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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861196/influence-of-organic-and-inorganic-sources-of-nutrients-on-the-functional-diversity-of-microbial-communities-in-the-vegetable-cropping-system-of-the-indo-gangetic-plains
#1
Mallappa Manjunath, Upendra Kumar, Raj Bahadur Yadava, Awadhesh Bahadur Rai, Bijendra Singh
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of different organic and inorganic fertilizers on the functional diversity of soil microbial community under a vegetable production system. The Biolog® Eco-plate technique and indices, such as average well-colour development (AWCD), McIntosh and Shannon diversity were employed to study the diversity of soil microorganisms. The AWCD, i.e. overall utilization of carbon sources, suggested that different organic treatments had a significant impact on the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms...
May 31, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770940/effluent-composition-prediction-of-a-two-stage-anaerobic-digestion-process-machine-learning-and-stoichiometry-techniques
#2
Luz Alejo, John Atkinson, Víctor Guzmán-Fierro, Marlene Roeckel
Computational self-adapting methods (Support Vector Machines, SVM) are compared with an analytical method in effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Experimental data for the AD of poultry manure were used. The analytical method considers the protein as the only source of ammonia production in AD after degradation. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total volatile solids (TVS) were measured in the influent and effluent of the process...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762789/an-optimist-s-view-on-limiting-necrotic-enteritis-and-maintaining-broiler-gut-health-and-performance-in-today-s-marketing-food-safety-and-regulatory-climate
#3
Charles L Hofacre, John A Smith, Greg F Mathis
The future poultry nutritionist, veterinarian, and husbandryman will have many new regulatory requirements and consumer preferences to navigate in addition to their normal responsibility of raising birds in a cost-efficient and wholesome manner. New challenges include changes to antibiotic use, increased food safety regulations, and more concern over how birds are raised and how to dispose of poultry house waste. All of these new programs and new regulations will alter how we have been raising birds for the last 60 years since the inception of the integrated poultry industry...
June 1, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740768/influence-of-composted-poultry-manure-and-irrigation-regimes-on-some-morpho-physiology-parameters-of-maize-under-semiarid-environments
#4
Wajid Farhad, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Shah Fahad, Farhat Abbas, Ikramullah Khosa, Hafiz Faiq Bakhat
Poultry manure (PM), a rich source for crop nutrients, is produced in ample quantities worldwide. It provides necessary nutrient to soil and has a potential to improve plant water holding availability under semiarid environment. The effect of composted poultry manure (CPM) and irrigation regimes on morpho-physiology of selective maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids (H1 = drought tolerant, H2 = drought sensitive) was investigated in this study. Two field experiments were conducted during 2010 and 2011 under randomized complete block design with split split-plot arrangements and three replications of each treatment...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710673/biotic-and-abiotic-dissipation-of-tetracyclines-using-simulated-sunlight-and-in-the-dark
#5
M Conde-Cid, D Fernández-Calviño, J C Nóvoa-Muñoz, M Arias-Estévez, M Díaz-Raviña, M J Fernández-Sanjurjo, A Núñez-Delgado, E Álvarez-Rodríguez
Veterinary antibiotics reaching soils and water bodies are considered emerging pollutants deserving special attention. In this work, dissipation of tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) is investigated. Dissipation experiments in filtered water, using simulated sunlight, resulted in the following degradation sequence: TC < OTC ≈ CTC, with half-life values of 229, 101 and 104 min, respectively; however, no dissipation took place in the dark. Dissipation of the three tetracyclines in culture medium and with simulated sunlight was much higher, giving the sequence TC ≈ OTC < CTC, with half-lives of 9, 10 and 7 min, respectively; in the dark, TC and OTC did not suffer dissipation, but it was around 28% for CTC at the end of the experiment (480 min)...
September 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705898/ammonia-production-in-poultry-houses-can-affect-health-of-humans-birds-and-the-environment-techniques-for-its-reduction-during-poultry-production
#6
Sadia Naseem, Annie J King
Due to greater consumption of poultry products and an increase in exports, more poultry houses will be needed. Therefore, it is important to investigate ways that poultry facilities can coexist in close proximity to residential areas without odors and environmental challenges. Ammonia (NH3 ) is the greatest concern for environmental pollution from poultry production. When birds consume protein, they produce uric acid, ultimately converted to NH3 under favorable conditions. Factors that increase production include pH, temperature, moisture content, litter type, bird age, manure age, relative humidity, and ventilation rate (VR)...
June 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695072/evaluation-of-two-compressed-air-foam-systems-for-culling-caged-layer-hens
#7
Eric R Benson, Jaclyn A Weiher, Robert L Alphin, Morgan Farnell, Daniel P Hougentogler
Outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) and other highly contagious poultry diseases continue to be a concern for those involved in the poultry industry. In the situation of an outbreak, emergency depopulation of the birds involved is necessary. In this project, two compressed air foam systems (CAFS) were evaluated for mass emergency depopulation of layer hens in a manure belt equipped cage system. In both experiments, a randomized block design was used with multiple commercial layer hens treated with one of three randomly selected depopulation methods: CAFS, CAFS with CO₂ gas, and CO₂ gas...
