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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935871/evaluation-of-biochars-from-different-stock-materials-as-carriers-of-bacterial-strain-for-remediation-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-soil
#1
Ting Wang, Hongwen Sun, Xinhao Ren, Bing Li, Hongjun Mao
Two kinds of biochars, one derived from corn straw and one from pig manure, were studied as carriers of a mutant genotype from Bacillus subtilis (B38) for heavy metal contaminated soil remediation. After amendment with biochar, the heavy metal bioavailability decreased. Moreover, the heavy metal immobilization ability of the biochar was enhanced by combining it with B38. The simultaneous application of B38 and pig manure-derived biochar exhibited a superior effect on the promotion of plant growth and the immobilization of heavy metals in soil...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926818/effects-of-genetically-modified-cotton-stalks-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-inti1-and-inti2-during-pig-manure-composting
#2
Manli Duan, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Yang Li, Sheqi Zhang, Yanan Yin, Ranran Zhang
Genetically modified (GM) cotton production generates a large yield of stalks and their disposal is difficult. In order to study the feasibility of using GM cotton stalks for composting and the changes that occur in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting, we supplemented pig manure with GM or non-GM cotton stalks during composting and we compared their effects on the absolute abundances (AA) of intI1, intI2, and ARGs under the two treatments. The compost was mature after processing based on the germination index and C/N ratio...
September 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898824/comparison-of-biochar-zeolite-and-their-mixture-amendment-for-aiding-organic-matter-transformation-and-nitrogen-conservation-during-pig-manure-composting
#3
Quan Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Ronghua Li, Zhen Wang, Hongyu Chen, Meijing Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
The aim of this work was to compare the impact of biochar, zeolite and their mixture on nitrogen conservation and organic matter transformation during pig manure (PM) composting. Four treatments were set-up from PM mixed with wheat straw and then applied 10% biochar (B), 10% zeolite (Z) and 10% biochar+10% zeolite (B+Z) into composting mixtures (dry weight basis), while treatment without additives applied used as control. Results indicated that adding B, Z and B+Z could obviously (p<0.05) improve the organic matter degradation and decrease the nitrogen loss...
August 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884297/the-effect-of-different-organic-materials-amendment-on-soil-bacteria-communities-in-barren-sandy-loam-soil
#4
Hongcui Dai, Yuanquan Chen, Xiaolei Yang, Jixiao Cui, Peng Sui
To effectively improve soil productivity and optimize organic fertilizer management while reducing environmental pollution and resource wasting in farmland system, the present study was conducted in Wuqiao Experiment Station of China Agricultural University, Hebei Province. Taking crop straw treatment as control, four kinds of organic materials including pig manure (PM), biogas residue (BR), biochar (BC) and crop straw (ST) were applied to soil at the same nitrogen (N) level. The soil bacteria community characteristics were explored using Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing technologies...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884271/the-effect-of-anaerobic-digestion-and-storage-on-indicator-microorganisms-in-swine-and-dairy-manure
#5
Annamaria Costa, Claudia Gusmara, Davide Gardoni, Mauro Zaninelli, Fulvia Tambone, Vittorio Sala, Marcella Guarino
The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestion and storage on indicator microorganisms in swine and dairy excreta. Samples were collected every 90 days for 15 months at eight farms, four pig, and four dairy farms, four of them having a biogas plant. Moreover, to evaluate storage effects on samples, 20 l of manure and slurry taken at each farm (digested manure only in farms with a biogas plant) were stored in a controlled climatic chamber at 18 °C, for 6 months...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865308/hydrogen-sulfide-emissions-from-a-swine-building-affected-by-dietary-crude-protein
#6
Shule Liu, Ji-Qin Ni, John S Radcliffe, Caitlin Vonderohe
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic air pollutant at animal facilities; but the understanding of its generation and emission processes has been limited. This paper studied H2S emissions during a complete cycle of wean-finish pigs from a research building, where 12 pig rooms were divided into three groups that were fed with standard feed (control), and 2.1-3.8% (T1) and 4.4-7.8% (T2) reduced dietary crude protein (CP) feed. The group cycle mean H2S emission rates were 4.0 ± 2.9, 4.3 ± 3.2, and 5.4 ± 4...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865003/influence-of-farmyard-manure-on-some-morphological-and-biochemical-parameters-of-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-seedling-grown-in-cadmium-treated-soil
#7
Samuel Ogheneovo Asagba, Theresa Ezedom, Helen Kadiri
The present study aims to assess the effects of the two kinds of farmyard manure (poultry and pig manures) as amendments for soil on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in plants using cowpea seedlings as plant model. Cd toxicity was evaluated by assessing the effect of the metal on the growth rate and antioxidant status as well as the ability of the plant to metabolise xenobiotic. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) increased concentration of Cd in the root, stem and leaves of cowpea seedlings grown in all the treated soils relative to control...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859537/nutrients-removal-from-the-secondary-effluents-of-municipal-domestic-wastewater-by-oscillatoria-tenuis-and-subsequent-co-digestion-with-pig-manure
