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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914350/phosphorus-flows-in-a-peri-urban-region-with-intensive-food-production-a-case-study
#1
S Bittman, S C Sheppard, D Poon, D E Hunt
Excess phosphorus (P) in peri-urban regions is an emerging issue, whereas there is global depletion of quality mined supplies of P. The flow of P across the landscape leading to regional surpluses and deficits is not well understood. We computed a regional P budget with internal P flows in a fairly discreet peri-urban region (Lower Fraser Valley, BC) with closely juxtaposed agricultural and non-agricultural urban ecosystems, in order to clarify the relationship between food production, food consumption and other activities involving use of P (e...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876951/prevalence-of-dermanyssus-and-ornithonyssus-species-of-mites-in-poultry-farms-of-vikarabad-area-of-hyderabad
#2
G S Sreenivasa Murthy, Rasmita Panda
The common blood feeder mites of poultry are from the genera Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production or sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on workers. They also cause anaemia in birds and play a vector role for several human and animal diseases. Five poultry farm buildings of Vikarabad area of Rangareddy district were visited. Samples were collected from a variety of sites, including beneath feed troughs, inside cage fittings and fastening clips, under egg conveyer belts and under manure belts...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848110/changing-agricultural-practices-potential-consequences-to-aquatic-organisms
#3
Peter J Lasier, Matthew L Urich, Sayed M Hassan, Whitney N Jacobs, Robert B Bringolf, Kathleen M Owens
Agricultural practices pose threats to biotic diversity in freshwater systems with increasing use of glyphosate-based herbicides for weed control and animal waste for soil amendment becoming common in many regions. Over the past two decades, these particular agricultural trends have corresponded with marked declines in populations of fish and mussel species in the Upper Conasauga River watershed in Georgia/Tennessee, USA. To investigate the potential role of agriculture in the population declines, surface waters and sediments throughout the basin were tested for toxicity and analyzed for glyphosate, metals, nutrients, and steroid hormones...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814534/changes-in-antibiotic-concentrations-and-antibiotic-resistome-during-commercial-composting-of-animal-manures
#4
Wan-Ying Xie, Xin-Ping Yang, Qian Li, Long-Hua Wu, Qi-Rong Shen, Fang-Jie Zhao
The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China...
October 27, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807786/cost-effective-enhanced-iron-bioavailability-in-rice-grain-grown-on-calcareous-soil-by-sulfur-mediation-and-its-effect-on-heavy-metals-mineralization
#5
Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Muhammad Khalid, Shazia Anjum, Waqas-Ud-Din Khan, Shafaqat Ali, Fakhir Hannan, Muhammad Iqbal
Calcareous soil, high pH, and low organic matter are the major factors that limit iron (Fe) availability to rice crop. The present study was planned with the aim to biofortified rice grain with Fe, by integrated use of chemical and organic amendments in pH-manipulated calcareous soil. The soil pH was reduced (pHL2) by using elemental sulfur (S) at the rate of 0.25 % (w/w). The organic amendments, biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) [1 % (w/w)], along with ferrous sulfate at the rate of 7.5 mg kg(-1) soil were used...
November 2, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803701/growth-and-productivity-response-of-hybrid-rice-to-application-of-animal-manures-plant-residues-and-phosphorus
#6
Amanullah, Shams-Ul-Tamraiz Khan, Asif Iqbal, Shah Fahad
The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha(-1) each) on the productivity of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) production under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg P ha(-1)) fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1), impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep, and poultry manures) and P levels were studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied) was investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792203/cytotoxicity-of-odorous-compounds-from-poultry-manure
#7
Adriana Nowak, Katarzyna Matusiak, Sebastian Borowski, Tadeusz Bakuła, Sebastian Opaliński, Roman Kołacz, Beata Gutarowska
Long-term exposure and inhalation of odorous compounds from poultry manure can be harmful to farm workers and the surrounding residents as well as animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity and IC50 values of common odorous compounds such as ammonium, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, butyric acid, phenol, and indole in the chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH (Leghorn Male Hepatoma), in vitro, using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and PrestoBlue cytotoxicity assays...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740452/introduction-to-preharvest-food-safety
#8
Mary E Torrence
This introductory article provides an overview of preharvest food safety activities and initiatives for the past 15 years. The section on traditional areas of preharvest food safety focuses on significant scientific advancements that are a culmination of collaborative efforts (both public health and agriculture) and significant research results. The highlighted advancements provide the foundation for exploring future preharvest areas and for improving and focusing on more specific intervention/control/prevention strategies...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710881/delayed-addition-of-nitrogen-rich-substrates-during-composting-of-municipal-waste-effects-on-nitrogen-loss-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-compost-stability
#9
Abebe Nigussie, Sander Bruun, Thomas W Kuyper, Andreas de Neergaard
Municipal waste is usually composted with an N-rich substrate, such as manure, to increase the N content of the product. This means that a significant amount of nitrogen can be lost during composting. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate (poultry manure) on nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions during composting and to link this effect to different bulking agents (coffee husks and sawdust), and (ii) to assess the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate on compost stability and sanitisation...