April 24, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656257/nutrient-derived-environmental-impacts-in-chinese-agriculture-during-1978-2015
#8
Huijun Wu, Shun Wang, Liangmin Gao, Ling Zhang, Zengwei Yuan, Tingyu Fan, Kaiping Wei, Li Huang
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a critical role in agricultural production and cause many environmental disturbances. By combing life cycle assessment (LCA) method with the mass balance principle of substance flow analysis (SFA), this study establishes a nutrient-derived environmental impact assessment (NEIA) model to analyze the environmental impacts caused by nutrient-containing substances of agricultural production in China during 1978-2015. The agricultural production system is composed of crop farming and livestock breeding, and the environmental impacts include energy consumption, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615251/effects-of-different-types-of-flooring-design-on-the-development-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-commensal-escherichia-coli-in-fattening-turkeys
#9
Bussarakam Chuppava, Birgit Keller, Jessica Meißner, Manfred Kietzmann, Christian Visscher
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of flooring designs on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from turkeys treated with enrofloxacin. Two trials were performed with same feed, housing conditions and fattening duration, but with different flooring designs. Furthermore, the first trial was performed in an unchanged environment and the second trial in a changed environment. The flooring designs of the pens were assigned to four groups; G1 - entire floor pen covered with litter, G2 - floor pen with heating, G3 - partially slatted flooring including an area that was littered, G4 - fully slatted flooring with a sand bath...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602120/phosphorus-removal-from-eutrophic-water-using-modified-biochar
#10
Sarah Vieira Novais, Mariana Delgado Olivieira Zenero, Matheus Sampaio Carneiro Barreto, Célia Regina Montes, Carlos Eduardo Pelegrino Cerri
Increasing problems related to water eutrophication, commonly caused by the high concentration of phosphorus (P), are stimulating studies aimed at an environmentally safe solution. Moreover, some research has focused on the reuse of P due to concerns about the end of its natural reserves. Biochar appears to be a solution to both problems and may act as a recovery of eutrophic/residual water with the subsequent reuse of P in agriculture, the purpose of which is to test such an assertion. Samples of biochar from poultry manure (BPM) and sugarcane straw (BCS) had their maximum adsorption capacities of Al obtained by Langmuir isotherm...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569050/anaerobic-digestion-performance-of-sweet-potato-vine-and-animal-manure-under-wet-semi-dry-and-dry-conditions
#11
Enlan Zhang, Jiajia Li, Keqiang Zhang, Feng Wang, Houhua Yang, Suli Zhi, Guangqing Liu
Sweet potato vine (SPV) is an abundant agricultural waste, which is easy to obtain at low cost and has the potential to produce clean energy via anaerobic digestion (AD). The main objectives of this study were to reveal methane production and process stability of SPV and the mixtures with animal manure under various total solid conditions, to verify synergetic effect in co-digestion of SPV and manure in AD systems, and to determine the kinetics characteristics during the full AD process. The results showed that SPV was desirable feedstock for AD with 200...
March 22, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518594/poultry-manure-and-sugarcane-straw-biochars-modified-with-mgcl-2-for-phosphorus-adsorption
#12
Sarah Vieira Novais, Mariana Delgado Oliveira Zenero, Jairo Tronto, Rafaela Feola Conz, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri
Increases in agricultural productivity associated to the crescent use of finite reserves of phosphorus improved the demand for ways to recycle and reuse this nutrient. Biochars, after doping processes, seem to be an alternative to mitigate the large use of P reserves. Sugarcane straw and poultry manure were submerged in an MgCl2 solution in a 1:10 solid/liquid ratio and subsequently pyrolyzed at 350 and 650 °C producing biochar. Increasing concentrations of P were agitated with biochars in order to obtain the maximum adsorption capacity of P with the aid of Langmuir and Freudelich isotherm...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479455/nutrient-production-from-korean-poultry-and-loading-estimations-for-cropland
#13
Seunggun Won, Naveed Ahmed, Byung-Gu You, Soomin Shim, Seung-Su Kim, Changsix Ra
Background: Poultry breeding has increased by 306% in Korea, inevitably increasing the production of manure which may contribute to environmental pollution. The nutrients (NP) in the manure are essential for crop cultivation and soil fertility when applied as compost. Excess nutrients from manure can be accumulated on the land and can lead to eutrophication. Therefore, a nutrient load on the finite land should be calculated. Methods: This study calculates the nutrient production from Korean poultry by investigating 11 broiler and 16 laying hen farms...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452386/amino-acid-digestibility-of-larval-meal-musca-domestica-for-broiler-chickens
#14
H N Hall, H V Masey O'Neill, D Scholey, E Burton, M Dickinson, E C Fitches
Work was undertaken to investigate the potential use of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae reared on broiler manure as a source of nutrition for poultry production in the United Kingdom. Nutritional analysis showed that larvae have a high (>45% dry wt.) protein content and a favorable amino acid profile that is rich in key amino acids, such as lysine and methionine. A broiler digestibility trial was carried out to determine the apparent ileal digestibility coefficients (AIDC) and true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDC) of amino acids (AA) from insect larval meal (ILM) from M...
