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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223896/environmental-status-of-livestock-and-poultry-sectors-in-china-under-current-transformation-stage
#1
Yi Qian, Kaihui Song, Tao Hu, Tianyu Ying
Intensive animal husbandry had aroused great environmental concerns in many developed countries. However, some developing countries are still undergoing the environmental pollution from livestock and poultry sectors. Driven by the large demand, China has experienced a remarkable increase in dairy and meat production, especially in the transformation stage from conventional household breeding to large-scale industrial breeding. At the same time, a large amount of manure from the livestock and poultry sector is released into waterbodies and soil, causing eutrophication and soil degradation...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215969/protection-from-wintertime-rainfall-reduces-nutrient-losses-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-during-the-decomposition-of-poultry-and-horse-manure-based-amendments
#2
Gabriel Maltais-Landry, Katarina Neufeld, David Poon, Nicholas Grant, Zoran Nesic, Sean Smukler
Manure-based soil amendments (herein "amendments") are important fertility sources but differences among amendment types and management can significantly affect their nutrient value and environmental impacts. We conducted a six-month in situ decomposition experiment to determine how protection from wintertime rainfall affected nutrient losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in poultry (chicken broiler and turkey) and horse amendments. We measured changes in total nutrient concentration - nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) - every three months, changes in ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentration every month, and GHG emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) every 7-14 days...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185219/study-on-the-pollution-status-and-control-measures-for-the-livestock-and-poultry-breeding-industry-in-northeastern-china
#3
Hanxi Wang, Jianling Xu, Xuejun Liu, Lianxi Sheng, Di Zhang, Longwei Li, Aixia Wang
Livestock and poultry breeding industry is one of the main economic pillars of northeastern China. However, the amount of pollutants produced is much higher than that in other parts of China. Through a questionnaire survey, indoor experiment, and outdoor experiment, it was found that the resource utilization rate of livestock and poultry manure in the northeastern region is low, with the pollution of livestock and poultry breeding mainly including air and water pollution. The alarm level of cultivated land and manure is II...
November 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178629/analysis-of-emerging-organic-contaminants-in-poultry-manure-by-gc-ms-ms
#4
Ramón Aznar, Beatriz Albero, Rosa Ana Pérez, Consuelo Sánchez-Brunete, Esther Miguel, José L Tadeo
A multiresidue method was developed for the determination of 19 emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products and bisphenol A) in poultry manure. Lyophilized samples of manure were extracted by ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion and the extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry after derivatization. Analysis of spiked poultry manure samples, at levels ranging from 25 to 150 ng g-1 , gave satisfactory recovery results for all the compounds, with values from 67 to 106 %...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170494/phosphate-solubilizing-bacteria-nullify-the-antagonistic-effect-of-soil-calcification-on-bioavailability-of-phosphorus-in-alkaline-soils
#5
Muhammad Adnan, Zahir Shah, Shah Fahad, Muhamamd Arif, Mukhtar Alam, Imtiaz Ali Khan, Ishaq Ahmad Mian, Abdul Basir, Hidayat Ullah, Muhammad Arshad, Inayat-Ur- Rehman, Shah Saud, Muhammad Zahid Ihsan, Yousaf Jamal, Amanullah, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Wajid Nasim
Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) reduce the negative effects of soil calcification on soil phosphorus (P) nutrition. In this incubation study, we explored the ability of PSB (control and inoculated) to release P from different P sources [single super phosphate (SSP), rock phosphate (RP), poultry manure (PM) and farm yard manure (FYM)] with various soil lime contents (4.78, 10, 15 and 20%) in alkaline soil. PSB inoculation progressively enriched Olsen extractable P from all sources compared to the control over the course of 56 days; however, this increase was greater from organic sources (PM and FYM) than from mineral P sources (SSP and RP)...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157369/risk-factors-associated-with-the-a2c-resistance-pattern-among-e-coli-isolates-from-broiler-flocks-in-canada
#6
Niamh Caffrey, Omid Nekouei, Sheryl Gow, Agnes Agunos, Sylvia Checkley
The extra-label use of ceftiofur in Canadian hatcheries was cause for concern due to an increased prevalence of ceftiofur resistant Salmonella Heidelberg in chickens and humans in Québec. Due to on-going concerns related to human health the use of ceftiofur was eventually phased out of the poultry production industry in 2014-2015. Simultaneous resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur and cefoxitin, a pattern known as A2C, caused by the presence of blaCMY-2 has become increasingly prevalent in broiler flocks worldwide...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126822/blending-based-optimisation-and-pretreatment-strategies-to-enhance-anaerobic-digestion-of-poultry-manure
#7
Ivan Rodriguez-Verde, Leticia Regueiro, Juan M Lema, Marta Carballa
Anaerobic digestion of poultry manure is limited by the excessive levels of nitrogen and the high concentration of dry matter. These limitations are usually overcome either by applying procedures to remove nitrogen or by employing pretreatments that allows to solubilise organic matter. In this work, the treatment of poultry manure was enhanced by co-digestion with pig manure through the methodological determination of optimal mixtures combined together with a thermochemical pretreatment coupled to ammonia stripping...