#8
Qunpeng Cheng, Fang Deng, Hongxia Li, ZhenHua Qin, Mei Wang, Jianfen Li
Batch experiments were carried out to investgate the performance of Oscillatoria tenuis to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and COD (chemical oxygen demand) from secondary effluents of municipal domestic wastewater (SEMDW). Meanwhile the potential of biogas production by collected Oscillatoria tenuis co-digested with pig manure was also investigated. Oscillatoria tenuis had a biomass productivity of 150 mg L(-1)·d(-1), a removal rate of NH4(+)-N (96.1%), TP (82.9%) and COD (92.6%) within 7 days at an aeration rate of 1...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856512/dynamics-of-copper-and-tetracyclines-during-composting-of-water-hyacinth-biomass-amended-with-peat-or-pig-manure
#9
Xin Lu, Lizhu Liu, Ruqin Fan, Jia Luo, Shaohua Yan, Zed Rengel, Zhenhua Zhang
Composting is one of the post-treatment methods for phytoremediation plants. Due to a high potential of water hyacinth to accumulate pollutants, the physicochemical parameters, microbial activity as well as fates of copper (Cu) and tetracyclines (TCs) were investigated for the different amended water hyacinth biomass harvested from intensive livestock and poultry wastewater, including unamended water hyacinth (W), water hyacinth amended with peat (WP), and water hyacinth amended with pig manure (WPM) during the composting process...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844437/product-quality-and-microbial-dynamics-during-vermicomposting-and-maturation-of-compost-from-pig-manure
#10
Iria Villar, David Alves, Salustiano Mato
This research evaluates, through microbial dynamics, the use of earthworms Eisenia andrei for maturation of pre-composted pig manure in comparison with maturation under static conditions and with vermicomposting of fresh pig manure. Therefore, two substrates were used (fresh and pre-composted pig manure) and four treatments were developed: fresh manure vermicomposting, control of fresh manure without earthworms, pre-composting followed by vermicomposting and static maturation of pre-composted manure. In order to determine the microbial dynamics, the enzymatic activities and profiles of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were evaluated over a 112-days period...
August 22, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837643/source-attribution-of-human-campylobacteriosis-at-the-point-of-exposure-by-combining-comparative-exposure-assessment-and-subtype-comparison-based-on-comparative-genomic-fingerprinting
#11
André Ravel, Matt Hurst, Nicoleta Petrica, Julie David, Steven K Mutschall, Katarina Pintar, Eduardo N Taboada, Frank Pollari
Human campylobacteriosis is a common zoonosis with a significant burden in many countries. Its prevention is difficult because humans can be exposed to Campylobacter through various exposures: foodborne, waterborne or by contact with animals. This study aimed at attributing campylobacteriosis to sources at the point of exposure. It combined comparative exposure assessment and microbial subtype comparison with subtypes defined by comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF). It used isolates from clinical cases and from eight potential exposure sources (chicken, cattle and pig manure, retail chicken, beef, pork and turkey meat, and surface water) collected within a single sentinel site of an integrated surveillance system for enteric pathogens in Canada...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783787/cropping-system-and-type-of-pig-manure-affect-nitrate-nitrogen-leaching-in-a-sandy-loam-soil
#12
Rezvan Karimi, Wole Akinremi, Don Flaten
The application of livestock manure can result in the loss of nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) and degrade surface and groundwater. A 3-yr lysimeter study was set up to compare the effect of cropping system and nitrogen (N)- and phosphorus (P)-based pig manure application rates on the loss of water and NO-N below the root zone. The experiment was a split-plot design with annual and perennial cropping systems as the main factor. Five nutrient management treatments were the subplots: N-based liquid pig manure application; P-based liquid pig manure application, N-based solid pig manure application, P-based solid pig manure application, and a control without amendment...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783779/effects-of-lime-and-organic-amendments-derived-from-varied-source-materials-on-cadmium-uptake-by-potato
#13
Shamim Al Mamun, Niklas J Lehto, Jo Cavanagh, Richard McDowell, Munmun Aktar, Ebrahim Benyas, Brett H Robinson
Repeated applications of Cd-rich phosphate fertilizers have resulted in elevated concentrations of this toxic element in some New Zealand soils. Exceedance of the food safety standard for Cd (0.1 mg kg fresh weight) has been reported for potato ( L.). Composts may efficiently sorb Cd in soil and therefore reduce its phytoavailability, leading to reduced uptake by plants. We aimed to determine the potential of various composts, shredded corn stover, and lime at two different rates to reduce the transfer of Cd from a soil (containing 1...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735088/excessive-application-of-pig-manure-increases-the-risk-of-p-loss-in-calcic-cinnamon-soil-in-china
#14
Yanju Yang, Haipeng Zhang, Xiaoqing Qian, Jiannan Duan, Gailan Wang
