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Poultry manure

B B Pokharel, V M Dos Santos, D Wood, B Van Heyst, A Harlander-Matauschek
Laying hens are chronically exposed to high levels of ammonia (NH3), one of the most abundant aerial pollutants in poultry houses. Tests for aversion to NH3 in laying hens have used artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures (i.e., from a gas cylinder) showing that birds prefer fresh air to NH3. However, artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures may not accurately reflect barn air conditions, where manure emits a variety of gases. Herein, we investigated whether laying hens differentiate between artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures and how exposure to NH3 affects foraging and aversive behavior...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
H K Burley, P H Patterson
The United States organic poultry industry is currently facing a limitation on dietary inclusion of synthetic methionine (Met). This study investigated Brazil nut protein powder (BNPP), spray-dried egg white (SDEW), and spray-dried egg blend (70:30 albumen: yolk) (SDEB) as alternatives to synthetic Met in organic laying hen diets. A total of 270 Hy-Line Brown laying hens was fed 5 diets from 22 to 38 wk of age, with 6 replicates of 3 adjacent cages per diet and 3 hens per cage. Diets included a commercial control (COM) (non-organic with standard CP and synthetic Met), an organic control (ORG) (with no synthetic Met, but higher CP to meet Met requirements), and 3 organic treatment diets with no synthetic Met, but including BNPP, SDEW, or SDEB at levels to meet Met requirements...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Lilian Marchand, Sophie Brunel-Muguet, Isabelle Lamy, Michel Mench, Celine Pelosi
Biochars are used as amendments to improve soil quality, but their effects on edaphic organisms such as earthworms remain controversial. This study aimed to assess the effects of adding a poultry manure-derived biochar into a contaminated technosol on trace element (TE) (i.e. As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) bioavailability for two earthworm species, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa. Three components of the bioavailability concept were determined using a pot experiment: (1) total soil TE (potentially reactive) and TE concentrations in the soil pore water (environmental availability), (2) TE concentrations in depurated whole earthworm bodies (environmental bioavailability) and (3) ecophysiological and biochemical effects on earthworms (toxicological bioavailability)...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Kimberly L Cook, Ethan C Givan, Holly M Mayton, Rohan R Parekh, Ritchie Taylor, Sharon L Walker
Despite continuing efforts to reduce foodborne pathogen contamination of fresh produce, significant outbreaks continue to occur. Identification of appropriate surrogates for foodborne pathogens facilitates relevant research to identify reservoirs and amplifiers of these contaminants in production and processing environments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify environmental Escherichia coli isolates from manures (poultry, swine and dairy) and surface water sources with properties similar to those of the produce associated foodborne pathogens E...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Xueli Chen, Guanglu Zhao, Yang Zhang, Lujia Han, Weihua Xiao
Accurately determining protein content is essential in exploiting biomass as feed and fuel. A survey of biomass samples in China indicated protein contents from 2.65 to 3.98 % for crop residues and from 6.07 to 10.24 % for animal manure. Conversion factors based on amino acid nitrogen (kA) ranged from 5.42 to 6.00 for the former and from 4.78 to 5.36 for the latter, indicating that the traditional factor of 6.25 is not suitable for biomass samples. On the other hand, conversion factors from Kjeldahl nitrogen (kP) ranged from 3...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yu-Jing Zhang, Hang-Wei Hu, Min Gou, Jun-Tao Wang, Deli Chen, Ji-Zheng He
Land application of animal manure is a common agricultural practice potentially leading to dispersal and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental settings. However, the fate of resistome in agro-ecosystems over time following application of different manure sources has never been compared systematically. Here, soil microcosm incubation was conducted to compare effects of poultry, cattle and swine manures spiked with or without the antibiotic tylosin on the temporal changes of soil ARGs...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Mianzhi Wang, Peng Liu, Wenguang Xiong, Qin Zhou, Junyi Wangxiao, Zhenling Zeng, Yongxue Sun
The aim of this study was to investigate the fate of nine potential indicator antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (sul1, sul2, tetB, tetM, ermB, ermF, fexA, cfr, intI1) and the diversity of bacterial communities in response to poultry manure applications to arable soil over a 90 day period. Quantitative real time PCR and Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA gene were used to quantify and trace ARG fate. The levels of all genes dramatically decreased over time and intI1, sul1, sul2 and tetM always had the greatest abundance and lowest dissipation rates...
