reliability of current surveillance systems. METHODS: We compared weekly surveillance reports of waterborne diseases from the Syrian government's (WHO-associated) Early Warning and Response System (EWARS), based in Damascus, and the independent, non-governmental Early Warning and Response Network (EWARN) headquartered in Gaziantep, Turkey...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558764/elimination-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-tajikistan
#5
Anatoly V Kondrashin, Azizullo S Sharipov, Dilshod S Kadamov, Saifuddin S Karimov, Elkhan Gasimov, Alla M Baranova, Lola F Morozova, Ekaterina V Stepanova, Natalia A Turbabina, Maria S Maksimova, Evgeny N Morozov
Malaria was eliminated in Tajikistan by the beginning of the 1960s. However, sporadic introduced cases of malaria occurred subsequently probably as a result of transmission from infected mosquito Anopheles flying over river the Punj from the border areas of Afghanistan. During the 1970s and 1980s local outbreaks of malaria were reported in the southern districts bordering Afghanistan. The malaria situation dramatically changed during the 1990s following armed conflict and civil unrest in the newly independent Tajikistan, which paralyzed health services including the malaria control activities and a large-scale malaria epidemic occurred with more than 400,000 malaria cases...
May 30, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553995/mapping-regulatory-models-for-medicinal-cannabis-a-matrix-of-options
#6
Vendula Belackova, Marian Shanahan, Alison Ritter
Objective The aim of the present study was to develop a framework for assessing regulatory options for medicinal cannabis in Australia.Methods International regulatory regimes for medicinal cannabis were reviewed with a qualitative policy analysis approach and key policy features were synthesised, leading to a conceptual framework that facilitates decision making across multiple dimensions.Results Two central organising dimensions of medicinal cannabis regulation were identified: cannabis supply and patient authorisation (including patient access)...
May 30, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538812/climatically-mediated-landcover-change-impacts-on-brazilian-territory
#7
Marina Zanin, Geiziane Tessarolo, Nathália Machado, Ana Luisa M Albernaz
In the face of climate change threats, governments are drawing attention to policies for mitigating its effects on biodiversity. However, the lack of distribution data makes predictions at species level a difficult task, mainly in regions of higher biodiversity. To overcome this problem, we use native landcover as a surrogate biodiversity, because it can represent specialized habitat for species, and investigate the effects of future climate change on Brazilian biomes. We characterize the climatic niches of native landcover and use ecological niche modeling to predict the potential distribution under current and future climate scenarios...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535784/a-meta-regression-analysis-of-41-australian-problem-gambling-prevalence-estimates-and-their-relationship-to-total-spending-on-electronic-gaming-machines
#8
Francis Markham, Martin Young, Bruce Doran, Mark Sugden
BACKGROUND: Many jurisdictions regularly conduct surveys to estimate the prevalence of problem gambling in their adult populations. However, the comparison of such estimates is problematic due to methodological variations between studies. Total consumption theory suggests that an association between mean electronic gaming machine (EGM) and casino gambling losses and problem gambling prevalence estimates may exist. If this is the case, then changes in EGM losses may be used as a proxy indicator for changes in problem gambling prevalence...
May 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493299/china-s-transboundary-groundwater-cooperation-in-the-context-of-emerging-transboundary-aquifer-law
#9
Yanmei He
China shares more than 20 transboundary aquifers with its coaquifer states, but they have not exploited their transboundary groundwater resources, and these resources have not been governed by any international agreements. Given the close interaction between surface water and groundwater, and the growing demands for transboundary groundwater in China and its coaquifer states, there is increasing necessity for these countries to undertake international cooperation on this issue. This article overviews China's transboundary aquifers, reviews the duty to cooperate on China's transboundary groundwater as well as the emerging transboundary aquifer law...
