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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319994/growth-of-bacterial-phytopathogens-in-animal-manures
#1
Wojciech Sledz, Sabina Zoledowska, Agata Motyka, Leszek Kadziński, Bogdan Banecki
Animal manures are routinely applied to agricultural lands to improve crop yield, but the possibility to spread bacterial phytopathogens through field fertilization has not been considered yet. We monitored 49 cattle, horse, swine, sheep or chicken manure samples collected in 14 Polish voivodeships for the most important plant pathogenic bacteria - Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Erwinia amylovora (Eam), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp...
2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314607/mutagenic-activities-of-biochars-from-pyrolysis
#2
Anna V Piterina, J Kevin Chipman, J Tony Pembroke, Michael H B Hayes
Biochar production, from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks, agricultural residues, and animal and poultry manures are emerging globally as novel industrial and commercial products. It is important to develop and to validate a series of suitable protocols for the ecological monitoring of the qualities and properties of biochars. The highly sensitive Salmonella mutagenicity assays (the Ames test) are used widely by the toxicology community and, via the rat liver extract (S9), can reflect the potential for mammalian metabolic activation...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301246/persistence-of-highly-pathogenic-and-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-footbaths-and-poultry-manure
#3
R Hauck, B Crossley, D Rejmanek, H Zhou, R A Gallardo
A questionnaire was designed in order to gather information about bedding material and footbath preparation and maintenance in different productive units across the state of California.This information was used to plan two experiments. In the first experiment, we tested the effectiveness of footbaths in inactivating highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on rubber boots. Surprisingly, quaternary ammonia- and quaternary ammonia + glutaraldehyde-based footbaths were not able to eliminate live HPAIV (H5N8) and LPAIV (H6N2) particles on boots, while a chlorine-based granulated disinfectant was able to destroy the virus at contact...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281067/changes-in-structural-characteristics-and-metal-speciation-for-biochar-exposure-in-typic-udic-ferrisols
#4
Qi Lin, Xin Xu, Qian Chen, Jing Fang, Xiaodong Shen, Lijuan Zhang
Recent studies on biochars confirmed their potential benefits in improving soil fertility and sequestrating contaminants. However, little information on the changes in structural characteristics and metal speciation of biochars after exposure to soils is currently available. The aim of this study was to use double experimental bags to study the transformation of ozonized biochars derived from poultry manure and drying sludge (denoted PB and SB, respectively) in typic udic ferrisols. The carbon and sulfur functional groups and chemical characteristics of the biochars were determined using spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy spectroscopy, combined with chemical extractions...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248673/evaluation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-in-malagasy-pig-and-poultry-non-industrial-farmers
#5
Tsiry Rasamiravaka, Tojo Tiana Andriatsitohanana, Andry Rasamindrakotroka
INTRODUCTION: The laboratory of Training and Research in Medical Biology of Madagascar conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage of pig and poultry Malagasy farmers. METHODOLOGY: Pig and poultry farmers from capital town of Madagascar were selected for nasal swabs collection with information on potential risk factors for S. aureus colonization, including animal exposure. RESULTS: Nasal swabs from 180 farmers (M/F sex ratio: 0...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177786/response-of-microbial-communities-to-roxarsone-under-different-culture-conditions
#6
Yaci Liu, Zhaoji Zhang, Yasong Li, Yuhong Fei
Roxarsone is a feed additive widely used in broiler and swine industry that has the potential to contaminate environment, mainly via the use of poultry manure as fertilizer, which results in release of inorganic arsenic to the soil and water. This study was conducted to investigate the roxarsone degradation and the response of microbial community under different culture conditions using high-throughput sequencing technology. Poultry litter was incubated for 288 h in the presence of roxarsone under light aerobic, dark aerobic, or dark anaerobic conditions, showing that roxarsone was completely degraded after 48 h of dark anaerobic incubation, while 79...
January 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147301/batch-and-semi-continuous-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-goose-manure-with-alkali-solubilized-wheat-straw-a-case-of-carbon-to-nitrogen-ratio-and-organic-loading-rate-regression-optimization
#7
Muhammad Hassan, Weimin Ding, Muhammad Umar, Ghulam Rasool
The present study focused on carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and organic loading rate (OLR) optimization of goose manure (GM) and wheat straw (WS). Dealing the anaerobic digestion of poultry manure on industrial scale; the question of optimum C/N (mixing ratio) and OLR (daily feeding concentration) have significant importance still lack in literature. Therefore, Batch and CSTR co-digestion experiments of the GM and WS were carried out at mesophilic condition. The alkali (NaOH) solubilization pretreatment for the WS had greatly enhanced its anaerobic digestibility...
