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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727028/production-management-and-the-environment-symposium-measurement-and-mitigation-of-reactive-nitrogen-species-from-swine-and-poultry-production
#1
W Powers, M Capelari
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724100/ammonia-and-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-broiler-houses-with-downtime-windrowed-litter
#2
Kyoung S Ro, Philip A Moore, Ariel A Szogi, Patricia D Millner
An emerging poultry manure management practice is in-house windrowing to disinfect the litter. However, this practice is likely to increase emissions of ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) from the windrowed litter. The objective of this study was to quantitatively compare NH and NO emissions from broiler houses with and without in-house windrowing. Two broiler houses at a commercial farm were used to compare the NH and NO emissions. Gas emission measurements were conducted continuously and simultaneously for both the control house (without windrowing) and the house with windrowing during the same production periods...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724099/use-of-%C3%AE-15-n-and-%C3%AE-18-o-values-for-nitrate-source-identification-under-irrigated-crops-a-cautionary-vadose-zone-tale
#3
Shawn E Loo, M Cathryn Ryan, Bernie J Zebarth, Shawn H Kuchta, Denise Neilsen, Bernhard Mayer
Source nitrogen (N) identification of leachate or groundwater nitrate is complicated by N source mixing and N and oxygen (O) isotope fractionation caused by microbial N transformations. This experiment examined the δN and δO values in leachate collected over 1 yr at 55 cm below raspberry ( L.) plots receiving either synthetic fertilizer (FT) or poultry manure (MT). The large ranges of δN (FT: -2.4 to +8.7‰, MT: +1.6 to +9.6‰) and δO (FT: -9.9 to -0.3‰, MT: -10.9 to +1.7‰) values in leachate collected under crop rows prohibited the reliable identification of the applied N sources on individual sampling dates...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724088/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment-of-aqueously-extractable-estrogens-in-poultry-manure-after-pilot-scale-composting
#4
Kirsten M Hammett, Elizabeth J Mullin, Diana S Aga, Gary K Felton, Daniel J Fisher, Lance T Yonkos
Poultry manure contains free and conjugated forms of the natural estrogens 17β-estradiol and estrone, which can be transported to receiving waters via runoff when land-applied. Previous studies have demonstrated estrogens in runoff from poultry manure-amended fields but have not tracked changes in estrogenicity within this water over time. Microbial conversion of conjugated estrogens (a major portion of water-extractable estrogens) to parent forms may result in temporary increases in estrogenicity in natural water bodies...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721626/fate-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-response-to-application-of-poultry-and-swine-manure-in-simulated-manure-soil-microcosms-and-manure-pond-microcosms
#5
Mianzhi Wang, Yongxue Sun, Peng Liu, Jing Sun, Qin Zhou, Wenguang Xiong, Zhenling Zeng
This study aimed to determine the occurrence, abundance, and fate of nine important antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (sul1, sul2, tetB, tetM, ermB, ermF, fexA, cfr, and Intl1) in the simulated soil and pond microcosms following poultry and swine manure application. Absolute quantitative PCR method was used to determine the gene copies. The results were modeled as a logarithmic regression (N = mlnt + b) to explore the fate of target genes. Genes sul1, Intl1, sul2, and tetM had the highest abundance following the application of the two manure types...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719840/environmental-and-human-health-challenges-of-industrial-livestock-and-poultry-farming-in-china-and-their-mitigation
#6
REVIEW
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks...
July 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719770/household-exposure-to-livestock-and-health-in-the-chililab-hdss-cohort-vietnam
#7
Sinh Dang-Xuan, Lauren E MacDonald, Janna M Schurer, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Phuc Pham-Duc
In Vietnam, pigs and poultry are predominantly produced by small-scale farmers, creating challenges for zoonotic disease management. The objective of this study was to characterize practices related to livestock and manure management and to measure association with 3 self-reported health symptoms (coughing, fever, and diarrhea/nausea/vomiting) in a region currently undergoing health transitions. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected from a subset (N = 5520) of the Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System cohort in Chi Linh district, Vietnam...
