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Visceral obesity cardiovascular risk factor

Yosuke Kikuchi, Satomi Nozaki, Miki Makita, Shoji Yokozuka, Shin-Ichi Fukudome, Takashi Yanagisawa, Seiichiro Aoe
Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has become increasingly common in Japan. Epidemiological studies show inverse associations between intake of whole wheat grains and metabolic syndrome, but few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole wheat grain consumption. It was investigated whether a diet in which refined wheat bread (RW diet) was substituted by whole grain wheat bread (WW diet) would reduce visceral fat obesity in Japanese subjects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 50 Japanese subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m2 ...
April 18, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Junnan Wang, Wei Sun, George A Wells, Zhibo Li, Tianyi Li, Junduo Wu, Yangyu Zhang, Yingyu Liu, Longbo Li, Yunpeng Yu, Yihang Liu, Chao Qi, Yang Lu, Ning Liu, Youyou Yan, Lulu Liu, Gang Hui, Bin Liu
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a significant global public health problem and recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to assess the current prevalence of hypertension and to explore risk factors associated with hypertension by urban and rural status to guide the prevention and control of hypertension in Jilin province. METHODS: A multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method was used to obtain data on hypertension, which was investigated by physical examination and face-to-face questionnaire in July 2014-December 2015...
2018: PloS One
Rafael M Costa, Karla B Neves, Rita C Tostes, Núbia S Lobato
Obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death, morbidity, and mortality from several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. However, this is not a straightforward relationship. Although several studies have substantiated that obesity confers an independent and additive risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, there is significant variability in these associations, with some lean individuals developing diseases and others remaining healthy despite severe obesity, the so-called metabolically healthy obese...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
E M Umuerri, A O Obasohan
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD), an important component of the cardiovascular triad, has been linked with obesity as one of the risk factors for its development. The risk posed by obesity however varies depending on the indices measured. METHODS: We compared the relationship of measures of central and visceral obesity (waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) versus that of general obesity (body mass index (BMI) in the development of PAD among Nigerians with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus...
January 2018: West African Journal of Medicine
Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Rikke Krogh-Madsen, Gitte Lindved Petersen, Åse Marie Hansen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Rikke Lund, Helle Bruunsgaard
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with metabolic syndrome have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CR-fitness), counteracts accumulation of visceral fat, decreases inflammation and lowers risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. METHOD: The study sample included 1,293 Danes (age 49-52 years) who from 2009 to 2011 participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank, including a questionnaire, physical tests, and blood samples...
2018: PloS One
Zhipeng Zhang, Di Shi, Qiang Zhang, Si Wang, Kai Liu, Qingtao Meng, Xiaoping Chen
Prehypertension (defined by The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, JNC-7) is relevant to a higher cardiovascular risk than normotensives. Early intervention in this particular population is essential to avoid progression into hypertension (HTN). This study is to explore whether visceral adiposity index (VAI) can strongly predict the incidence of HTN in community-based prehypertensives. A prospective observational cohort study was conducted from September 2011 to June 2012 in urban communities of Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China...
March 22, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Teresa Małecka-Massalska, Aleksandra Majdan
Chronic inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to metabolic changes has an effect on body composition. Up to two thirds of patients may be affected by the loss of body cell mass and, thereby, malnutrition including its most severe form - cachexia. Among patients with RA and malnutrition, the total body weight is not reduced and the muscle loss is partially compensated by an increase in body fat. The excess of visceral and trunk adipose tissue is the main factor of increased prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in RA patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
M I Maiorino, G Bellastella, D Giugliano, K Esposito
Metabolic diseases are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which has been indicated as a potential mediator of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Visceral adiposity is thought to be the starting condition of the inflammatory state through the release of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, CRP, and IL-6, which in turn promote endothelial dysfunction, endothelial expression of chemokines (IL-1) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and P-selectin), and the inhibition of anti-atherogenic factors (adiponectin)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Andrew R Crawford, Naji Alamuddin, Anastassia Amaro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent studies discussing the impact of pharmacologic agents for weight loss on clinical cardiovascular events, as well as cardiometabolic risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Pharmacotherapy with current FDA-approved medications for weight loss can significantly improve known risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, inflammatory biomarkers, and the quantity of visceral fat, as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
March 6, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Eun Jung Rhee
The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. One-thirds of world population is suffering from the deleterious effects of excessive fat and adipose tissue in their body. At the same time, the average life expectancy is becoming higher and higher every decade. Therefore, living healthy and longer is the dream for everyone. Simply being obese is not the primary cause for the consequence of obesity; rather, the depot where the fat is accumulated, is the primary key for the deleterious effects of obesity...
