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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719770/household-exposure-to-livestock-and-health-in-the-chililab-hdss-cohort-vietnam
#1
Sinh Dang-Xuan, Lauren E MacDonald, Janna M Schurer, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Phuc Pham-Duc
In Vietnam, pigs and poultry are predominantly produced by small-scale farmers, creating challenges for zoonotic disease management. The objective of this study was to characterize practices related to livestock and manure management and to measure association with 3 self-reported health symptoms (coughing, fever, and diarrhea/nausea/vomiting) in a region currently undergoing health transitions. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected from a subset (N = 5520) of the Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System cohort in Chi Linh district, Vietnam...
July 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715744/short-term-thermophilic-treatment-cannot-remove-tetracycline-resistance-genes-in-pig-manures-but-exhibits-controlling-effects-on-their-accumulation-and-spread-in-soil
#2
Yijun Kang, Qing Li, Dan Xia, Min Shen, Lijuan Mei, Jian Hu
In this work, a microcosm experiment was conducted to merely mimic thermophilic phase in aerobic composting with pig manures in order to explore: (i) the effect of thermophilic phase in composting on the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs); and (ii) the impacts of the treated manures on the abundances of TRGs in soil. It was found that 4days of thermophilic process reduced the abundance of TRGs in pig manures by ∼1 lg unit compared to the samples without treatments, suggesting that other phases in composting may play significant roles in removal of TRGs...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712599/effects-of-woody-peat-and-superphosphate-on-compost-maturity-and-gaseous-emissions-during-pig-manure-composting
#3
Difang Zhang, Wenhai Luo, Jing Yuan, Guoxue Li, Yuan Luo
This study investigated the effect of calcium superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting with woody peat as the bulking agent. Two treatments were conducted with or without the addition of calcium superphosphate (10% dry weight of the composting mass), which were denoted as the control and superphosphate-amended treatment, respectively. Results show that the composting temperature of both treatments was higher than 50°C for more than 5days, which is typically required for pathogen destruction during manure composting...
July 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711829/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-soils-after-continually-applied-with-different-manure-for-30-years
#4
Shuang Peng, Youzhi Feng, Yiming Wang, Xisheng Guo, Haiyan Chu, Xiangui Lin
A 30year field experiment with a wheat-soybean cropping system were performed to compare the long-term anthropogenic influence on soil ARGs. Compared with chemical fertilization, the occurrence of 38 ARGs and the abundance of seven ARGs (tetL, tetB(P), tetO, tetW, sul1, ermB, and ermF) were significantly increased by long term exposure of pig manure. However, application of wheat straw and cow manure not substantially affected the abundance of ARGs except cow manure increased the abundance of tetM and tetW to a detectable level...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711806/improvement-of-pig-manure-compost-lignocellulose-degradation-organic-matter-humification-and-compost-quality-with-medical-stone
#5
Quan Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Junchao Zhao, Xiuna Ren, Ronghua Li, Zhen Wang, Meijing Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0%) of medical stone (MS) on the lignocellulose degradation and organic matter humification during pig manure (PM) composting. The results indicated that the addition of MS drastically promoted the organic carbon and lignin degradation. Compared to the control, the decomposition rate of hemicellulose and cellulose was increased by 9.64-27.08% and 2.11-12.07% in MS added treatments. Meanwhile, MS amendment significantly improved the humification of composting process, and the humic acid contents in MS added treatments were 5...
July 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688258/projections-of-nh3-emissions-from-manure-generated-by-livestock-production-in-china-to-2030-under-six-mitigation-scenarios
#6
Peng Xu, Sotiria Koloutsou-Vakakis, Mark J Rood, Shengji Luan
China's rapid urbanization, large population, and increasing consumption of calorie-and meat-intensive diets, have resulted in China becoming the world's largest source of ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production. This is the first study to use provincial, condition-specific emission factors based on most recently available studies on Chinese manure management and environmental conditions. The estimated NH3 emission temporal trends and spatial patterns are interpreted in relation to government policies affecting livestock production...
July 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675883/mass-loading-of-typical-artificial-sweeteners-in-a-pig-farm-and-their-dissipation-and-uptake-by-plants-in-neighboring-farmland
#7
Ling Ma, Yarui Liu, Jiayao Xu, Hongwen Sun, Hao Chen, Yiming Yao, Peng Zhang, Fengju Shen, Aldredo C Alder
Pig farm is an important potential source for artificial sweeteners (ASs) in the environment due to their wide use as additives in pig feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of typical ASs in pig farm and neighboring farmland. For this purpose, the levels of four typical artificial ASs, i.e. saccharin (SAC), cyclamate (CYC), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC), in pig feed and manure from a pig farm and water samples from an on-farm wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tianjin, China were measured and the mass loadings and removal efficiencies were assessed...