July 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711001/improvements-in-wheat-productivity-and-soil-quality-can-accomplish-by-co-application-of-biochars-and-chemical-fertilizers
#8
Jawaria Sadaf, Ghulam Abbas Shah, Khurram Shahzad, Nadeem Ali, Muhammad Shahid, Safdar Ali, Rai Altaf Hussain, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Bouba Traore, Iqbal M I Ismail, Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
The beneficial role of biochar is evident in most of infertile soils, however this is argued that increment in crop yield owing to biochar application does not always achieve in cultivated/fertile soils. The nutrient biochar believed to enhance crop yield and soil fertility than structural biochar that may offset the positive effect of chemical fertilizer on crop performance but improves soil structural properties. Therefore, we investigated the effect of biochars [produced from nutrient rich feedstocks like poultry manure (PMB) and farmyard manure (FMB) and structural feedstocks such as wood chips (WCB) and kitchen waste (KWB)], and chemical fertilizers (CF) when applied alone or in combination on soil chemical properties, wheat growth, yield and nitrogen uptake in a cultivated clay loam soil...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697382/bacterial-mobilization-and-transport-through-manure-enriched-soils-experiment-and-modeling
#9
N Sepehrnia, L Memarianfard, A A Moosavi, J Bachmann, G Guggenberger, F Rezanezhad
A precise evaluation of bacteria transport and mathematical investigations are useful for best management practices in agroecosystems. In this study, using laboratory experiments and modeling approaches, we assess the transport of bacteria released from three types of manure (cow, sheep, and poultry) to find the importance of the common manures in agricultural activities in soil and water pollution. Thirty six intact soil columns with different textures (sandy, loamy, and silty clay loam) were sampled. Fecal coliform leaching from layers of the manures on the soil surface was conducted under steady-state saturated flow conditions at 20 °C for up to four Pore Volumes (PVs)...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688258/projections-of-nh3-emissions-from-manure-generated-by-livestock-production-in-china-to-2030-under-six-mitigation-scenarios
#10
Peng Xu, Sotiria Koloutsou-Vakakis, Mark J Rood, Shengji Luan
China's rapid urbanization, large population, and increasing consumption of calorie-and meat-intensive diets, have resulted in China becoming the world's largest source of ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production. This is the first study to use provincial, condition-specific emission factors based on most recently available studies on Chinese manure management and environmental conditions. The estimated NH3 emission temporal trends and spatial patterns are interpreted in relation to government policies affecting livestock production...
July 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604068/comparison-of-the-effects-of-poultry-manure-and-its-biochar-on-barley-growth-in-petroleum-contaminated-soils
#11
Maryam Barati, Fereshteh Bakhtiari, Dariush Mowla, Sedigheh Safarzadeh
This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two organic amendments (poultry manure (PM) and poultry manure biochar (PMB)) for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by barley plant at three levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) during 5 month under greenhouse conditions. TPHs removal efficiency and microbial respiration were shown to be higher at soil cultivated plant than uncultivated soil and in lowest level of contamination rather than other levels of contamination and at organic amendment treatment than unamended soil...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599224/pretreatment-optimization-process-control-mass-and-energy-balances-and-economics-of-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-arachis-hypogaea-peanut-hull-and-poultry-manure
#12
S O Dahunsi, S Oranusi, V E Efeovbokhan
The study explored biogas production from the co-digestion of Arachis hypogaea hull and poultry droppings. Mechanical and thermo-alkaline pretreatments were applied to a sample of the mixture. Another sample was treated mechanically but without thermo-alkaline methods. Optimization was done using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The optimal values for each of the five major parameters optimized are Temperature of 32.00°C, pH of 7.62, Retention time of 30.00 day, Total solids of 12...
October 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579143/energy-from-poultry-waste-an-aspen-plus-based-approach-to-the-thermo-chemical-processes
#13
Gianluca Cavalaglio, Valentina Coccia, Franco Cotana, Mattia Gelosia, Andrea Nicolini, Alessandro Petrozzi
A particular approach to the task of energy conversion of a residual waste material was properly experienced during the implementation of the national funded Enerpoll project. This project is a case study developed in the estate of a poultry farm that is located in a rural area of central Italy (Umbria Region); such a farm was chosen for the research project since it is almost representative of many similar small-sized breeding realties of the Italian regional context. The purpose of the case study was the disposal of a waste material (i...
May 31, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558349/role-and-multi-scale-characterization-of-bamboo-biochar-during-poultry-manure-aerobic-composting
#14
Ning Liu, Jialiang Zhou, Lujia Han, Shuangshuang Ma, Xiaoxi Sun, Guangqun Huang
The objective of the present study was to study the changes in compost particle and its relationship with other physicochemical process during aerobic composting employing 5%, 10%, 20% or 0% biochar. Changes of physicochemical and biological parameters and gases emissions indicated that appropriate biochar addition improved both degradation rate and final degree of the organic matter and simultaneously reduced CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions. Beneficial properties like stability and high porosity of biochar could optimize composting environment, accelerate the process of composting and facilitate microbial growth during the thermophilic composting stage, with increases of 1...