February 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
L P C Seguro, J A Paupitz, V F Caparbo, E Bonfa, R M R Pereira
Objective Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) correlates with cardiovascular risk factors and has never been assessed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our aim was to evaluate VAT in premenopausal SLE patients. Methods Sixty-three premenopausal SLE patients and 186 age-matched healthy women were included. Demographic, anthropometric, disease and treatment parameters were evaluated. VAT was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with APEX 4.0 software. Results SLE patients had a disease duration of 5.25 ± 3...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
Chatchalit Rattarasarn
The prevalence of non-obese type 2 diabetes in Asians is up to 50%. This review aims to summarize the role of regional fat in the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in non-obese Asian type 2 diabetes as well as the role of intra-pancreatic fat and β-cell dysfunction. The body fat content of non-obese Asian type 2 diabetic patients is not different from that of non-diabetic subjects but the proportion of intra-abdominal and intra-hepatic fat are greater. Visceral fat contributes to insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in non-obese Asian type 2 diabetes...
February 7, 2018: Adipocyte
Corinna Storz, Sophia D Heber, Susanne Rospleszcz, Jürgen Machann, Sabine Sellner, Konstantin Nikolaou, Roberto Lorbeer, Sergios Gatidis, Stefanie Elser, Annette Peters, Christopher L Schlett, Fabian Bamberg
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship of area- and volumetric-based visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their ratio in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism from the general population. METHODS: Subjects from a population-based cohort with established prediabetes, diabetes and healthy controls without prior cardiovascular diseases underwent 3 Tesla MRI. VAT and SAT were assessed as total volume and area on a single slice, and their ratio (VAT/SAT) was calculated...
February 1, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Gabriela Medina, Olga Vera-Lastra, Ana Lilia Peralta-Amaro, María Pilar Jiménez-Arellano, Miguel Angel Saavedra, María Pilar Cruz-Domínguez, Luis J Jara
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including obesity and visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension contributing to CV mortality. The interface between the metabolic and immune systems has been of great interest recently. These interactions are regulated through genetics, nutritional status, and the intestinal microbiome. Alterations in the immune-metabolic cross-talk contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. Adipokines exert a variety of metabolic activities contributing to the ethiopathogenesis of MetS and are involved in the regulation of both inflammatory processes and autoimmunity occurring in rheumatic diseases...
January 31, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
K D Niswender, S Fazio, B A Gower, H J Silver
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that consuming a balanced high fat diet (BHFD) wherein total saturated fat was reduced and total unsaturated fat increased by proportionately balancing the type of fat (1/3 saturated, 1/3 monounsaturated, 1/3 polyunsaturated) led to significant improvements in inflammatory burden, blood pressure, and vascular function in obese premenopausal European American (EA) and African American (AA) women. OBJECTIVE: Here we compared changes in adipose tissue, lipoproteins, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk between EA and AA women...
January 27, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jonathan I Silverberg, Lauren Kwa, Michael C Kwa, Anne E Laumann, Kaveh Ardalan
Objective: JDM is associated with multiple potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including reduced heart rate variability, systolic/diastolic cardiac dysfunction, abnormal brachial artery reactivity and metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about cardiovascular risk in JDM. We sought to examine the association between JDM and cardiovascular risk factors and disease in US children. Methods: Data from the 2002-12 National Inpatient Sample was analysed, including ∼20% of all US hospitalizations (n = 14 535 620 paediatric hospitalizations)...
April 1, 2018: Rheumatology
Marjan Tabesh, Emma T Callegari, Alexandra Gorelik, Suzanne M Garland, Alison Nankervis, Asvini K Subasinghe, John D Wark
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity globally. Results from previous studies are inconsistent and it remains unclear whether low-serum 25 OHD levels are associated with an increased risk of CVD. These associations have been little studied in young women. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serum 25 OHD and obesity, body composition, metabolic profiles and blood pressure in young women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Women aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, were recruited through Facebook advertising in this cross-sectional study...
January 24, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
V E Bianchi, V Locatelli
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly correlated with cardiovascular diseases. Although an excess of body fat is a determinant factor for MetS development, a reduced level of testosterone plays a fundamental role in its regulation. Low testosterone level is highly related to insulin resistance, visceral obesity and MetS. We have searched in Pubmed clinical trial with the password: testosterone and insulin resistance, and testosterone and MetS. We found 19 studies on the correlation between testosterone level with insulin resistance and 18 on the effect of testosterone therapy on MetS...
April 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jasper Most, L Anne Gilmore, Steven R Smith, Hongmei Han, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
Calorie restriction (CR) triggers benefits for healthspan including decreased risk of cardiometabolic disease (CVD). In an ancillary study to CALERIE 2, a 24-mo 25% CR study, we assessed the cardiometabolic effects of CR in 53 healthy, nonobese (BMI: 22-28 kg/m2 ) men ( n = 17) and women ( n = 36). The aim of this study was to investigate whether CR can reduce risk factors for CVD and insulin resistance in nonobese humans and, moreover, to assess whether improvements are exclusive to a period of weight loss or continue during weight maintenance...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mark Houston
Numerous clinical trials suggest that we have reached a limit in our ability to decrease the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) utilizing the traditional diagnostic evaluation, prevention and treatment strategies for the top five cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking. About 80% of heart disease (heart attacks, angina, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure) can be prevented by optimal nutrition, optimal exercise, optimal weight and body composition, mild alcohol intake and avoiding smoking...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
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