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Visceral obesity cardiovascular risk factor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921043/metabolic-vascular-syndrome-new-insights-into-a-multidimensional-network-of-risk-factors-and-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Gerhard H Scholz, Markolf Hanefeld
BACKGROUND: Since 1981, we have used the term metabolic syndrome to describe an association of a dysregulation in lipid metabolism (high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, disturbed glucose homeostasis (enhanced fasting and/or prandial glucose), gout, and hypertension), with android obesity being based on a common soil (overnutrition, reduced physical activity, sociocultural factors, and genetic predisposition). We hypothesized that main traits of the syndrome occur early and are tightly connected with hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance, procoagulation, and cardiovascular diseases...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865196/-browning-the-cardiac-and-peri-vascular-adipose-tissues-to-modulate-cardiovascular-risk
#2
REVIEW
Peter Aldiss, Graeme Davies, Rachel Woods, Helen Budge, Harold S Sacks, Michael E Symonds
Excess visceral adiposity, in particular that located adjacent to the heart and coronary arteries is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In the pathophysiological state, dysfunctional adipose tissue secretes an array of factors modulating vascular function and driving atherogenesis. Conversely, brown and beige adipose tissues utilise glucose and lipids to generate heat and are associated with improved cardiometabolic health. The cardiac and thoracic perivascular adipose tissues are now understood to be composed of brown adipose tissue in the healthy state and undergo a brown-to-white transition i...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796618/distinct-secretory-activity-and-clinical-impact-of-subcutaneous-abdominal-adipose-tissue-in-women-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis
#3
Ewa Kontny, Agnieszka Zielińska, Urszula Skalska, Krystyna Księżopolska-Orłowska, Piotr Głuszko, Włodzimierz Maśliński
In the general population, low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue accompanies obesity and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) development, but the implication of this tissue in rheumatic disease pathology is unclear. Therefore, we characterized the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) of females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) and searched for its relationship with intensity of systemic inflammation, body composition and comorbidity. The secretion of classical adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), pro- and anti-inflammatory factors, i...
October 28, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765543/the-ratio-between-visceral-and-subcutaneous-abdominal-fat-assessed-by-computed-tomography-is-an-independent-predictor-of-mortality-and-cardiac-events
#4
Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Francisco Sampaio, Nuno Bettencourt, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Nuno Ferreira, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Vasco Gama
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events...
October 17, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761987/long-term-effect-of-exercise-on-improving-fatty-liver-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-obese-adults-a-one-year-follow-up-study
#5
Hui-Jie Zhang, Ling-Ling Pan, Zhi-Min Ma, Zheng Chen, Zhu-Feng Huang, Qian Sun, Yan Lu, Cheng-Kun Han, Ming-Zhu Lin, Xue-Jun Li, Shu-Yu Yang, Xiao-Ying Li
Exercise training can reduce hepatic fat accumulation and cardiovascular risk among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but how long these benefits extend beyond the period of active intervention is unclear. Intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and metabolic risk factors were assessed among 220 obese subjects with NAFLD who were randomly assigned to vigorous-moderate exercise, moderate exercise, or control over the subsequent 1 year after 12-month exercise intervention...
October 19, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756781/glycerophosphocholine-metabolites-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-adolescents-a-cohort-study
#6
Catriona Syme, Simon Czajkowski, Jean Shin, Michal Abrahamowicz, Gabriel Leonard, Michel Perron, Louis Richer, Suzanne Veillette, Daniel Gaudet, Lisa Strug, Yun Wang, Hongbin Xu, Graeme Taylor, Tomáš Paus, Steffany Bennett, Zdenka Pausova
BACKGROUND: -Glycerophosphocholine (GPC) metabolites modulate atherosclerosis and thus risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pre-clinical CVD may start during adolescence. Here, we used targeted serum lipidomics to identify a new panel of GPCs, and tested whether any of these GPCs are associated - in adolescence - with classical risk factors of CVD, namely excess visceral fat (VF), elevated BP, insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia. METHODS: -We studied a population-based sample of 990 adolescents (12-18 years, 48% male), as part of the Saguenay Youth Study...