September 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Iman Tahmasbian, Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani, Thi Thu Nhan Nguyen, Rongxiao Che, Thuc D Phan, Shahla Hosseini Bai
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) used with electrokinetic (EK) to remediate heavy metal-polluted soils is a toxic chelate for soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of alternative organic chelates to EDTA on improving the microbial properties of a heavy metal-polluted soil subjected to EK. Cow manure extract (CME), poultry manure extract (PME) and EDTA were applied to a lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)-polluted calcareous soil which were subjected to two electric intensities (1...
September 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jianteng Sun, Qingtao Zeng, Daniel C W Tsang, L Z Zhu, X D Li
This study focused on the occurrence and spatial distribution of 13 common antibiotics in the agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. Antibiotics were detected in all the 241 soil samples (i.e., 100% detection rate) with the total concentrations ranging from 4.55 to 2,010 ng/g dry weight. The concentrations of three antibiotic classes decreased in the order: quinolones (mean 48.8 ng/g) > tetracyclines (mean 34.9 ng/g) > sulfonamides (mean 2.35 ng/g). Ciprofloxacin was the prevalent compound with a mean concentration of 27...
September 15, 2017: Chemosphere
Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Sabir, Muhammad I Sohail
Contamination of agricultural soils with lead (Pb) is a widespread problem which is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. The present study investigated the effect of organic and inorganic amendments on wheat growth and reducing Pb concentration in the plant. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Pb spiked soil (500 mg kg(-1) of soil) with the application of farmyard manure, poultry manure, gypsum and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Plants were harvested after 120 days of growth and analyzed for Pb concentration in different plant parts...
September 21, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
S Aalfin Emmanuel, Jangyeon Yoo, Eok-Jo Kim, Jae-Soo Chang, Young-In Park, Sung-Cheol Koh
Spent coffee grounds (SCG), poultry manure, and agricultural waste-derived biochar were used to manufacture functional composts through microbial bioaugmentation. The highest yield of tomato stalk-based biochar (40.7%) was obtained at 450°C with a surface area of 2.35 m(2) g(-1). Four pilot-scale composting reactors were established to perform composting for 45 days. The ratios of NH4(+)-N/NO3(-)-N, which served as an indicator of compost maturity, indicate rapid, and successful composting via microbial bioaugmentation and biochar amendment...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
T L Crippen, C L Sheffield, R C Beier, D J Nisbet
There is need to determine the nature of enduring reservoirs of Salmonella contributing to perpetual contamination within poultry flocks. The dispersal of Salmonella between birds, litter and the lesser mealworm has been established, but the extent that these act as critical components in the epidemiology of Salmonella infection during broiler grow-out and flock rotation has not been delineated; in particular, the level of participation by the lesser mealworm beetles (LMB) as agents of retention and dispersal...
September 19, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
E D'Angelo
Tetracycline (TET) is commonly used to treat bacterial diseases in humans and chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), is largely excreted, and is found at elevated concentrations in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) and poultry litter (excrement plus bedding materials). Routine application of these nutrient-and carbon-enriched materials to soils improves fertility and other characteristics, but the presence of antibiotics (and other pharmaceuticals) in amendments raises questions about potential adverse effects on biota and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Song-Quan Ong, Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid, Hamdan Ahmad
In this study, bifenthrin (Maxxthor SC, Ensystex Australasia Pty Ltd), imidacloprid (Prothor SC, Ensystex Australasia Pty Ltd) and fipronil (Regent(®)50SC, Bayer) were applied on the natural infest manures according to the manufacturer rate during a broiler breeding cycle. Solvent direct-immersion extraction (SDIE) was used in detecting the target compound and later, quantification of the insecticide residues in field condition was investigated. The samples were prior cleaned up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) - photodiode array (PDA) system...
