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Pig manure

K Aboudi, C J Álvarez-Gallego, L I Romero-García
A series of batch anaerobic digestion assays were implemented to determine the influence of total solids concentration on the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet by-products and their co-digestion with two kind of livestock manures (pig and cow manures). The two total solid concentrations studied were 8% and 5%. Total solids contents above 8% were not evaluated because of the inappropriate rheological behaviour of sugar beet by-products at these concentrations. The best total solid content tested corresponded to 8%, achieving specific methane yields of 464...
February 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lihua Li, Fenliang Fan, Alin Song, Chang Yin, Peiyuan Cui, Zhaojun Li, Yongchao Liang
The association between microbial communities and plant growth in long-term fertilization system has not been fully studied. In the present study, impacts of long-term fertilization have been determined on the size and activity of soil microbial communities and wheat performance in a red soil (Ultisol) collected from Qiyang Experimental Station, China. For this, different microbial communities originating from long-term fertilized pig manure (M), mineral fertilizer (NPK), pig manure plus mineral fertilizer (MNPK), and no fertilizer (CK) were used as inocula for the Ultisol tested...
February 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
José A Sáez, Rafael Clemente, M Ángeles Bustamante, David Yañez, M Pilar Bernal
The changes in livestock production systems towards intensification frequently lead to an excess of manure generation with respect to the agricultural land available for its soil application. However, treatment technologies can help in the management of manures, especially in N-surplus areas. An integrated slurry treatment system based on solid-liquid separation, aerobic treatment of the liquid and composting the solid fraction was evaluated in a pig farm (sows and piglets) in the South of Spain. Solid fraction separation using a filter band connected to a screw press had low efficiency (38%), which was greatly improved incorporating a rotatory sieve (61%)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Sebastian Guenther, Linda Falgenhauer, Torsten Semmler, Can Imirzalioglu, Trinad Chakraborty, Uwe Roesler, Nicole Roschanski
OBJECTIVES: Pigs have been the focus of the worldwide spread of colistin resistance. However, there is little information on the transmission of mcr-1-containing bacteria into the environment of pig farms. We therefore rescreened environmental Escherichia coli isolates from the surrounding farm areas of three previously mcr-1-positive swine herds in Germany. METHODS: Thirty-five mixed bacterial cultures obtained from boot swabs, flies, dog faeces and manure from three pig farms in Germany in 2011-12 were non-selectively recultivated and the presence of the mcr-1 gene was checked by real-time PCR...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Fusheng Sun, Yaqing Li, Xiang Wang, Zhilai Chi, Guanghui Yu
Understanding the binding characteristics of copper (Cu) to different functional groups in soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) is important to explore Cu toxicity, bioavailability and ultimate fate in the environment. However, the methods used to explore such binding characteristics are still limited. Here, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) integrated with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (27)Al NMR, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy were used to explore the binding characteristics of Cu to soil DOM as part of a long-term (23 years) fertilization experiment...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Patrick Munk, Vibe Dalhoff Andersen, Leonardo de Knegt, Marie Stengaard Jensen, Berith Elkær Knudsen, Oksana Lukjancenko, Hanne Mordhorst, Julie Clasen, Yvonne Agersø, Anders Folkesson, Sünje Johanna Pamp, Håkan Vigre, Frank Møller Aarestrup
OBJECTIVES: Reliable methods for monitoring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and other reservoirs are essential to understand the trends, transmission and importance of agricultural resistance. Quantification of AMR is mostly done using culture-based techniques, but metagenomic read mapping shows promise for quantitative resistance monitoring. METHODS: We evaluated the ability of: (i) MIC determination for Escherichia coli; (ii) cfu counting of E. coli; (iii) cfu counting of aerobic bacteria; and (iv) metagenomic shotgun sequencing to predict expected tetracycline resistance based on known antimicrobial consumption in 10 Danish integrated slaughter pig herds...
February 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Tian-Tian Ren, Xiao-Yang Li, Yan Wang, Yong-De Zou, Xin-Di Liao, Juan-Boo Liang, Yin-Bao Wu
Sulfadimidine (SM2) is commonly used in the swine industry and enters the environment via faeces. In recent years, advances in the ecotoxicology of SM2 have become a popular research interest with two common research methods including swine manure collection from swine fed with a diet containing SM2 and directly adding SM2. The purpose of this experiment was to compare SM2 degradation behaviour in pig manure with two different SM2 addition methods. The results showed that the degradation half-lives of SM2 in manure from SM2-fed swine treatment were 33...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Thiago Augusto Formentini, Samuel Legros, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo Fernandes, Adilson Pinheiro, Maureen Le Bars, Clément Levard, Fábio Joel Kochem Mallmann, Milton da Veiga, Emmanuel Doelsch
Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects...
March 2017: Environmental Pollution
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Kamila Myszka, Agata Sznajdrowska, Alicja Szulc, Agnieszka Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Łukasz Ławniczak, Philippe F-X Corvini, Łukasz Chrzanowski
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of bacterial cultures isolated from cattle, poultry or pig faeces and manure to produce rhamnolipids, as well as to investigate the influence of interspecies communication on possible quantitative differences in the production of rhamnolipid congeners. Initial screening methods (oil spreading, drop collapse, haemolytic activity and emulsification activity) showed that approximately 36% of the 51 isolated cultures exhibited the ability to produce biosurfactants...
