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Pig manure

Thiago Augusto Formentini, Samuel Legros, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo Fernandes, Adilson Pinheiro, Maureen Le Bars, Clément Levard, Fábio Joel Kochem Mallmann, Milton da Veiga, Emmanuel Doelsch
Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Kamila Myszka, Agata Sznajdrowska, Alicja Szulc, Agnieszka Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Łukasz Ławniczak, Philippe F-X Corvini, Łukasz Chrzanowski
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of bacterial cultures isolated from cattle, poultry or pig faeces and manure to produce rhamnolipids, as well as to investigate the influence of interspecies communication on possible quantitative differences in the production of rhamnolipid congeners. Initial screening methods (oil spreading, drop collapse, haemolytic activity and emulsification activity) showed that approximately 36% of the 51 isolated cultures exhibited the ability to produce biosurfactants...
December 30, 2016: New Biotechnology
Kajsa Risberg, Harald Cederlund, Mikael Pell, Veronica Arthurson, Anna Schnürer
The growing number of biogas plants in Europe has resulted in increased production of nutrient-rich digestate with great potential as fertilizer for arable land. The nutrient composition of digestate varies with the substrate treated in the biogas plant and may contain compounds that stimulate or inhibit soil microbial activity. This study compared 20 digestates (D) with 10 pig slurries (PS) and 10 cow manures (CM) regarding their chemical content and their effect on soil microbial activities, i.e. potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO) and soil respiration...
December 27, 2016: Waste Management
Ángela Rodríguez-Abalde, Xavier Flotats, Belén Fernández
The feasibility of co-digestion of blends of two different animal by-products (pig manure and pasteurized slaughterhouse waste) and recovered glycerine was studied in mesophilic conditions. Experiments were performed in a lab-scale CSTR along 490days, with a hydraulic retention time of 21-33days and with a step-wise increased organic loading rate, by adding and/or changing the wastes ratio, from 0.8 to 3.2kgCODm(-3)d(-1). The best methane production rate (0.64Nm(3)CH4m(-3)d(-1)) represented an increment of 2...
December 23, 2016: Waste Management
Jelena Bohn, Aytül Yüksel-Dadak, Stefan Dröge, Helmut König
Direct molecular approaches provide hints that lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the degradation process of organic material to methanogenetic substrates in biogas plants. However, their diversity in biogas fermenter samples has not been analyzed in detail yet. For that reason, five different biogas fermenters, which were fed mainly with maize silage and manure from cattle or pigs, were examined for the occurrence of lactic acid-forming bacteria. A total of 197 lactic acid-forming bacterial strains were isolated, which we assigned to 21 species, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Pseudoramibacter-related...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Wendan Xiao, Dan Li, Xuezhu Ye, Haizhou Xu, Guihua Yao, Jingwen Wang, Qi Zhang, Jing Hu, Na Gao
The combined use of organic amendment-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation to decontaminate Cd-polluted soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. The plant species selected was the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Prior to the pot experiment, the loamy soil was treated with 15 g kg(-1) of pig manure compost, 10 g kg(-1) of humic acid, or 5 mmol kg(-1) of EDTA, and untreated soil without application of any amendment was the control. Two conditions were applied to each treatment: no voltage (without an electrical field) and a direct current (DC) electrical field (1 V cm(-1) with switching polarity every day)...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bencharong Wangkahad, Skorn Mongkolsuk, Kwanrawee Sirikanchana
We developed sewage-specific microbial source tracking (MST) tools using enterococci bacteriophages and evaluated their performance with univariate and multivariate analyses involving data below detection limits. Newly isolated Enterococci faecalis bacterial strains AIM06 (DSM100702) and SR14 (DSM100701) demonstrated 100% specificity and 90% sensitivity to human sewage without detecting 68 animal manure pooled samples of cats, chickens, cows, dogs, ducks, pigs, and pigeons. AIM06 and SR14 bacteriophages were present in human sewage at 2-4 orders of magnitude...
December 16, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Erika Chenais, Susanna Sternberg-Lewerin, Sofia Boqvist, Lihong Liu, Neil LeBlanc, Tonny Aliro, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl
In Uganda, a low-income country in east Africa, African swine fever (ASF) is endemic with yearly outbreaks. In the prevailing smallholder subsistence farming systems, farm biosecurity is largely non-existent. Outbreaks of ASF, particularly in smallholder farms, often go unreported, creating significant epidemiological knowledge gaps. The continuous circulation of ASF in smallholder settings also creates biosecurity challenges for larger farms. In this study, an on-going outbreak of ASF in an endemic area was investigated on farm level, including analyses of on-farm environmental virus contamination...
December 13, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
L Loyon
Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13...
December 9, 2016: Waste Management
Torun Wallgren, Rebecka Westin, Stefan Gunnarsson
BACKGROUND: Tail biting is a common problem in intensive pig farming, affecting both welfare and production. Although routine tail docking is banned within the EU, it remains a common practice to prevent tail biting. Straw as environmental enrichment has been proposed as an alternative to tail docking, but its effectiveness against tail biting and function in manure handling systems have to be considered. The aim of the study was to survey how pigs with intact tails are raised and how tail biting is handled in Sweden, where tail docking is banned through national legislation...
