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Territorial governance

Kostas Kapellas, Lisa M Jamieson
The Northern Territory (N.T.) of Australia has the highest imprisonment rate per capita in the country. The vast majority of prisoners (86%) are Indigenous Australian despite only 30% of the N.T. population identifying as Indigenous. This paper investigates factors influencing this over-representation. The most common reason for imprisonment concerns violence. Alcohol is consumed in high quantities, particularly in Central Australia and is thought to affect incarceration rates. Recent strategies to control alcohol abuse in the N...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Matthew E Fagan, Ruth S DeFries, Steven E Sesnie, J Pablo Arroyo-Mora, Robin L Chazdon
Re-establishing connectivity between protected areas isolated by habitat clearing is a key conservation goal in the humid tropics. In northeastern Costa Rica, payments for environmental services (PES) and a government ban on deforestation have subsidized forest protection and reforestation in the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC), resulting in a decline in mature forest loss and the expansion of tree plantations. We use field studies and graph models to assess how conservation efforts have altered functional connectivity over the last 25 years for four species of insectivorous understory birds...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Sue Kildea, Sally Tracy, Juanita Sherwood, Fleur Magick-Dennis, Lesley Barclay
The well established disparities in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include a significant and concerning higher incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight and newborn mortality. Chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease) that are prevalent in Indigenous Australian adults have their genesis in utero and in early life. Applying interventions during pregnancy and early life that aim to improve maternal and infant health is likely to have long lasting consequences, as recognised by Australia's National Maternity Services Plan (NMSP), which set out a 5-year vision for 2010-2015 that was endorsed by all governments (federal and state and territory)...
October 17, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Sunil R Vaidya, Deepika T Chowdhury
The Government of India is accepted to participate in the measles elimination and rubella control goal 2020, hence genetic characterization of measles viruses (MeV) becomes essential. At National Reference Laboratory (National Institute of Virology, Pune), the throat swabs/urine specimens (n = 380) or PCR products (n = 219) obtained from the suspected measles cases were referred for the molecular testing and subsequently, MeV nucleoprotein (N) gene sequencing/genotyping. In addition, 2,449 suspected measles cases, mainly from the Maharashtra state were referred for the laboratory diagnosis...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Karen Bowman, Robyn D Robertson
In the past decade, distracted driving has emerged as one of the most prominent global road safety concerns. The singular and combined efforts of many organizations, such as Drop It And Drive (DIAD) and the Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIRF), have identified the need for partnerships, shared information, and access to interpretable research findings to guide decision making and to identify effective strategies to reduce, if not eliminate, preventable injuries/fatalities from distracted driving, including whiplash-associated disorders...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Louise S L Teh, Allison Witter, William W L Cheung, U Rashid Sumaila, Xueying Yin
Governance of South China Sea (SCS) fisheries remains weak despite acknowledgement of their widespread overexploitation for the past few decades. This review incorporates unreported fish catches to provide an improved baseline of the current status and societal contribution of SCS marine fisheries, so that the socio-economic and ecological consequences of continued fisheries unsustainability may be understood. Potential fisheries contribution to food and livelihoods include 11-17 million t in fisheries catch and USD 12-22 × 10(9) in fisheries landed value annually in the 2000s, and close to 3 million jobs...
September 23, 2016: Ambio
Samantha Hollingworth, Jianzhen Zhang, Bharat Phani Vaikuntam, Claire Jackson, Geoffrey Mitchell
BACKGROUND: To plan integrated care at end of life for people with either heart failure or lung disease, we used a case conference between the patient's general practitioner (GP), specialist services and a palliative care consultant physician. This intervention significantly reduced hospitalisations and emergency department visits. This paper reports estimates of potential savings of reduced hospitalisation through end of life case conferences in a pilot study. METHODS: We used Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Group codes to obtain data on hospitalisations and costs...
2016: BMC Palliative Care
Nicole Kearney, Gary Denham
: When adverse radiation incidents occur in nuclear medicine in Australia they are reported to the relevant state or territory authorities who investigate the incident and report their findings to the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The data is then compiled and included in the Australian Radiation Incident Register (ARIR). The only information that has been circulated from the ARIR are the annual summary reports available on the ARPANSA website. The aims of this study was to analyse the radiation incidents included in ARIR together with the state and territory registers that are available to the public, identify the reoccurring themes in Nuclear Medicine incidents and make recommendations to minimise future incidents...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Stephanie K Young, T Kue Young
BACKGROUND: Primary care in remote communities in northern Canada is delivered primarily by nurses who receive clinical support from physicians in regional centres and the patient transportation system. To improve continuity, quality and access to care in remote northern communities, it is important to understand the perspectives of front-line providers and the complex challenges they face. OBJECTIVE: To design and implement a survey of primary care providers to identify issues relating to inter-professional communication, clinical support and patient evacuation...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Yuejen Zhao, Siva R Vemuri, Dinesh Arya
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the potential economic benefits of closing the Indigenous health gap by quantifying the economic burden associated with Indigenous health inequality in the Northern Territory. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cost-of-illness study was conducted from a societal perspective for NT residents for the period 2009-2013. The total cost of the Indigenous health gap was estimated by calculating the cost differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in health services, lost productivity and lost life-years on the basis of data from the 2011 census, as well as on burden of disease, health expenditure, welfare, taxation and other published financial data...