July 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
R Souillard, C Le Maréchal, V Ballan, F Mahé, M Chemaly, S Le Bouquin
In October 2014, an outbreak of botulism type D/C occurred on two cattle farms in close proximity. A poultry farm located nearby with no history of botulism had transferred poultry manure to both bovine farms before the beginning of the outbreak. Given this context, epidemiological investigation was conducted to determine if the poultry farm was a reservoir of C. botulinum type D/C and to identify the source of contamination on the cattle farms. Environmental samples were collected at three houses on the poultry farm (boot swabs from the surroundings, swabs from the ventilation system, boot swabs from the poultry litter and darkling beetles samples), and on the two cattle farms (silage samples, boot swabs from the cattle stalls, boot swabs from the cattle pasture and poultry manure samples)...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Zhisheng Yao, Guangxuan Yan, Xunhua Zheng, Rui Wang, Chunyan Liu, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
High nitrogen (N) inputs in Chinese vegetable and cereal productions played key roles in increasing crop yields. However, emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and atmospheric pollutant nitric oxide (NO) increased too. For lowering the environmental costs of crop production, it is essential to optimize N strategies to maintain high crop productivity, while reducing the associated N losses. We performed a 2 year-round field study regarding the effect of different combinations of poultry manure and chemical N fertilizers on crop yields, N use efficiency (NUE) and N2O and NO fluxes from a Welsh onion-winter wheat system in the North China Plain...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Tanka P Prasai, Kerry B Walsh, David J Midmore, Ben E H Jones, Surya P Bhattarai
Feeding treatments were imposed in two feeding trials involving Cobb broiler and Bond Brown layer birds. Three feed additives (biochar, bentonite and zeolite) were supplied at four rates (0, 1, 2 and 4% w/w) in feed, as previously considered in the context of animal production, was considered in the context of Excreta chemical and water retention properties and granulation characteristics of decomposed excreta (manure) were characterised. At field capacity (- 0.01 MPa), manure produced from control and 4% bentonite diets contained significantly (p = 0...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Samuel Ogheneovo Asagba, Theresa Ezedom, Helen Kadiri
The present study aims to assess the effects of the two kinds of farmyard manure (poultry and pig manures) as amendments for soil on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in plants using cowpea seedlings as plant model. Cd toxicity was evaluated by assessing the effect of the metal on the growth rate and antioxidant status as well as the ability of the plant to metabolise xenobiotic. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) increased concentration of Cd in the root, stem and leaves of cowpea seedlings grown in all the treated soils relative to control...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xin Lu, Lizhu Liu, Ruqin Fan, Jia Luo, Shaohua Yan, Zed Rengel, Zhenhua Zhang
Composting is one of the post-treatment methods for phytoremediation plants. Due to a high potential of water hyacinth to accumulate pollutants, the physicochemical parameters, microbial activity as well as fates of copper (Cu) and tetracyclines (TCs) were investigated for the different amended water hyacinth biomass harvested from intensive livestock and poultry wastewater, including unamended water hyacinth (W), water hyacinth amended with peat (WP), and water hyacinth amended with pig manure (WPM) during the composting process...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aziz Faissal, N Ouazzani, J R Parrado, M Dary, H Manyani, B R Morgado, M D Barragán, L Mandi
The quality of soil is strongly bound by several interactions between chemical and biological components, including microbial composition, which are a key importance for soil performance. Cultural activities have a huge induction on soil health, through both modification of physicochemical proprieties and changing on soil microbial communities. This usually affects the safety of soil, and then the crop production and water. In the present work, the information on bacterial community composition was determined from a set of 6 soils collected from 2 farms in agricultural land of Marrakech (Morocco), one of which used poultry manure (PM) and the other cow manure (CM) as fertilizers...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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