October 18, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755993/the-decreased-achievement-of-therapeutic-goal-in-lipid-lowering-therapy-in-obese-and-diabetic-patients-in-poland
#7
Michał Holecki, Gabriela Handzlik-Orlik, Agnieszka Almgren-Rachtan, Jan Duława, Jerzy Chudek
BACKGROUND: Statins are used to reduce a cardiovascular risk. However, the effectiveness of the therapy in many cases remains unsatisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of obesity and diabetes on the achievement of therapeutic goal in lipid-lowering therapy in patients with a various cardiovascular risk in the daily clinical practice. METHODS: This study was conducted on the basis of questionnaires obtained from 7018 patients (41...
September 13, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754019/js-ksh-jsh-chl-01-2-hypertension-additional-makers-and-mortality-in-subjects-with-metabolic-syndrome-big-data-analysis
#8
Ki Chul Sung
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and visceral obesity. Since 1988, when Gerald Reaven first described MetS as "Syndrome X," an abundance of research has been undertaken on its pathophysiology, prognosis, implications, therapeutic strategies, and clinical relationships with other metabolic diseases. Experts have focused on MetS during the last few decades not only because of the increasing importance of obesity in the development of metabolic diseases but also because of the effect of MetS on mortality and the development of cardiovascular diseases...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753812/ssa-04-3-leptin-adiponectin-in-cardiometabolic-disease
#9
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732801/adipose-vascular-coupling-and-potential-therapeutics
#10
Maik Gollasch
Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk of high blood pressure, lipid disorders, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ with multiple humoral and metabolic roles in regulating whole-body physiology. However, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) also plays a functional role in regulating the contractile state of the underlying smooth muscle cell layer. Work during the past decade has shown that this adipose-vascular coupling is achieved by production of numerous substances released from PVAT...
October 10, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700189/differentiation-of-obese-patients-at-moderate-or-higher-findrisc-score-based-on-their-atherogenic-index
#11
Pavlina A Andreeva-Gateva, Petya Konsulova, Maria Orbetzova, Radka Georgieva-Nikolova, Radka Tafradjiiska-Hadjiolova, Violina Angelova, Yulian Voynikov, Irina Nikolova, Iscra Simova
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to reveal different subgroups of patients with at least moderate risk of developing diabetes in the next 10 years, based on clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We performed a one-center cross-sectional study of adult patients (n=109, median age 45 years) with Findrisc score of above 11 out of 26 maximum. We included in the cluster analysis anthropometrics, lipid and carbohydrate parameters obtained in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin, C-peptide, creatinine, C-reactive protein, liver enzymes, beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance (HOMA calculations)...
October 4, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643352/ssa-04-3-leptin-adiponectin-in-cardiometabolic-disease
#12
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642937/js-ksh-jsh-chl-01-2-hypertension-additional-makers-and-mortality-in-subjects-with-metabolic-syndrome-big-data-analysis
#13
Ki Chul Sung
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and visceral obesity. Since 1988, when Gerald Reaven first described MetS as "Syndrome X," an abundance of research has been undertaken on its pathophysiology, prognosis, implications, therapeutic strategies, and clinical relationships with other metabolic diseases. Experts have focused on MetS during the last few decades not only because of the increasing importance of obesity in the development of metabolic diseases but also because of the effect of MetS on mortality and the development of cardiovascular diseases...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609708/-fibrates-therapy-rational-use-fenofibrate-2016-executive-summary
#14
Angel Brea, Jesús Millán, Juan F Ascaso, Mariano Blasco, Angel Díaz, Pedro González-Santos, Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Teresa Mantilla, Juan C Pedro-Botet, Xavier Pintó
To control lipid factors risk, beyond proper management of LDL cholesterol according to individual risk, detection and treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia and abnormal levels of triglycerides or HDL cholesterol it should be considered for address a global cardiovascular protection, both in primary and secondary prevention. In this sense, these recommendations collect data on efficacy and safety about the combination statin with fibrates, often necessary for total control of dyslipidemia, particularly in patients with metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome or visceral obesity...