September 19, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Ratilal Lalloo, Jeroen Kroon
OBJECTIVE: Analyse the Queensland Dental Public Service waiting list from 2013 to 2015 while various funding agreements between the federal and state and territory governments were in place. METHODS: Queensland Public Dental Service waiting list is open data and is updated monthly. This analysis reports on the changing number of people waiting for care and the percentage of people waiting beyond the reasonable period. RESULTS: While the number of people waiting decreased when funding was specifically allocated to "blitz the dental public waiting list", these have since increased back to pre-blitz period numbers...
September 13, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
S Thompson, T Avent, L S Doughty
The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours...
2016: PloS One
Hilary Tolley, Wendy Snowdon, Jillian Wate, A Mark Durand, Paula Vivili, Judith McCool, Rachel Novotny, Ofa Dewes, Damian Hoy, Colin Bell, Nicola Richards, Boyd Swinburn
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the Pacific. In 2011, Pacific Forum Leaders declared "a human, social and economic crisis" due to the significant and growing burden of NCDs in the region. In 2013, Pacific Health Ministers' commitment to 'whole of government' strategy prompted calls for the development of a robust, sustainable, collaborative NCD monitoring and accountability system to track, review and propose remedial action to ensure progress towards the NCD goals and targets...
2016: BMC Public Health
T Kue Young, Susan Chatwood, Gregory P Marchildon
OBJECTIVE: To determine if Canadians are getting value for money in providing health services to our northern residents. METHOD: Secondary analyses of data from Statistics Canada, the Canadian Institute of Health Information and territorial government agencies on health status, health expenditures and health system performance indicators. RESULTS: Per capita health expenditures in Canada's northern territories are double that of Canada as a whole and are among the highest in the world...
August 2016: Healthcare Policy, Politiques de Santé
Steven G Morgan, Marc-André Gagnon, Barbara Mintzes, Joel Lexchin
Canada needs a national strategy to fulfill its obligation to ensure universal access to necessary healthcare, including prescription drugs. A 2004 attempt at a national strategy for pharmaceutical policy failed because it lacked clear vision, logical planning and commitment from federal and provincial governments. The result of uncoordinated pharmaceutical policies in Canada has been more than a decade of poor system performance. In this essay, we present a framework for a renewed national strategy for pharmaceutical policy...
August 2016: Healthcare Policy, Politiques de Santé
Charlotta Söderberg
Contemporary processes of environmental policymaking in general span over several territorial tiers. This also holds for the EU Water Framework Directive system of environmental quality standards (EQS), which are part of a complex multi-level institutional landscape, embracing both EU, national and sub-national level. Recent evaluations show that many EU member states, including Sweden, have not reached the ecological goals for water in 2015. Departing from theories on policy coherence and multi-level governance, this paper therefore analyses Swedish water governance as a case to further our understanding of policy implementation in complex governance structures: how does policy coherence (or the lack thereof) affect policy implementation in complex governance structures? To answer this question, the paper maps out the formal structure of the water governance system, focusing on power directions within the system, analyses policy coherence in Swedish water governance through mapping out policy conflicts between the EQS for water and other goals/regulations and explore how they are handled by national and sub-national water bureaucrats...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Paul Hayes, Anthony Lynch, Jenni Stiffe
The Australian healthcare system is a complex network of services and providers funded and administered by federal, state and territory governments, supplemented by private health insurance and patient contributions. The broad geographical range, complexity and increasing demand within the Australian healthcare sector mean health expenditure is high. Aspects of current funding for the healthcare system have attracted criticism from medical practitioners, patients, representative organisations and independent statutory agencies...
September 2016: Education for Primary Care
Vidyut Bhatia, Shivani Deswal, Swati Seth, Akshay Kapoor, Anupam Sibal, Sarath Gopalan
BACKGROUND: Functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGIDs) are emerging as an important cause of morbidity in adolescents globally. The prevalence of FGIDs among Indian children or adolescents is not clear. METHODS: A cross-sectional school-based survey conducted in 1115 children aged 10-17 years attending four semi urban government schools of National capital territory (NCT) of Delhi. Rome III questionnaire was translated into Hindi and was filled by the students under supervision...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Brian Salter, Yinhua Zhou, Saheli Datta, Charlotte Salter
The governments of China, India, and the United Kingdom are unanimous in their belief that bioinformatics should supply the link between basic life sciences research and its translation into health benefits for the population and the economy. Yet at the same time, as ambitious states vying for position in the future global bioeconomy they differ considerably in the strategies adopted in pursuit of this goal. At the heart of these differences lies the interaction between epistemic change within the scientific community itself and the apparatus of the state...
September 2016: Science, Technology & Human Values
S Y Kim, C L Chan, D M Hyam
Football injuries are responsible for many of the maxillofacial injuries sustained during sporting activities. In the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), the four major types of Australian football are played in large numbers and up to a high standard. Our objective was to analyse maxillofacial fractures that were sustained during rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules, and soccer matches. We retrospectively studied 134 patients with maxillofacial fractures during the five-year period 2010-14. All patients were assessed and treated at Canberra Hospital, the major trauma centre in the ACT...
October 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
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