April 1, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426218/the-effect-of-biochar-feedstock-pyrolysis-temperature-and-application-rate-on-the-reduction-of-ammonia-volatilisation-from-biochar-amended-soil
#15
Sanchita Mandal, Erica Donner, Sotirios Vasileiadis, William Skinner, Euan Smith, Enzo Lombi
Ammonia (NH3 ) volatilisation is one of the most important causes of nitrogen (N) loss in soil-plant systems worldwide. Carbon-based amendments such as biochar have been shown to mitigate NH3 volatilisation in agricultural soils to various degrees. In this study, we investigated the influence of biochar feedstocks (poultry manure, green waste compost, and wheat straw), pyrolysis temperatures (250, 350, 450, 500 and 700°C) and application rates (1 and 2%), on NH3 volatilisation from a calcareous soil. The 15 biochars were chemically characterized, and a laboratory incubation study was conducted to assess NH3 volatilisation from the soil over a period of four weeks...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405530/survival-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-salmonella-enterica-in-animal-waste-based-composts-as-influenced-by-compost-type-storage-condition-and-inoculum-level
#16
Z Chen, J Kim, X Jiang
AIM: Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in animal waste-based composts was studied with different compost types, storage conditions and inoculum levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cocktail of three E. coli O157:H7 or S. enterica strains was inoculated into dairy manure-based composts (A and B) or poultry litter-based composts (C and D), respectively, at final concentrations of c. 5 or 2 log CFU per gram. Composts were then stored at 5 and 22°C, and under greenhouse condition...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397276/larval-digestion-of-different-manure-types-by-the-black-soldier-fly-diptera-stratiomyidae-impacts-associated-volatile-emissions
#17
Kelly V Beskin, Chelsea D Holcomb, Jonathan A Cammack, Tawni L Crippen, Anthony H Knap, Stephen T Sweet, Jeffery K Tomberlin
Volatile emissions from decomposing animal waste are known environmental pollutants. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is being evaluated for industrialization as a means to recycle wastes and produce protein for use as food and feed. We examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce odorous compounds associated with animal wastes. Black soldier fly larvae were reared under laboratory conditions on poultry, swine, and dairy manure at feed rates of 18.0 and 27.0 g every other day until 40% reached the prepupal stage...
April 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388488/feasibility-of-biogas-and-energy-generation-from-poultry-manure-in-brazil
#18
Eruin M Ribeiro, Regina Mambeli Barros, Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Ivan Felipe S Dos Santos, Luma C Sampaio, Ticiane V Dos Santos, Fernando dGB da Silva, Ana Paula M Silva, João Victor R de Freitas
The aim of the present study is to experimentally measure the volume and composition of biogas produced from the anaerobic biodigestion of laying-hen manure from poultry farms in Itanhandu-MG, Brazil, so that the biogas can be used to generate energy. Two experiments (E1 and E2) were used to characterise the biogas quantities and compositions at room temperature and at a controlled temperature of 36 °C, respectively. The biogas production and calculated net power from the exploitation of biogas energy were compared with the results obtained from methods proposed by the Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo (CETESB, an acronym in Portuguese) using the 'Biogas: Generation and energy use - effluent and rural waste' software 1...
March 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353361/liming-induces-carbon-dioxide-co-2-emission-in-psb-inoculated-alkaline-soil-supplemented-with-different-phosphorus-sources
#19
Muhammad Adnan, Zahir Shah, Muhammad Sharif, Hidayatur Rahman
Agricultural land is a major sink of global organic carbon (C). Its suitable management is crucial for improving C sequestration and reducing soil CO2 emission. Incubation experiments were performed to assess the impact of phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB) inoculation (inoculated and uninoculated) and soil calcification (4.78, 10, 15, and 20% crushed CaCO3 ) with phosphorus (P) sources [single superphosphate (SSP), rock phosphate (RP), farm yard manure (FYM), and poultry manure (PM)] in experiment 1 and with various rates of PM (4, 8, and 12 kg ha-1 ) in experiment 2 on cumulative soil respiration...
April 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326987/assessment-of-nutrient-quality-heavy-metals-and-phytotoxic-properties-of-chicken-manure-on-selected-commercial-vegetable-crops
#20
Balasubramani Ravindran, Hupenyu A Mupambwa, Sibongiseni Silwana, Pearson N S Mnkeni
Due to rapid expansion in the poultry industry, production of poultry manure has also consequently increased, resulting in unplanned disposal of this manure to the soil in some cases, with possible negative environmental consequences. In this study, 10 separate poultry manure samples were collected from different sites located in the central Eastern Cape, South Africa and characterized for chemical and phytotoxic properties. The poultry manures had an average neutral pH (range 6.94 - 7.97) whilst the electrical conductivity was highly variable from 2...
December 2017: Heliyon
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