July 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661214/nitrogen-losses-and-chemical-parameters-during-co-composting-of-solid-wastes-and-liquid-pig-manure
#8
M A Vázquez, D de la Varga, R Plana, M Soto
The aim of this research was to study nitrogen losses during the treatment of liquid fraction (LF) of pig manure by co-composting and to establish the best conditions for compost production with higher nitrogen and low heavy metals contents. Windrows were constituted with solid fraction (SF) of pig manure, different organic waste (solid fraction of pig manure, sawdust and grape bagasse) as co-substrate and Populus spp. wood chips as bulking material and watered intensely with LF. Results show that nitrogen losses ranged from 30% to 66% of initial nitrogen and were mainly governed by substrate to bulking mass ratio and liquid fraction to substrate (LF/S) ratio, and only secondarily by operational parameters...
June 29, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654242/global-cryptosporidium-loads-from-livestock-manure
#9
Lucie Vermeulen, Jorien Benders, GertJan Medema, Nynke Hofstra
Understanding the environmental pathways of Cryptosporidium is essential for effective management of human and animal cryptosporidiosis. In this paper we aim to quantify livestock Cryptosporidium spp. loads to land on a global scale using spatially explicit process-based modelling, and to explore the effect of manure storage and treatment on oocyst loads using scenario analysis. Our model GloWPa-Crypto L1 calculates a total global Cryptosporidium spp. load from livestock manure of 3.2x10(23) oocysts per year...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633966/the-effect-of-feed-composition-on-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-animal-processing-by-products
#10
D Hidalgo, J M Martín-Marroquín, F Corona
Four streams and their mixtures have been considered for anaerobic co-digestion, all of them generated during pig carcasses processing or in related industrial activities: meat flour (MF), process water (PW), pig manure (PM) and glycerin (GL). Biochemical methane potential assays were conducted at 37 °C to evaluate the effects of the substrate mix ratio on methane generation and process behavior. The results show that the co-digestion of these products favors the anaerobic fermentation process when limiting the amount of meat flour in the mixture to co-digest, which should not exceed 10%...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631587/dietary-supplementation-with-a-nucleotide-rich-yeast-extract-modulates-gut-immune-response-and-microflora-in-weaned-pigs-in-response-to-a-sanitary-challenge
#11
S M Waititu, F Yin, R Patterson, A Yitbarek, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the short-term effect of supplementing a nucleotide-rich yeast extract (NRYE) on growth performance, gut structure, immunity and microflora of piglets raised under sanitary and unsanitary conditions. A total of 84, 21-day old piglets were used in this study; 42 piglets were raised in a room designated as the clean room that was washed once per week, whereas the other 42 piglets were raised in a room designated as the unclean room in which 7 kg of manure from the sow herd was spread on each pen floor on day 1 and 7 and the room was not washed throughout the experiment...
June 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628813/removal-of-antibiotics-during-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-pig-manure
#12
Lu Feng, Mònica Escolà Casas, Lars Ditlev Mørck Ottosen, Henrik Bjarne Møller, Kai Bester
Antibiotics are frequently used in animals to treat sickness and prevent infection especially in industrial meat production. Some of the antibiotics cannot be completely metabolized and, as an unavoidable result, are excreted and thus end up in manure which is then spread in the environment. Currently increasing amounts of manure is used in biogas production before spreading the residuals on agricultural fields. In this study, the removal patterns of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole) and macrolides (clarithromycin, erythromycin), as well as trimethoprim, were investigated during the anaerobic digestion of pig manure...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602001/effect-of-phosphate-additive-on-the-nitrogen-transformation-during-pig-manure-composting
#13
Juan Wu, Shengzhou He, Ying Liang, Guoxue Li, Song Li, Shili Chen, Faisal Nadeem, Jingwei Hu
Previous studies revealed that phosphate, as an additive to composting, could significantly reduce NH3 emission and nitrogen loss through change of pH and nitrogen fixation to form ammonium phosphate. However, few studies have explored the influence of pH change and phosphate additive on NO x(-)-N, NH4(+)-N, NH3, and N2O, which are dominate forms of nitrogen in composting. In this study, the equimolar H3PO4, H2SO4, and K2HPO4 were added into pig manure composting to evaluate the effect of H(+) and PO4(3-) on nitrogen transformation...