Soil phosphorus (P) is a critical factor affecting crop yields and water environmental quality. To investigate the degree of loss risk and forms of soil P in calcic cinnamon soil, the P fraction activities in soils were analysed using chemical methods, combined with an in situ field experiment. Seven treatments were set in this study, including control (unfertilized), no P fertilizer (No-P), mineral P fertilizer (Min-P), low (L-Man) and high (H-Man) quantities of pig manure, Min-P+L-Man, and Min-P+H-Man. The results showed that manure fertilizer could not only significantly increase maize yield but could also enhance the accumulation of soil P in organic and inorganic forms...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719770/household-exposure-to-livestock-and-health-in-the-chililab-hdss-cohort-vietnam
#15
Sinh Dang-Xuan, Lauren E MacDonald, Janna M Schurer, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Phuc Pham-Duc
In Vietnam, pigs and poultry are predominantly produced by small-scale farmers, creating challenges for zoonotic disease management. The objective of this study was to characterize practices related to livestock and manure management and to measure association with 3 self-reported health symptoms (coughing, fever, and diarrhea/nausea/vomiting) in a region currently undergoing health transitions. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected from a subset (N = 5520) of the Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System cohort in Chi Linh district, Vietnam...
July 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715744/short-term-thermophilic-treatment-cannot-remove-tetracycline-resistance-genes-in-pig-manures-but-exhibits-controlling-effects-on-their-accumulation-and-spread-in-soil
#16
Yijun Kang, Qing Li, Dan Xia, Min Shen, Lijuan Mei, Jian Hu
In this work, a microcosm experiment was conducted to merely mimic thermophilic phase in aerobic composting with pig manures in order to explore: (i) the effect of thermophilic phase in composting on the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs); and (ii) the impacts of the treated manures on the abundances of TRGs in soil. It was found that 4days of thermophilic process reduced the abundance of TRGs in pig manures by ∼1 lg unit compared to the samples without treatments, suggesting that other phases in composting may play significant roles in removal of TRGs...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712599/effects-of-woody-peat-and-superphosphate-on-compost-maturity-and-gaseous-emissions-during-pig-manure-composting
#17
Difang Zhang, Wenhai Luo, Jing Yuan, Guoxue Li, Yuan Luo
This study investigated the effect of calcium superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting with woody peat as the bulking agent. Two treatments were conducted with or without the addition of calcium superphosphate (10% dry weight of the composting mass), which were denoted as the control and superphosphate-amended treatment, respectively. Results show that the composting temperature of both treatments was higher than 50°C for more than 5days, which is typically required for pathogen destruction during manure composting...
July 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711829/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-soils-after-continually-applied-with-different-manure-for-30-years
#18
Shuang Peng, Youzhi Feng, Yiming Wang, Xisheng Guo, Haiyan Chu, Xiangui Lin
A 30year field experiment with a wheat-soybean cropping system were performed to compare the long-term anthropogenic influence on soil ARGs. Compared with chemical fertilization, the occurrence of 38 ARGs and the abundance of seven ARGs (tetL, tetB(P), tetO, tetW, sul1, ermB, and ermF) were significantly increased by long term exposure of pig manure. However, application of wheat straw and cow manure not substantially affected the abundance of ARGs except cow manure increased the abundance of tetM and tetW to a detectable level...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711806/improvement-of-pig-manure-compost-lignocellulose-degradation-organic-matter-humification-and-compost-quality-with-medical-stone
#19
Quan Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Junchao Zhao, Xiuna Ren, Ronghua Li, Zhen Wang, Meijing Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0%) of medical stone (MS) on the lignocellulose degradation and organic matter humification during pig manure (PM) composting. The results indicated that the addition of MS drastically promoted the organic carbon and lignin degradation. Compared to the control, the decomposition rate of hemicellulose and cellulose was increased by 9.64-27.08% and 2.11-12.07% in MS added treatments. Meanwhile, MS amendment significantly improved the humification of composting process, and the humic acid contents in MS added treatments were 5...
July 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688258/projections-of-nh3-emissions-from-manure-generated-by-livestock-production-in-china-to-2030-under-six-mitigation-scenarios
#20
Peng Xu, Sotiria Koloutsou-Vakakis, Mark J Rood, Shengji Luan
China's rapid urbanization, large population, and increasing consumption of calorie-and meat-intensive diets, have resulted in China becoming the world's largest source of ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production. This is the first study to use provincial, condition-specific emission factors based on most recently available studies on Chinese manure management and environmental conditions. The estimated NH3 emission temporal trends and spatial patterns are interpreted in relation to government policies affecting livestock production...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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