December 30, 2016: New Biotechnology
Kajsa Risberg, Harald Cederlund, Mikael Pell, Veronica Arthurson, Anna Schnürer
The growing number of biogas plants in Europe has resulted in increased production of nutrient-rich digestate with great potential as fertilizer for arable land. The nutrient composition of digestate varies with the substrate treated in the biogas plant and may contain compounds that stimulate or inhibit soil microbial activity. This study compared 20 digestates (D) with 10 pig slurries (PS) and 10 cow manures (CM) regarding their chemical content and their effect on soil microbial activities, i.e. potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO) and soil respiration...
December 27, 2016: Waste Management
Ángela Rodríguez-Abalde, Xavier Flotats, Belén Fernández
The feasibility of co-digestion of blends of two different animal by-products (pig manure and pasteurized slaughterhouse waste) and recovered glycerine was studied in mesophilic conditions. Experiments were performed in a lab-scale CSTR along 490days, with a hydraulic retention time of 21-33days and with a step-wise increased organic loading rate, by adding and/or changing the wastes ratio, from 0.8 to 3.2kgCODm(-3)d(-1). The best methane production rate (0.64Nm(3)CH4m(-3)d(-1)) represented an increment of 2...
December 23, 2016: Waste Management
Jelena Bohn, Aytül Yüksel-Dadak, Stefan Dröge, Helmut König
Direct molecular approaches provide hints that lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the degradation process of organic material to methanogenetic substrates in biogas plants. However, their diversity in biogas fermenter samples has not been analyzed in detail yet. For that reason, five different biogas fermenters, which were fed mainly with maize silage and manure from cattle or pigs, were examined for the occurrence of lactic acid-forming bacteria. A total of 197 lactic acid-forming bacterial strains were isolated, which we assigned to 21 species, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Pseudoramibacter-related...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Wendan Xiao, Dan Li, Xuezhu Ye, Haizhou Xu, Guihua Yao, Jingwen Wang, Qi Zhang, Jing Hu, Na Gao
The combined use of organic amendment-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation to decontaminate Cd-polluted soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. The plant species selected was the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Prior to the pot experiment, the loamy soil was treated with 15 g kg(-1) of pig manure compost, 10 g kg(-1) of humic acid, or 5 mmol kg(-1) of EDTA, and untreated soil without application of any amendment was the control. Two conditions were applied to each treatment: no voltage (without an electrical field) and a direct current (DC) electrical field (1 V cm(-1) with switching polarity every day)...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bencharong Wangkahad, Skorn Mongkolsuk, Kwanrawee Sirikanchana
We developed sewage-specific microbial source tracking (MST) tools using enterococci bacteriophages and evaluated their performance with univariate and multivariate analyses involving data below detection limits. Newly isolated Enterococci faecalis bacterial strains AIM06 (DSM100702) and SR14 (DSM100701) demonstrated 100% specificity and 90% sensitivity to human sewage without detecting 68 animal manure pooled samples of cats, chickens, cows, dogs, ducks, pigs, and pigeons. AIM06 and SR14 bacteriophages were present in human sewage at 2-4 orders of magnitude...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Erika Chenais, Susanna Sternberg-Lewerin, Sofia Boqvist, Lihong Liu, Neil LeBlanc, Tonny Aliro, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl
In Uganda, a low-income country in east Africa, African swine fever (ASF) is endemic with yearly outbreaks. In the prevailing smallholder subsistence farming systems, farm biosecurity is largely non-existent. Outbreaks of ASF, particularly in smallholder farms, often go unreported, creating significant epidemiological knowledge gaps. The continuous circulation of ASF in smallholder settings also creates biosecurity challenges for larger farms. In this study, an on-going outbreak of ASF in an endemic area was investigated on farm level, including analyses of on-farm environmental virus contamination...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
L Loyon
Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13...
December 9, 2016: Waste Management
Torun Wallgren, Rebecka Westin, Stefan Gunnarsson
BACKGROUND: Tail biting is a common problem in intensive pig farming, affecting both welfare and production. Although routine tail docking is banned within the EU, it remains a common practice to prevent tail biting. Straw as environmental enrichment has been proposed as an alternative to tail docking, but its effectiveness against tail biting and function in manure handling systems have to be considered. The aim of the study was to survey how pigs with intact tails are raised and how tail biting is handled in Sweden, where tail docking is banned through national legislation...
December 5, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Zhenhua Zhang, Yan Liu, Juan Zhao, Cigang Yu, Shanshan Dong, Huiying Duan, Ran Yu, Changyong Wang
A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain PC-2T, was isolated from penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure co-compost in China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain PC-2T should be assigned to the genus Chelatococcus and that it was 98.95% to Chelatococcus daeguensis, 98.84% Chelatococcus sambhunathii, 98.43%, Chelatococcus caeni, and 95.97% to Chelatococcus asaccharovorans. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 70.89 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, strain PC-2 T represents a novel species of the genus Chelatococcus, for which the name Chelatococcus composti sp...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
A N T R Monteiro, F Garcia-Launay, L Brossard, A Wilfart, J-Y Dourmad
Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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