June 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595834/the-completely-annotated-genome-and-comparative-genomics-of-the-peptoniphilaceae-bacterium-str-ing2-d1g-a-novel-acidogenic-bacterium-isolated-from-a-mesophilic-biogas-reactor
#14
Geizecler Tomazetto, Sarah Hahnke, Thomas Langer, Daniel Wibberg, Jochen Blom, Irena Maus, Alfred Pühler, Michael Klocke, Andreas Schlüter
The strictly anaerobic Peptoniphilaceae bacterium str. ING2-D1G (=DSM 28672=LMG 28300) was isolated from a mesophilic laboratory-scale completely stirred tank biogas reactor (CSTR) continuously co-digesting maize silage, pig and cattle manure. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, the closest described relative to this strain is Peptoniphilus obesi ph1 showing 91.2% gene sequence identity, the most closely related species with a validly published name is Peptoniphilus indolicus DSM 20464(T) whose 16S rRNA gene sequence is 90...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582673/characterization-and-quantification-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-manure-of-piglets-and-adult-pigs-fed-on-different-diets
#15
Xiao-Ming Lu, Wen-Feng Li, Chao-Ben Li
Studies have shown that pig manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, little is known about the characteristics of ARGs in the manure of piglets and adult pigs fed on different diets. In the present study, the ARG characteristics of the manure of piglets and adult pigs fed on different diets (feed, grain) were analyzed using high-throughput fluorescence quantitative PCR. Correlations between heavy metals, antibiotics, and ARGs in pig manure were analyzed. The results showed that the heavy metal and antibiotic contents in the manure of pigs receiving feed significantly exceeded those in the manure of pigs receiving grain...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578866/nitrogen-losses-to-the-environment-following-food-based-digestate-and-compost-applications-to-agricultural-land
#16
Fiona Nicholson, Anne Bhogal, Laura Cardenas, Dave Chadwick, Tom Misselbrook, Alison Rollett, Matt Taylor, Rachel Thorman, John Williams
The anaerobic digestion of food waste for energy recovery produces a nutrient-rich digestate which is a valuable source of crop available nitrogen (N). As with any 'new' material being recycled to agricultural land it is important to develop best management practices that maximise crop available N supply, whilst minimising emissions to the environment. In this study, ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to air and nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching losses to water following digestate, compost and livestock manure applications to agricultural land were measured at 3 sites in England and Wales...
September 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523619/effect-of-calcium-bentonite-on-zn-and-cu-mobility-and-their-accumulation-in-vegetable-growth-in-soil-amended-with-compost-during-consecutive-planting
#17
Quan Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Ronghua Li, Feng Shen, Zengqiang Zhang
In this study, greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to investigate the Cu and Zn mobility and their accumulations in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapachinensis L.) growth in Ca-bentonite-pig manure co-compost (CBC)-soil system during three consecutive planting. Five composts (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% Ca-bentonite-pig manure co-composts) amended soil with 5% (w/w) application rate and compared to control without any additive. The results showed that the addition of CBC increased the biomass and chlorophyll content of pakchoi, and the maximum overall yield was found in 7...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511351/effects-of-various-fertilization-regimes-on-abundance-and-activity-of-anaerobic-ammonium-oxidation-bacteria-in-rice-wheat-cropping-systems-in-china
#18
Chao Gu, Huifang Zhou, Qichun Zhang, Yuhua Zhao, Hongjie Di, Yongchao Liang
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important process in many marine and paddy ecosystems. However, few studies have reported on the contribution to the nitrogen cycle of anammox and its dynamics in rice-wheat cropping systems with different fertilization regimes. Here, isotope tracing and molecular techniques were used to determine the potential rates of anammox and their association with bacterial abundance, diversity, and activity. Rice-wheat cropping systems at two sites in Jiangsu Province, China were selected and the treatments at each site were: 1) no fertilization (CK), 2) 100% chemical fertilization (CF), 3) pig manure compost plus 50% chemical fertilization (PMCF), and 4) straw plus 100% chemical fertilization (SRCF)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481880/a-link-between-damaging-behaviour-in-pigs-sanitary-conditions-and-dietary-protein-and-amino-acid-supply
#19
Yvonne van der Meer, Walter J J Gerrits, Alfons J M Jansman, Bas Kemp, J Elizabeth Bolhuis
The tendency to reduce crude protein (CP) levels in pig diets to increase protein efficiency may increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours such as ear and tail biting, particularly for pigs kept under suboptimal health conditions. We studied, in a 2×2×2 factorial design, 576 tail-docked growing-finishing entire male pigs in 64 pens, subjected to low (LSC) vs. high sanitary conditions (HSC), and fed a normal CP (NP) vs. a low CP diet (LP, 80% of NP) ad libitum, with a basal amino acid (AA) profile or supplemented AA profile with extra threonine, tryptophan and methionine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464983/effect-of-magnetite-powder-on-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-pig-manure-and-wheat-straw
#20
Yanzi Wang, Guangxin Ren, Tong Zhang, Shuzhen Zou, Chunlan Mao, Xiaojiao Wang
This study investigated the effects of different amounts of magnetite powder (i.e., 0g, 1.5g, 3g, 4.5g, 6g) on the anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure (PM) and wheat straw (WS). The variations in pH, alkalinity, cellulase activity (CEA), dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and methane production, were analyzed by phases. Correlation of the activities of the two enzymes with methane production was also analyzed, and the Gompertz model was used to evaluate the efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) with the addition of magnetite powder...
April 29, 2017: Waste Management
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