September 5, 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581063/nonobese-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Donghee Kim, W Ray Kim
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a group of conditions characterized by hepatic steatosis in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD is seen commonly in patients with metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, such as type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Evidently, however, not all obese subjects develop NAFLD and, more importantly, NAFLD can be found in nonobese individuals. Although NAFLD occurring in nonobese subjects has been reported in children and adults of all ethnicities, it appears to be recognized more frequently in Asians, even when strict ethnicity-specific body mass index criteria are used to define obesity...
August 28, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534843/contribution-of-a-first-degree-family-history-of-diabetes-to-increased-serum-adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding-protein-levels-independent-of-body-fat-content-and-distribution
#16
X Hu, X Pan, X Ma, Y Luo, Y Xu, Q Xiong, Y Xiao, Y Bao, W Jia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: First-degree relatives of patients with diabetes bear an increased risk of diabetes, overweight/obesity and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that circulating concentrations of adipokines are altered in individuals with a first-degree family history of diabetes (FHD), but the adipokine adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) has been rarely studied in this population. The present study explored the association between a first-degree FHD and serum A-FABP levels...
November 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507007/association-between-exercise-induced-change-in-body-composition-and-change-in-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-postmenopausal-south-asian-women
#17
Iris A Lesser, Jordan A Guenette, Amandah Hoogbruin, Dawn C Mackey, Joel Singer, Danijela Gasevic, Scott A Lear
The South Asian population suffers from a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A unique obesity phenotype of elevated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with CVD risk among South Asians. Exercise-induced reduction in VAT and body fat is an effective mechanism to improve cardiometabolic risk factors but this has not been shown in South Asians. Whether exercise-induced changes in measurements such as waist circumference (WC) are independently related to changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in South Asians is unknown...
September 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479803/dendritic-cells-and-adipose-tissue
#18
REVIEW
Sandeep Sundara Rajan, Maria Paula Longhi
Visceral adipose tissue inflammation in obesity is an established risk factor for metabolic syndrome, which can include insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. With obesity and related metabolic disorders reaching epidemic proportions globally, an understanding of the mechanisms of adipose tissue inflammation is crucial. Within the immune cell cohort, dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in balancing tolerance and immunity. Despite decades of research into the characterization of DC in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, their role in adipose tissue function is poorly understood...
December 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462403/adipocyte-nuclei-captured-from-vat-and-sat
#19
Suresh Ambati, Ping Yu, Elizabeth C McKinney, Muthugapatti K Kandasamy, Diane Hartzell, Clifton A Baile, Richard B Meagher
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related comorbidities are thought to result from the reprogramming of the epigenome in numerous tissues and cell types, and in particular, mature adipocytes within visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, VAT and SAT. The cell-type specific chromatin remodeling of mature adipocytes within VAT and SAT is poorly understood, in part, because of the difficulties of isolating and manipulating large fragile mature adipocyte cells from adipose tissues. METHODS: We constructed MA-INTACT (Mature Adipocyte-Isolation of Nuclei TAgged in specific Cell Types) mice using the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) promoter (ADNp) to tag the surface of mature adipocyte nuclei with a reporter protein...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456108/abnormal-peri-organ-or-intra-organ-fat-apifat-deposition-an-underestimated-predictor-of-vascular-risk
#20
Niki Katsiki, Vasilios G Athyros, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
Adipose tissue, a major endocrine organ, consists of brown and white adipocytes. Brown fatmay play a beneficialrole in cardiometabolic disordersBrown adipose tissue can also improve glucose and lipid metabolism. In contrast, the expansion of white adipose tissue has been related to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both the quantity and the quality of the white adipose tissue as well as its distribution may affect CVD risk. In this context, the link between adiposity and CVD risk is greater for visceral than subcutaneous fat...
July 22, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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