January 13, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142211/stimulation-of-n2-o-emission-by-manure-application-to-agricultural-soils-may-largely-offset-carbon-benefits-a-global-meta-analysis
#8
Minghua Zhou, Bo Zhu, Shijie Wang, Xinyu Zhu, Harry Vereecken, Nicolas Brüggemann
Animal manure application as organic fertilizer does not only sustain agricultural productivity and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but also affects soil nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. However, given that the sign and magnitude of manure effects on soil N2 O emissions is uncertain, the net climatic impact of manure application in arable land is unknown. Here, we performed a global meta-analysis using field experimental data published in peer-reviewed journals prior to December 2015...
January 31, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122880/lethal-effects-of-the-insect-growth-regulator-cyromazine-against-three-species-of-filth-flies-musca-domestica-stomoxys-calcitrans-and-fannia-canicularis-diptera-muscidae-in-cattle-swine-and-chicken-manure
#9
William A Donahue, Allan T Showler, Michael W Donahue, Bret E Vinson, Weste L A Osbrink
The presence of various species of filth flies is a widespread problem where livestock, including poultry, are maintained and where manure accumulates. The house fly, Musca domestica L.; the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.); and the little house fly, Fannia canicularis (L.) (each Diptera: Muscidae), the target pests in our study, can mechanically spread diseases, and S. calcitrans can bite cattle, causing losses in meat and milk production. Chemical control is widely used to suppress filth flies, but resistance to conventional insecticides has become problematic...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043869/isolation-of-rhamnolipids-producing-cultures-from-faeces-influence-of-interspecies-communication-on-the-yield-of-rhamnolipid-congeners
#10
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Kamila Myszka, Agata Sznajdrowska, Alicja Szulc, Agnieszka Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Łukasz Ławniczak, Philippe F-X Corvini, Łukasz Chrzanowski
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of bacterial cultures isolated from cattle, poultry or pig faeces and manure to produce rhamnolipids, as well as to investigate the influence of interspecies communication on possible quantitative differences in the production of rhamnolipid congeners. Initial screening methods (oil spreading, drop collapse, haemolytic activity and emulsification activity) showed that approximately 36% of the 51 isolated cultures exhibited the ability to produce biosurfactants...
May 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031470/effectiveness-of-naturally-occurring-substances-added-to-duck-litter-in-reducing-emergence-and-landing-of-adult-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae
#11
Simon Lachance, Justine Shiell, Michele T Guerin, Cynthia Scott-Dupree
Poultry barns provide an ideal breeding environment for Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) owing to the controlled temperatures and litter (manure plus bedding material) accumulation. Management techniques that render the litter less suitable for immature stage development, such as the addition of naturally occurring insecticidal substances, could reduce fly infestations. The effectiveness of acetic, boric, and citric acids; diatomaceous earth; and hydrated lime at restricting female landing and growth of house flies in duck litter was evaluated...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011599/long-term-effects-of-aided-phytostabilisation-on-microbial-communities-of-metal-contaminated-mine-soil
#12
Olatz Garaiyurrebaso, Carlos Garbisu, Fernando Blanco, Anders Lanzén, Iker Martín, Lur Epelde, José M Becerril, Sven Jechalke, Kornelia Smalla, Elisabeth Grohmann, Itziar Alkorta
Aided phytostabilisation uses metal-tolerant plants, together with organic or inorganic amendments, to reduce metal bioavailability in soil while improving soil quality. The long-term effects of the following organic amendments were examined as part of an aided phytostabilisation field study in an abandoned Pb/Zn mining area: cow slurry, sheep manure and paper mill sludge mixed with poultry manure. In the mining area, two heavily contaminated vegetated sites, showing different levels of soil metal contamination (LESS and MORE contaminated site), were selected for this study...
