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Pig manure

Zhenhua Zhang, Yan Liu, Juan Zhao, Cigang Yu, Shanshan Dong, Huiying Duan, Ran Yu, Changyong Wang
A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain PC-2T, was isolated from penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure co-compost in China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain PC-2T should be assigned to the genus Chelatococcus and that it was 98.95% to Chelatococcus daeguensis, 98.84% Chelatococcus sambhunathii, 98.43%, Chelatococcus caeni, and 95.97% to Chelatococcus asaccharovorans. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 70.89 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, strain PC-2 T represents a novel species of the genus Chelatococcus, for which the name Chelatococcus composti sp...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
A N T R Monteiro, F Garcia-Launay, L Brossard, A Wilfart, J-Y Dourmad
Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tjalfe G Poulsen, Laetitia Adelard, Mona Wells
Sixteen data sets (two of which were measured in this study) with a combined total of 145 measurements of ultimate methane yield (UMY) during mono- and co-digestion of ternary biomass mixtures were used to assess impact of co-digestion on the relative change in UMY (ΔUMY) as a function of biomass mix composition. The data involved 9 biomass materials (brewery spent grains, chicken manure, cow manure, fresh grass clippings, pig manure, primary sewage sludge, vegetable food waste, wheat straw, and rice straw)...
November 19, 2016: Waste Management
Min Wang, Xueying Zhang, Jun Zhou, Yuexiang Yuan, Yumei Dai, Dong Li, Zhidong Li, Xiaofeng Liu, Zhiying Yan
Anaerobic co-digestion is considered to be an efficient way to improve the biogas production. The abundance, dynamic and interactional networks of prokaryotic community were investigated between co-digestion and mono-digestions of corn stalk and pig manure in mesophilic batch test. Co-digestion showed higher methane production, and contributed to suitable microenvironment as well as stable prokaryotic community structure. The highest methane production was achieved with the highest relative abundance of Methanosaeta...
November 4, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Masaru Usui, Mayuko Kawakura, Nobuki Yoshizawa, Lai Lai San, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Yutaka Tamura
Pigs, particularly piglets, have been identified as reservoir hosts of Clostridium difficile. To examine the survival ability of this pathogen in pig feces-based manure compost, C. difficile spores, which were prepared to contain as few vegetative cells as possible, were artificially inoculated into pig feces and incubated at different temperatures. While C. difficile survived in the feces incubated at temperatures below 37 °C for over 30 days, cell numbers gradually decreased at thermophilic temperatures (over 55 °C; p < 0...
November 18, 2016: Anaerobe
Xinhao Ren, Xiaojia Yuan, Hongwen Sun
The objective of this study was to elucidate the dynamic changes in the properties of biochar-amended soil and their sorption capacity for typical organic contaminants with increasing contact time between biochar and soil. To do so, biochars that were produced from pig manure at two temperatures were added to two soils, and the sorption behaviors of atrazine and phenanthrene (Phen) on soil-biochar mixtures aged for different times were investigated. Soils freshly amended with biochars showed a dramatic increase in the sorption of atrazine (up to 23...
November 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bing Zang, Shuyan Li, Frederick C Michel, Guoxue Li, Difang Zhang, Yangyang Li
Effects of nitrogen electron acceptors on dimethyl sulfide (Me2S) and dimethyl disulfide (Me2SS) odor emission during composting was investigated. The chemicals and doses used included sodium nitrate (NO3(-) at 10mM, 20mM and 40mM), sodium nitrite (NO2(-) at 10mM, 20mM and 40mM) and sodium nitrite (10mM, 20mM and 40mM) with hexaammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate (HHT). The results showed that the addition of these chemicals restricted the emission of Me2S and Me2SS. The emission reduction effect of NO2(-) was greater than NO3(-) at the same dosage...
November 9, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Gilbert R Patterson, Alicia H Mohr, Tim P Snider, Thomas A Lindsay, Peter R Davies, Tim J Goldsmith, Fernando Sampedro
In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States, local, state, and federal authorities will implement a foreign animal disease emergency response plan restricting the pork supply chain movements and likely disrupting the continuity of the swine industry business. To minimize disruptions of the food supply while providing an effective response in an outbreak, it is necessary to have proactive measures in place to ensure minimal disease spread and maximum continuation of business...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
G Mourand, F Paboeuf, M A Fleury, E Jouy, S Bougeard, E Denamur, I Kempf
Four trials were conducted to evaluate the impact of Escherichia coli probiotic strain ED1a (EcED1a) administration to pigs on the gut carriage or survival in manure of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli Groups of pigs were orally inoculated with strain E. coli M63 (EcM63) carrying the blaCTX-M-1 gene (n=84) or used as control (n=26). In the first two trials, eight days later, 24 of 40 EcM63 inoculated pigs were given EcED1a orally for six days. In the third trial, 10 EcM63 inoculated pigs were given either EcED1a or probiotic E...
October 17, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Wei Zhou, Longlong Xia, Xiaoyuan Yan
Knowledge of denitrification process and its end-product at various depths of paddy soil is very important for our understanding of its role in mitigating reactive N and indirect nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. In this study, the end-products of denitrification were determined at four depths in a long-term field lysimeter experiment in southeast China over a rice season. Three treatments were included: (1) chemical fertilizer (NPK); (2) NPK plus pig manure (NPKM); and (3) NPK plus straw (NPKS). The concentration of dissolved N2O increased with soil depth across all treatments and the highest concentration of excess dinitrogen (N2) was observed at 0...