May 10, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475794/from-sars-to-avian-influenza-preparedness-in-hong-kong
#10
Andrew T Y Wong, Hong Chen, Shao-Haei Liu, Enoch K Hsu, Kristine S Luk, Christopher K C Lai, Regina F Y Chan, Owen T Y Tsang, K W Choi, Y W Kwan, Anna Y H Tong, Vincent C C Cheng, Dominic N C Tsang
The first human H5N1 case was diagnosed in Hong Kong in 1997. Since then, experience in effective preparedness strategies that target novel influenza viruses has expanded. Here, we report on avian influenza preparedness in public hospitals in Hong Kong to illustrate policies and practices associated with control of emerging infectious diseases. The Hong Kong government's risk-based preparedness plan for influenza pandemics includes 3 response levels for command, control, and coordination frameworks for territory-wide responses...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468619/economic-and-quality-of-care-evaluation-of-dialysis-service-models-in-remote-australia-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study
#11
Gillian Gorham, Kirsten Howard, Samantha Togni, Paul Lawton, Jaquelyne Hughes, Sandawana William Majoni, Sarah Brown, Sue Barnes, Alan Cass
BACKGROUND: Australia's Northern Territory (NT) has the country's highest incidence and prevalence of kidney disease. Indigenous people from remote areas suffer the heaviest disease burden. Concerns regarding cost and sustainability limit the provision of dialysis treatments in remote areas and most Indigenous people requiring dialysis relocate to urban areas. However, this dislocation of people from their family, community and support networks may prove more costly when the broader health, societal and economic consequences for the individual, family and whole of government are considered...
May 3, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463980/transcription-facilitated-genome-wide-recruitment-of-topoisomerase-i-and-dna-gyrase
#12
Wareed Ahmed, Claudia Sala, Shubhada R Hegde, Rajiv Kumar Jha, Stewart T Cole, Valakunja Nagaraja
Movement of the transcription machinery along a template alters DNA topology resulting in the accumulation of supercoils in DNA. The positive supercoils generated ahead of transcribing RNA polymerase (RNAP) and the negative supercoils accumulating behind impose severe topological constraints impeding transcription process. Previous studies have implied the role of topoisomerases in the removal of torsional stress and the maintenance of template topology but the in vivo interaction of functionally distinct topoisomerases with heterogeneous chromosomal territories is not deciphered...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454045/canadian-harm-reduction-policies-a-comparative-content-analysis-of-provincial-and-territorial-documents-2000-2015
#13
REVIEW
T Cameron Wild, Bernie Pauly, Lynne Belle-Isle, Walter Cavalieri, Richard Elliott, Carol Strike, Kenneth Tupper, Andrew Hathaway, Colleen Dell, Donald MacPherson, Caitlin Sinclair, Kamagaju Karekezi, Benjamin Tan, Elaine Hyshka
BACKGROUND: Access to harm reduction interventions among substance users across Canada is highly variable, and largely within the policy jurisdiction of the provinces and territories. This study systematically described variation in policy frameworks guiding harm reduction services among Canadian provinces and territories as part of the first national multimethod case study of harm reduction policy. METHODS: Systematic and purposive searches identified publicly-accessible policy texts guiding planning and organization of one or more of seven targeted harm reduction services: needle distribution, naloxone, supervised injection/consumption, low-threshold opioid substitution (or maintenance) treatment, buprenorphine/naloxone (suboxone), drug checking, and safer inhalation kits...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453719/civil-war-contested-sovereignty-and-the-limits-of-global-health-partnerships-a-case-study-of-the-syrian-polio-outbreak-in-2013
#14
Jonathan Kennedy, Domna Michailidou
States and the World Health Organization (WHO), an international organization that is mandated to respect the sovereignty of its member states, are still the leading actors in global health. This paper explores how this discrepancy inhibits the ability of global health partnerships to implement programmes in conflict-affected areas that are under the de facto control of rebel organizations. We concentrate on a single crucial case, the polio outbreak in Syria in 2013, analysing a variety of qualitative data-twenty semi-structured interviews with key actors, official documents, and media reports-in order to investigate the events that preceded and followed this event...