January 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695743/copper-and-zinc-runoff-from-land-application-of-composted-poultry-litter
#10
P B DeLaune, P A Moore
Regions with long-term animal manure applications based on nitrogen (N) requirements have concerns regarding elevated nutrient levels. Most attention has focused on phosphorus (P), but heavy metal accumulation has received attention due to perceived environmental concerns. Composting is a potential management practice that can reduce total manure mass and volume while creating a stabilized product that has less odor and fewer pathogens. However, composting animal manures can lead to high N loss via ammonia volatilization and increased concentrations of nonvolatile nutrients...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684314/co-composting-of-two-phase-olive-mill-pomace-and-poultry-manure-with-tomato-harvest-stalks
#11
Kemal Sülük, İsmail Tosun, Kamil Ekinci
In this study, two-phase olive-mill pomace with poultry manure and chopped tomato harvest stalks were composted at different initial carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios with fixed free air space of 35%. Composting experiment was carried out in the 15 aerobic reactors made of stainless steel and was monitored for 28 days. During the composting process, temperature, moisture content, organic matter (OM), pH, electrical conductivity, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, total carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), nitrate nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), and total phosphorus were monitored...
August 16, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641655/removal-of-ammonia-from-poultry-manure-by-aluminosilicates
#12
Łukasz Wlazło, Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek, Jacek Kapica, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Halina Pawlak
The aim of the study was to test the possibility of using aluminosilicates as natural sorbents of ammonia from poultry manure. The ammonia-absorbing properties of sodium bentonite and zeolite were confirmed in ex situ conditions. The most significant reduction in the level of ammonia with respect to the control was noted for 2% bentonite and 1% zeolite. The mean reduction for the entire period of the experiment ranged from 26.41% to 29.04%. The aluminosilicates tested can be used to neutralize ammonia released on poultry farms...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628961/short-chain-nitrocompounds-as-a-treatment-of-layer-hen-manure-and-litter-effects-on-in-vitro-survivability-of-salmonella-generic-e-coli-and-nitrogen-metabolism
#13
Oscar Ruiz-Barrera, Robin C Anderson, Michael E Hume, Jonatan Corrales-Millan, Yamicela Castillo-Castillo, Agustin Corral-Luna, Jose Luis Guevara-Valdez, Jaime Salinas-Chavira, Carlos Rodriguez-Muela, Claudio Arzola-Alvarez
The current study was conducted to assess the bactericidal effectiveness of several nitrocompounds against pathogens in layer hen manure and litter. Evidence from an initial study indicated that treatment of layer hen manure with 12 mM nitroethane decreased populations of generic E. coli and total coliforms by 0.7 and 2.2 log10 colony forming units (CFU) g(-1), respectively, after 24 h aerobic incubation at ambient temperature when compared to untreated populations. Salmonella concentrations were unaffected by nitroethane in this study...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620351/decomposition-rate-and-enzymatic-activity-of-composted-municipal-waste-and-poultry-manure-in-the-soil-in-a-biofuel-crops-field
#14
Cláudia Marques-Dos-Santos Cordovil, Tiago Filipe Alves, Pedro Mendes, Amarilis de Varennes, Sílvio César Sampaio, Renata Machado Dos Santos Pinto
BACKGROUND: biofuel crops are gaining importance due to the need to replace non renewable sources. Also, due to the increasing amounts of wastes generated there is the need to recycle them to the soil, both to fertilize crops and to improve soil physical properties through OM increase and microbiological changes in the ryzosphere. So, we studied the influence of six biofuel crops (elephant-grass, giant-cane, sugarcane, blue-gum, black-cottonwood, willow) on the decomposition rate and enzymatic activity of composted municipal solid waste and poultry manure...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580466/solanum-lycopersicum-tomato-hosts-robust-phyllosphere-and-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-when-grown-in-soil-amended-with-various-organic-and-synthetic-fertilizers