December 5, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Zhenhua Zhang, Yan Liu, Juan Zhao, Cigang Yu, Shanshan Dong, Huiying Duan, Ran Yu, Changyong Wang
A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain PC-2T, was isolated from penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure co-compost in China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain PC-2T should be assigned to the genus Chelatococcus and that it was 98.95% to Chelatococcus daeguensis, 98.84% Chelatococcus sambhunathii, 98.43%, Chelatococcus caeni, and 95.97% to Chelatococcus asaccharovorans. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 70.89 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, strain PC-2 T represents a novel species of the genus Chelatococcus, for which the name Chelatococcus composti sp...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
A N T R Monteiro, F Garcia-Launay, L Brossard, A Wilfart, J-Y Dourmad
Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tjalfe G Poulsen, Laetitia Adelard, Mona Wells
Sixteen data sets (two of which were measured in this study) with a combined total of 145 measurements of ultimate methane yield (UMY) during mono- and co-digestion of ternary biomass mixtures were used to assess impact of co-digestion on the relative change in UMY (ΔUMY) as a function of biomass mix composition. The data involved 9 biomass materials (brewery spent grains, chicken manure, cow manure, fresh grass clippings, pig manure, primary sewage sludge, vegetable food waste, wheat straw, and rice straw)...
November 19, 2016: Waste Management
Min Wang, Xueying Zhang, Jun Zhou, Yuexiang Yuan, Yumei Dai, Dong Li, Zhidong Li, Xiaofeng Liu, Zhiying Yan
Anaerobic co-digestion is considered to be an efficient way to improve the biogas production. The abundance, dynamic and interactional networks of prokaryotic community were investigated between co-digestion and mono-digestions of corn stalk and pig manure in mesophilic batch test. Co-digestion showed higher methane production, and contributed to suitable microenvironment as well as stable prokaryotic community structure. The highest methane production was achieved with the highest relative abundance of Methanosaeta...
February 2017: Bioresource Technology
Masaru Usui, Mayuko Kawakura, Nobuki Yoshizawa, Lai Lai San, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Yutaka Tamura
Pigs, particularly piglets, have been identified as reservoir hosts of Clostridium difficile. To examine the survival ability of this pathogen in pig feces-based manure compost, C. difficile spores, which were prepared to contain as few vegetative cells as possible, were artificially inoculated into pig feces and incubated at different temperatures. While C. difficile survived in the feces incubated at temperatures below 37 °C for over 30 days, cell numbers gradually decreased at thermophilic temperatures (over 55 °C; p < 0...
November 18, 2016: Anaerobe
Xinhao Ren, Xiaojia Yuan, Hongwen Sun
The objective of this study was to elucidate the dynamic changes in the properties of biochar-amended soil and their sorption capacity for typical organic contaminants with increasing contact time between biochar and soil. To do so, biochars that were produced from pig manure at two temperatures were added to two soils, and the sorption behaviors of atrazine and phenanthrene (Phen) on soil-biochar mixtures aged for different times were investigated. Soils freshly amended with biochars showed a dramatic increase in the sorption of atrazine (up to 23...
November 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bing Zang, Shuyan Li, Frederick C Michel, Guoxue Li, Difang Zhang, Yangyang Li
Effects of nitrogen electron acceptors on dimethyl sulfide (Me2S) and dimethyl disulfide (Me2SS) odor emission during composting was investigated. The chemicals and doses used included sodium nitrate (NO3(-) at 10mM, 20mM and 40mM), sodium nitrite (NO2(-) at 10mM, 20mM and 40mM) and sodium nitrite (10mM, 20mM and 40mM) with hexaammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate (HHT). The results showed that the addition of these chemicals restricted the emission of Me2S and Me2SS. The emission reduction effect of NO2(-) was greater than NO3(-) at the same dosage...
January 2017: Bioresource Technology
Gilbert R Patterson, Alicia H Mohr, Tim P Snider, Thomas A Lindsay, Peter R Davies, Tim J Goldsmith, Fernando Sampedro
In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States, local, state, and federal authorities will implement a foreign animal disease emergency response plan restricting the pork supply chain movements and likely disrupting the continuity of the swine industry business. To minimize disruptions of the food supply while providing an effective response in an outbreak, it is necessary to have proactive measures in place to ensure minimal disease spread and maximum continuation of business...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
G Mourand, F Paboeuf, M A Fleury, E Jouy, S Bougeard, E Denamur, I Kempf
Four trials were conducted to evaluate the impact of Escherichia coli probiotic strain ED1a administration to pigs on the gut carriage or survival in manure of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing E. coli Groups of pigs were orally inoculated with strain E. coli M63 carrying the blaCTX-M-1 gene (n = 84) or used as a control (n = 26). In the first two trials, 24 of 40 E. coli M63-inoculated pigs were given E. coli ED1a orally for 6 days starting 8 days after oral inoculation. In the third trial, 10 E. coli M63-inoculated pigs were given either E...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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