October 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539090/development-and-application-of-the-compression-frictional-treatment-method-for-sterilizing-and-valorizing-organic-waste
#15
Allison Talley, Robert Heimann, Stergios Vakalis
Confined animal feeding operations are producing large amounts of organic waste with large fractions being mixtures of manure and sawdust. On one hand, the inhomogeneity of the material and the high water content restrict the optimal application of thermal treatment methods. On the other hand, the high concentration of bacteria in these mixed waste streams is an issue of concern. This study introduces a novel process for treating manure and woody biomass mixtures and upgrading them into valuable products. It is defined as compression frictional treatment (CFT) and takes place continuously in a rotary compression unit...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488474/prevalence-of-salmonella-spp-in-environmental-samples-from-table-egg-barns-in-alberta
#16
Joan A St Amand, Rashed Cassis, Robin K King, Colleen B Annett Christianson
Some Salmonella spp. are zoonotic, a frequent cause of food borne illness in Canada, and known to infect humans through contaminated poultry and poultry products. Certain serotypes of Salmonella spp. have been demonstrated to be vertically transmitted from hen to egg. The incidence of Salmonella spp. isolation in the flock has been correlated to its isolation from the environment. Twenty-one producers were enrolled in this study to examine the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in 48 table egg layer flocks housed in 35 barns in Alberta...
May 10, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462812/biochar-to-reduce-ammonia-emissions-in-gaseous-and-liquid-phase-during-composting-of-poultry-manure-with-wheat-straw
#17
Damian Janczak, Krystyna Malińska, Wojciech Czekała, Rafaela Cáceres, Andrzej Lewicki, Jacek Dach
Composting of poultry manure which is high in N and dense in structure can cause several problems including significant N losses in the form of NH3 through volatilization. Biochar due to its recalcitrance and sorption properties can be used in composting as a bulking agent and/or amendment. The addition of a bulking agent to high moisture raw materials can assure optimal moisture content and enough air-filled porosity but not necessarily the C/N ratio. Therefore, amendment of low C/N composting mixtures with biochar at low rates can have a positive effect on composting dynamics...
April 24, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433907/rapid-generation-of-volatile-fatty-acids-vfa-through-anaerobic-acidification-of-livestock-organic-waste-at-low-hydraulic-residence-time-hrt
#18
Kranti Kuruti, Shalini Nakkasunchi, Sameena Begum, Sudharshan Juntupally, Vijayalakshmi Arelli, Gangagni Rao Anupoju
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment and F/M (Food to Microorganism) ratios for the rapid generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from livestock organic wastes (cattle manure (CM) and poultry litter (PL)) through an anaerobic acidification process at a pH range of 4.5-5.5. Experiments were organized using CM and PL in batch reactors (1L and 25L) with and with no pre-treatment of substrate at F/M ratios (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1). Among various existing pre-treatments methods, thermal-acidic (120°C; 1% H2SO4) pre-treatment was found effective...
August 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411348/quantitative-detection-of-fecal-contamination-with-domestic-poultry-feces-in-environments-in-china
#19
Fang-Fang Zhuang, Hu Li, Xin-Yuan Zhou, Yong-Guan Zhu, Jian-Qiang Su
Poultry are an important source of fecal contamination in environments. However, tools for detecting and tracking this fecal contamination are in the early stages of development. In practice, we have found that source tracking methods targeting the 16S rRNA genes of poultry-specific microbiota are not sufficiently sensitive. We therefore developed two quantitative PCR assays for detection of poultry fecal contamination, by targeting chicken and duck mitochondrial genes: NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) and cytochrome b (cytb)...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392123/reduced-turning-frequency-and-delayed-poultry-manure-addition-reduces-n-loss-from-sugarcane-compost
#20
S Bryndum, R Muschler, A Nigussie, J Magid, A de Neergaard
Composting is an effective method to recycle biodegradable waste as soil amendment in smallholder farming systems. Although all essential plant nutrients are found in compost, a substantial amount of nitrogen is lost during composting. This study therefore investigated the potential of reducing N losses by (i) delaying the addition of nitrogen-rich substrates (i.e. poultry manure), and (ii) reducing the turning frequency during composting. Furthermore, we tested the effect of compost application method on nitrogen mineralization...
April 6, 2017: Waste Management
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