March 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987112/antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-profile-of-enterococci-isolated-from-poultry-and-cattle-sources-in-nigeria
#13
Emmanuel Ochefije Ngbede, Mashood Abiola Raji, Clara Nna Kwanashie, Jacob Kwada Pajhi Kwaga
This study investigated the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus from poultry and cattle farms. Three hundred and ninety samples: cloacal/rectal swabs (n = 260) and manure (n = 130] were processed for recovery of Enterococcus species. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate, identify and characterize Enterococcus species for antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of virulence traits. Detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes was carried out by polymerase chain reaction...
March 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956328/synergy-of-siam-weed-chromolaena-odorata-and-poultry-manure-for-energy-generation-effects-of-pretreatment-methods-modeling-and-process-optimization
#14
S O Dahunsi, S Oranusi, J B Owolabi, V E Efeovbokhan
The co-digestion of Chromolaena odorata with poultry manure was evaluated in this study. Two samples of the weed: (A: which was pre-treated with mechanical, chemical and thermal methods) and (B: which was pretreated using mechanical and chemical methods only) were separately digested with poultry manure. Biogas generation started from the 2nd to 4th and 4th to 7th day for samples 'A' and 'B' respectively. The most desired actual biogas yield from samples 'A' and 'B' were 3884.20 and 2544.70 (10(-4)m(3)/kg VS) respectively and the gas composition was 68±2% Methane and 20±2% Carbon dioxide for sample A while it was 62±3% Methane and 22±2% Carbon dioxide for sample B...
February 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955906/overview-of-manure-treatment-in-france
#15
REVIEW
L Loyon
Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13...
December 9, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932039/anaerobic-digestion-of-nitrogen-rich-poultry-manure-impact-of-thermophilic-biogas-process-on-metal-release-and-microbial-resistances
#16
Reshma Anjum, Elisabeth Grohmann, Niclas Krakat
Poultry manure is a nitrogen rich fertilizer, which is usually recycled and spread on agricultural fields. Due to its high nutrient content, chicken manure is considered to be one of the most valuable animal wastes as organic fertilizer. However, when chicken litter is applied in its native form, concerns are raised as such fertilizers also include high amounts of antibiotic resistant pathogenic Bacteria and heavy metals. We studied the impact of an anaerobic thermophilic digestion process on poultry manure...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914350/phosphorus-flows-in-a-peri-urban-region-with-intensive-food-production-a-case-study
#17
S Bittman, S C Sheppard, D Poon, D E Hunt
Excess phosphorus (P) in peri-urban regions is an emerging issue, whereas there is global depletion of quality mined supplies of P. The flow of P across the landscape leading to regional surpluses and deficits is not well understood. We computed a regional P budget with internal P flows in a fairly discreet peri-urban region (Lower Fraser Valley, BC) with closely juxtaposed agricultural and non-agricultural urban ecosystems, in order to clarify the relationship between food production, food consumption and other activities involving use of P (e...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876951/prevalence-of-dermanyssus-and-ornithonyssus-species-of-mites-in-poultry-farms-of-vikarabad-area-of-hyderabad
#18
G S Sreenivasa Murthy, Rasmita Panda
The common blood feeder mites of poultry are from the genera Dermanyssus and Ornithonyssus. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production or sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on workers. They also cause anaemia in birds and play a vector role for several human and animal diseases. Five poultry farm buildings of Vikarabad area of Rangareddy district were visited. Samples were collected from a variety of sites, including beneath feed troughs, inside cage fittings and fastening clips, under egg conveyer belts and under manure belts...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848110/changing-agricultural-practices-potential-consequences-to-aquatic-organisms
#19
Peter J Lasier, Matthew L Urich, Sayed M Hassan, Whitney N Jacobs, Robert B Bringolf, Kathleen M Owens
Agricultural practices pose threats to biotic diversity in freshwater systems with increasing use of glyphosate-based herbicides for weed control and animal waste for soil amendment becoming common in many regions. Over the past two decades, these particular agricultural trends have corresponded with marked declines in populations of fish and mussel species in the Upper Conasauga River watershed in Georgia/Tennessee, USA. To investigate the potential role of agriculture in the population declines, surface waters and sediments throughout the basin were tested for toxicity and analyzed for glyphosate, metals, nutrients, and steroid hormones...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814534/changes-in-antibiotic-concentrations-and-antibiotic-resistome-during-commercial-composting-of-animal-manures
#20
Wan-Ying Xie, Xin-Ping Yang, Qian Li, Long-Hua Wu, Qi-Rong Shen, Fang-Jie Zhao
The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China...
December 2016: Environmental Pollution
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