#15
Sarah M Allard, Christopher S Walsh, Anna E Wallis, Andrea R Ottesen, Eric W Brown, Shirley A Micallef
Due to the intimate association between plants and their microbial symbionts, an examination of the influence of agricultural practices on phytobiome structure and diversity could foster a more comprehensive understanding of plant health and produce safety. Indeed, the impact of upstream crop producti006Fn practices cannot be overstated in their role in assuring an abundant and safe food supply. To assess whether fertilizer type impacted rhizosphere and phyllosphere bacterial communities associating with tomato plants, the bacterial microbiome of tomato cv...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572695/individual-and-combined-effects-of-crude-protein-methionine-and-probiotic-levels-on-laying-hen-productive-performance-and-nitrogen-pollution-in-the-manure
#16
Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Muhammad Arif, Elwy A Ashour
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the dietary levels of protein, methionine (Met), as well as probiotic on productive performance, feed utilization, and environmental pollution by N in Lohmann Brown laying hens. A total number of 160 Lohmann Brown laying hens at 20 weeks of age were randomly divided into 8 treatment groups using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design experiment. The experiment involved two levels of crude protein (16 and 18 %), two levels of Met (0.45 and 0.50 %), and two concentrations of probiotic (0 or 1 g/kg diet, with a concentration of 10(10) CFU/g of Lactobacillus acidophilus) within 20-42 weeks of age...
August 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503629/airborne-bacterial-contaminations-in-typical-chinese-wet-market-with-live-poultry-trade
#17
Xin-Lei Gao, Ming-Fei Shao, Yi Luo, Yu-Fang Dong, Feng Ouyang, Wen-Yi Dong, Ji Li
: Chinese wet markets with live poultry trade have been considered as major sources of pathogen dissemination, and sites for horizontal transfer of bacterial and viral pathogens. In this study, the pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in air samples collected at a typical Chinese wet market had been analysis and quantified. Corynebacterium minutissimum and other pathogenic bacteria accounted for 0.81-8.02% of the whole microbial community in different air samples...
August 6, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493649/nitrogen-mineralization-of-a-loam-soil-supplemented-with-organic-inorganic-amendments-under-laboratory-incubation
#18
M Kaleem Abbasi, Abdul Khaliq
The quantification of nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of organic amendments applied to a soil is of immense importance to examine synchronization, N release capacity, and fertilizer values of these added materials. The aims of the present study was to determine the potential N mineralization and subsequent nitrification of separate and combined use of poultry manure (PM), wheat straw residues (WSR), and urea N (UN) applied to a loam soil incubated periodically over 140 days period. In addition, changes in total soil N and carbon contents were also monitored during the study...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470672/linking-environment-productivity-trade-offs-and-correlated-uncertainties-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-crop-productivity-in-paddy-rice-production-systems
#19
Kiyotada Hayashi, Yoshifumi Nagumo, Akiko Domoto
In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464828/structure-of-bacterial-communities-in-soil-following-cover-crop-and-organic-fertilizer-incorporation
#20
Adria L Fernandez, Craig C Sheaffer, Donald L Wyse, Christopher Staley, Trevor J Gould, Michael J Sadowsky
Incorporation of organic material into soils is an important element of organic farming practices that can affect the composition of the soil bacterial communities that carry out nutrient cycling and other functions crucial to crop health and growth. We conducted a field experiment to determine the effects of cover crops and fertilizers on bacterial community structure in agricultural soils under long-term organic management. Illumina sequencing of 16S rDNA revealed diverse communities comprising 45 bacterial phyla in corn rhizosphere and bulk field soil...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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