November 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126051/oxidation-resistance-of-biochars-as-a-function-of-feedstock-and-pyrolysis-condition
#8
Lanfang Han, Kyoung S Ro, Yu Wang, Ke Sun, Haoran Sun, Judy A Libra, Baoshan Xing
Assessing biochar's ability to resist oxidation is fundamental to understanding its potential to sequester carbon. Chemical oxidation exhibits good performance in estimating the oxidation resistance of biochar. Herein, oxidation resistance of 14 types of biochars produced from four feedstocks at different pyrolysis conditions (hydrothermal versus thermal carbonization) was investigated via hydrogen peroxide oxidation with varying concentrations. The oxidation resistance of organic carbon (C) of hydrochars was relatively higher than that of 250°C pyrochars (P250) but was comparable to that of 450°C pyrochars (P450)...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123865/a-case-of-tetanus-treated-with-kampo-medicines-such-as-kakkonto-and-shakuyakukanzoto
#9
Hajime Nakae, Yuri Saito, Manabu Okuyama, Toshiko Igarashi
Case: A 74-year-old man developed tetanus 3 days after working with cow and poultry manure. Kakkonto and shakuyakukanzoto, traditional Japanese herbal medicines that are effective for the relief of pain primarily related to muscle contraction, were given to control the trismus and painful contracture of the neck. Generalized convulsions were controlled without the use of muscle relaxants. Outcome: After 30 days, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any sequelae...
April 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094590/discrepancies-and-uncertainties-in-bottom-up-gridded-inventories-of-livestock-methane-emissions-for-the-contiguous-united-states
#10
Alexander Hristov, Michael Harper, Robert Meinen, Rick Day, Juliana Lopes, Troy L Ott, Aranya Venkatesh, Cynthia A Randles
In this analysis we used a spatially-explicit, simplified bottom-up approach, based on animal inventories, feed dry matter intake, and feed intake-based emission factors to estimate county-level enteric methane emissions for cattle and manure methane emissions for cattle, swine, and poultry for the contiguous United States. Overall, this analysis yielded total livestock methane emissions (8,916 Gg/yr; lower and upper 95% confidence bounds of ±19.3%) for 2012 (last census of agriculture) that are comparable to the current USEPA estimates for 2012 and to estimates from the global gridded Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) inventory...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077938/assessment-of-the-minimal-available-phosphorus-needs-of-pullets-during-the-pre-laying-period
#11
M Jing, S Zhao, A Rogiewicz, B A Slominski, J D House
Dietary phosphorus (P) oversupply is costly to the poultry industry and represents a point source of excessive P discharge to the environment via manure application to soils. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary available P (AP) level on growth performance, plasma biochemistry, bone characteristics, and P flow in order to assess minimal AP needs of pullets during the pre-lay period. A total of 192 Lohmann pullet chicks were randomly allocated to one of 4 treatments with 8 replicate cages of 6 birds per cage...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053839/laying-hens-behave-differently-in-artificially-and-naturally-sourced-ammoniated-environments
#12
B B Pokharel, V M Dos Santos, D Wood, B Van Heyst, A Harlander-Matauschek
Laying hens are chronically exposed to high levels of ammonia (NH3), one of the most abundant aerial pollutants in poultry houses. Tests for aversion to NH3 in laying hens have used artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures (i.e., from a gas cylinder) showing that birds prefer fresh air to NH3. However, artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures may not accurately reflect barn air conditions, where manure emits a variety of gases. Herein, we investigated whether laying hens differentiate between artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures and how exposure to NH3 affects foraging and aversive behavior...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050427/brazil-nut-meal-and-spray-dried-egg-powders-as-alternatives-to-synthetic-methionine-in-organic-laying-hen-diets
#13
H K Burley, P H Patterson
The United States organic poultry industry is currently facing a limitation on dietary inclusion of synthetic methionine (Met). This study investigated Brazil nut protein powder (BNPP), spray-dried egg white (SDEW), and spray-dried egg blend (70:30 albumen: yolk) (SDEB) as alternatives to synthetic Met in organic laying hen diets. A total of 270 Hy-Line Brown laying hens was fed 5 diets from 22 to 38 wk of age, with 6 replicates of 3 adjacent cages per diet and 3 hens per cage. Diets included a commercial control (COM) (non-organic with standard CP and synthetic Met), an organic control (ORG) (with no synthetic Met, but higher CP to meet Met requirements), and 3 organic treatment diets with no synthetic Met, but including BNPP, SDEW, or SDEB at levels to meet Met requirements...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022159/modulation-of-trace-element-bioavailability-for-two-earthworm-species-after-biochar-amendment-into-a-contaminated-technosol
#14
Lilian Marchand, Sophie Brunel-Muguet, Isabelle Lamy, Michel Mench, Celine Pelosi