June 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444035/regional-governance-in-brazil-s-unified-health-system-a-conceptual-essay
#15
Patrícia Tavares Ribeiro, Oswaldo Yoshimi Tanaka, Jean-Louis Denis
This article is a conceptual essay aimed at supporting analyses of the regionalization processes implemented in Brazil's Unified Health System, from the perspective of regional governance. The authors conducted a literature review in the social sciences, public administration, and critical geography, focusing on the concepts of governance, territorial governance, and regional governance in the debate on development. In dialogue with these contributions to the analysis of recent regulation and implementation of health sector regionalization in Brazil, with special reference to use of the Organizational Contract for Public Action (COAP) in the country's health regions, the article concludes that the research on governance as a modern approach to linking public policies highlights the timeliness of developing methodologies and critical reflection on the relevant national processes in Brazil for future health sector proposals, thereby pointing to a new stage in the improvement of the Unified Health System...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443266/cost-effectiveness-of-palivizumab-compared-to-no-prophylaxis-in-term-infants-residing-in-the-canadian-arctic
#16
Anna Banerji, Kaspar Ng, Theo J Moraes, Vladimir Panzov, Joan Robinson, Bonita E Lee
BACKGROUND: Hospital admissions for respiratory syncytial virus infection result in large health expenditures for Inuit infants. Palivizumab has been shown to be highly effective in reducing such admissions in preterm Inuit infants. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis estimating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for palivizumab prophylaxis per admission related to respiratory syncytial virus avoided in healthy term infants across the Canadian Arctic. METHODS: We compared universal palivizumab prophylaxis in term infants less than 6 months of age to no prophylaxis in 8 Arctic regions: the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Nunavut without Iqaluit, the 3 subregions of Nunavut (Kitikmeot, Kivalliq and Qikiqtaaluk), the Qikiqtaaluk Region without Iqaluit, and Nunavik (northern Quebec)...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442028/revisiting-the-ability-of-australian-primary-healthcare-services-to-respond-to-health-inequity
#17
Toby Freeman, Fran Baum, Angela Lawless, Sara Javanparast, Gwyn Jolley, Ronald Labonté, Michael Bentley, John Boffa, David Sanders
Equity of access and reducing health inequities are key objectives of comprehensive primary health care. However, the supports required to target equity are fragile and vulnerable to changes in the fiscal and political environment. Six Australian primary healthcare services, five in South Australia and one in the Northern Territory, were followed over 5 years (2009-2013) of considerable change. Fifty-five interviews were conducted with service managers, staff, regional health executives and health department representatives in 2013 to examine how the changes had affected their practice regarding equity of access and responding to health inequity...
September 2016: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435081/a-multiple-streams-analysis-of-the-decisions-to-fund-gender-neutral-hpv-vaccination-in-canada
#18
REVIEW
Gilla K Shapiro, Juliet Guichon, Gillian Prue, Samara Perez, Zeev Rosberger
In Canada, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is licensed and recommended for females and males. Although all Canadian jurisdictions fund school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls, only six jurisdictions fund school-based HPV vaccination for boys. The research aimed to analyze the factors that underpin government decisions to fund HPV vaccine for boys using a theoretical policy model, Kingdon's Multiple Streams framework. This approach assesses policy development by examining three concurrent, but independent, streams that guide analysis: Problem Stream, Policy Stream, and Politics Stream...
July 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425902/evidence-for-the-benefits-of-food-chain-interventions-on-e-coli-0157-h7-nm-prevalence-in-retail-ground-beef-and-human-disease-incidence-a-success-story
#19
Frank Pollari, Tanya Christidis, Katarina D M Pintar, Andrea Nesbitt, Jeff Farber, Marie-Claude Lavoie, Alex Gill, Penelope Kirsch, Roger P Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Human infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM has historically been associated with consumption of undercooked ground beef. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation of the decline in E. coli O157:H7/NM infections in Canada with the introduction of control efforts in ground beef by industry. METHODS: The human incidence of E. coli O157:H7/NM, prevalence in ground beef and interventions from 1996 to 2014 were analyzed. Pathogen prevalence data were obtained from federal government and industry surveillance and inspection/compliance programs...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424879/drinking-water-management-and-governance-in-canada-an-innovative-plan-do-check-act-pdca-framework-for-a-safe-drinking-water-supply
#20
Ty Bereskie, Manuel J Rodriguez, Rehan Sadiq
Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Management
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