October 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Kristina Roesel, Ian Dohoo, Maximilian Baumann, Michel Dione, Delia Grace, Peter-Henning Clausen
In Eastern Africa, small-scale pig keeping has emerged as a popular activity to generate additional household income. Infections of pigs with gastrointestinal helminths can limit production output, increase production costs, and pose zoonotic risks. A cross-sectional, community-based study in three districts in Eastern and Central Uganda examined the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors in 932 randomly sampled pigs. Using the combined sedimentation-flotation method, 61.4 % (58...
October 26, 2016: Parasitology Research
Sikandar I Mulla, Qian Sun, Anyi Hu, Yuwen Wang, Muhammad Ashfaq, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Chang-Ping Yu
This study is aimed to assess the biodegradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and characterization of heavy metal resistance in three pure bacterial cultures and also their chemotactic response towards 2-aminopyrimidine. The bacterial cultures were isolated from pig manure, activated sludge and sediment samples, by enrichment technique on SDZ (6 mg L-1). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the microorganisms were identified within the genera of Paracoccus, Methylobacterium and Kribbella, which were further designated as SDZ-PM2-BSH30, SDZ-W2-SJ40 and SDZ-3S-SCL47...
2016: PloS One
Elisabeth Richter, Silvia Berkner, Ina Ebert, Bernhard Förster, Nadin Graf, Monika Herrchen, Ute Kühnen, Jörg Römbke, Markus Simon
BACKGROUND: Residues of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) enter the environment via application of manure onto agricultural areas where in particular antibiotics can cause phytotoxicity. Terrestrial plant tests according to OECD guideline 208 are part of the environmental risk assessment of VMPs. However, this standard approach might not be appropriate for VMPs which form non-extractable residues or transformation products in manure and manure-amended soil. Therefore, a new test design with a more realistic exposure scenario via manure application is needed...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Yi-Ru Yang, Xiao-Gang Li, Zhi-Gao Zhou, Tao-Lin Zhang, Xing-Xiang Wang
Excessive pig manure application probably degrades arable soil quality in some intensive pig farming areas. The responses of the nematode community to dosages of pig manure were investigated in Ferric Acrisols under 3-season peanut monoculture. Varying dosages of manure (1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1)) in combination with chemical fertilizer were applied to field plots, and chemical fertilizer alone was also applied as a control. With increasing manure application, the abundance of bacterivores and omnivores-predators increased, the abundance of plant parasites decreased, and fungivores abundance exhibited hump-shaped variation...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
R Tozzoli, I Di Bartolo, F Gigliucci, G Brambilla, M Monini, E Vignolo, A Caprioli, S Morabito
AIMS: To investigate the presence of genomic traits associated with a set of enteric viruses as well as pathogenic Escherichia coli in top soil improvers (TSI) from Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four TSI samples originating from municipal sewage sludges, pig manure, green and household wastes were analysed by real time PCR for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV), porcine and human adenovirus (HuAdV), norovirus, rotavirus and diarrhoeagenic E. coli. None of the samples was found positive for HEV or rotavirus...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ken-Lin Chang, Xi-Mei Chen, Jian Sun, Jing-Yong Liu, Shui-Yu Sun, Zuo-Yi Yang, Yin Wang
Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a bulky waste byproduct of commercial mushroom production, which can cause serious environmental problems and, therefore, poses a significant barrier to future expansion of the mushroom industry. In the present study, we explored the use of SMS as a biochar to improve the quality of bio-fertilizer. Specifically, we performed a series of experiments using composting reactors to investigate the effects of SMS biochar on the physio-chemical properties of bio-fertilizer. Biochar was derived from dry SMS pyrolysed at 500°C and mixed with pig manure and rice straw...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Technology
Zhou Jiang-Ming
Composting of agricultural wastes can not only reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but also recycle of agricultural wastes and transforms them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for agricultural applications. However, the composting process and final product are easily affected by the limited oxygen supply that results from insufficient aeration, especially in the center of a large-scale windrow. Hence, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the turning frequency on the composting efficiency and compost quality of used pig manure and fungus residue...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Song Yeob Kim, Saranya Kuppusamy, Jang Hwan Kim, Young-Eun Yoon, Kwon-Rae Kim, Yong Bok Lee
Reports on the occurrence and diversity of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes, which are considered to be emerging pollutants worldwide, have, to date, not been published on South Korean agricultural soils. This is the first study to investigate the persistence of tetracycline (oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline)-resistant bacterial community and genes in natural and long-term fertilized (NPK, pig, and cattle manure composts) agricultural soils in South Korea. The results showed that oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline could be the dominant residues in animal manures; regular fertilization of manures, particularly pig manures, may be the prime cause for the spread and abundance of tetracycline resistance in South Korean agricultural soils...
September 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vinicio Carrión-Paladines, Andreas Fries, Beatriz Gómez-Muñoz, Roberto García-Ruiz
Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures...
September 7, 2016: Waste Management
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