Biochars are used as amendments to improve soil quality, but their effects on edaphic organisms such as earthworms remain controversial. This study aimed to assess the effects of adding a poultry manure-derived biochar into a contaminated technosol on trace element (TE) (i.e. As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) bioavailability for two earthworm species, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa. Three components of the bioavailability concept were determined using a pot experiment: (1) total soil TE (potentially reactive) and TE concentrations in the soil pore water (environmental availability), (2) TE concentrations in depurated whole earthworm bodies (environmental bioavailability) and (3) ecophysiological and biochemical effects on earthworms (toxicological bioavailability)...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968533/using-the-agricultural-environment-to-select-better-surrogates-for-foodborne-pathogens-associated-with-fresh-produce
#15
Kimberly L Cook, Ethan C Givan, Holly M Mayton, Rohan R Parekh, Ritchie Taylor, Sharon L Walker
Despite continuing efforts to reduce foodborne pathogen contamination of fresh produce, significant outbreaks continue to occur. Identification of appropriate surrogates for foodborne pathogens facilitates relevant research to identify reservoirs and amplifiers of these contaminants in production and processing environments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify environmental Escherichia coli isolates from manures (poultry, swine and dairy) and surface water sources with properties similar to those of the produce associated foodborne pathogens E...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965403/nitrogen-to-protein-conversion-factors-for-crop-residues-and-animal-manure-common-in-china
#16
Xueli Chen, Guanglu Zhao, Yang Zhang, Lujia Han, Weihua Xiao
Accurately determining protein content is essential in exploiting biomass as feed and fuel. A survey of biomass samples in China indicated protein contents from 2.65 to 3.98% for crop residues and from 6.07 to 10.24% for animal manure of dry basis. Conversion factors based on amino acid nitrogen (kA) ranged from 5.42 to 6.00 for the former and from 4.78 to 5.36 for the latter, indicating that the traditional factor of 6.25 is not suitable for biomass samples. On the other hand, conversion factors from Kjeldahl nitrogen (kP) ranged from 3...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964602/temporal-succession-of-soil-antibiotic-resistance-genes-following-application-of-swine-cattle-and-poultry-manures-spiked-with-or-without-antibiotics
#17
Yu-Jing Zhang, Hang-Wei Hu, Min Gou, Jun-Tao Wang, Deli Chen, Ji-Zheng He
Land application of animal manure is a common agricultural practice potentially leading to dispersal and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental settings. However, the fate of resistome in agro-ecosystems over time following application of different manure sources has never been compared systematically. Here, soil microcosm incubation was conducted to compare effects of poultry, cattle and swine manures spiked with or without the antibiotic tylosin on the temporal changes of soil ARGs...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958128/fate-of-potential-indicator-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-args-and-bacterial-community-diversity-in-simulated-manure-soil-microcosms
#18
Mianzhi Wang, Peng Liu, Wenguang Xiong, Qin Zhou, Junyi Wangxiao, Zhenling Zeng, Yongxue Sun
The aim of this study was to investigate the fate of nine potential indicator antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (sul1, sul2, tetB, tetM, ermB, ermF, fexA, cfr, intI1) and the diversity of bacterial communities in response to poultry manure applications to arable soil over a 90 day period. Quantitative real time PCR and Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA gene were used to quantify and trace ARG fate. The levels of all genes dramatically decreased over time and intI1, sul1, sul2 and tetM always had the greatest abundance and lowest dissipation rates...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948525/application-of-manures-to-mitigate-the-harmful-effects-of-electrokinetic-remediation-of-heavy-metals-on-soil-microbial-properties-in-polluted-soils
#19
Iman Tahmasbian, Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani, Thi Thu Nhan Nguyen, Rongxiao Che, Thuc D Phan, Shahla Hosseini Bai
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) used with electrokinetic (EK) to remediate heavy metal-polluted soils is a toxic chelate for soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of alternative organic chelates to EDTA on improving the microbial properties of a heavy metal-polluted soil subjected to EK. Cow manure extract (CME), poultry manure extract (PME) and EDTA were applied to a lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)-polluted calcareous soil which were subjected to two electric intensities (1...
September 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942256/antibiotics-in-the-agricultural-soils-from-the-yangtze-river-delta-china
#20
Jianteng Sun, Qingtao Zeng, Daniel C W Tsang, L Z Zhu, X D Li
This study focused on the occurrence and spatial distribution of 13 common antibiotics in the agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. Antibiotics were detected in all the 241 soil samples (i.e., 100% detection rate) with the total concentrations ranging from 4.55 to 2,010 ng/g dry weight. The concentrations of three antibiotic classes decreased in the order: quinolones (mean 48.8 ng/g) > tetracyclines (mean 34.9 ng/g) > sulfonamides (mean 2.35 ng/g). Ciprofloxacin was the prevalent compound with a mean concentration of 27...
September 15, 2017: Chemosphere
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