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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127925/relationship-between-maturity-and-microbial-communities-during-pig-manure-composting-by-phospholipid-fatty-acid-plfa-and-correlation-analysis
#1
Jishao Jiang, Hua Huang, Yimei Huang, Xueling Liu, Dong Liu
The dynamic of microbial community plays vital role during composting. We therefore conducted a combined study on the maturity of compost (by pig manure composting with covering matured compost) and the successions of microbial communities (via phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)). Our results showed that pH, electrical conductivity (EC), NH4-N, and germination index (GI) were suitable indicators for compost maturity evalument. In addition, there was a closer correlation between maturity indexes (NH4-N and GI) and the microbial compositions (as evaluated by microbial PLFA)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127636/release-of-nutrients-and-heavy-metals-from-biochar-amended-soil-under-environmentally-relevant-conditions
#2
Yinghao Zhao, Ling Zhao, Yanyan Mei, Feiyue Li, Xinde Cao
Biochar is a potential amendment for improving soil fertility due to its richness of nutrients, P, K, Ca, and Mg. However, soil amended with metal-rich biochars may pose a risk of heavy metal release to the environment. Biochars derived from pig manure and sewage sludge (PM-biochar and SS-biochar) were investigated for their nutrient and heavy metal release in two soils (acidic and alkaline soil) under simulated landfill and acid rain conditions. Results showed that under both environmental conditions, adding PM-biochar into the soil increased K, P, and Mg release significantly by about 40-50 times, while only 2-4 times increase of the nutrients was observed in the SS-biochar-amended soil...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126822/blending-based-optimisation-and-pretreatment-strategies-to-enhance-anaerobic-digestion-of-poultry-manure
#3
Ivan Rodriguez-Verde, Leticia Regueiro, Juan M Lema, Marta Carballa
Anaerobic digestion of poultry manure is limited by the excessive levels of nitrogen and the high concentration of dry matter. These limitations are usually overcome either by applying procedures to remove nitrogen or by employing pretreatments that allows to solubilise organic matter. In this work, the treatment of poultry manure was enhanced by co-digestion with pig manure through the methodological determination of optimal mixtures combined together with a thermochemical pretreatment coupled to ammonia stripping...
November 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121343/larval-development-of-culicoides-sonorensis-diptera-ceratopogonidae-in-mud-supplemented-with-manure-of-various-farm-animals
#4
Dinesh Erram, Ludek Zurek
Understanding factors that affect Culicoides larval development is critical in suppressing adult midge populations that transmit economically important pathogens to ruminants such as bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. In this study, development of Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) was investigated in sterilized mud mixed with varying concentrations (3.2, 6.4, 12.6, 25.0, 50.0, and 100.0%) of dairy cattle and white tailed deer manures. In addition, C. sonorensis development was also evaluated in manure (25...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118356/anaerobic-digestion-of-pig-manure-supernatant-at-high-ammonia-concentrations-characterized-by-high-abundances-of-methanosaeta-and-non-euryarchaeotal-archaea
#5
Anna Synnøve Røstad Nordgård, Wenche Hennie Bergland, Olav Vadstein, Vladimir Mironov, Rune Bakke, Kjetill Østgaard, Ingrid Bakke
We examined the effect of ammonium and temperature on methane production in high rate upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors treating pig manure supernatant. We operated four reactors at two ammonium concentrations ('low' at 1.9, 'high' at 3.7 g L(-1), termed LA and HA reactors, respectively) and at variable temperatures over 358 days. Archaeal and bacterial communities were characterized by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Ammonium was a major selective factor for bacterial and archaeal community structure...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113838/anaerobic-co-digestion-of-pig-manure-and-food-waste-effects-on-digestate-biosafety-dewaterability-and-microbial-community-dynamics
#6
C Dennehy, P G Lawlor, M S McCabe, P Cormican, J Sheahan, Y Jiang, X Zhan, G E Gardiner
This study assessed the effect of varying pig manure (PM)/food waste (FW) mixing ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on methane yields, digestate dewaterability, enteric indicator bacteria and microbial communities during anaerobic co-digestion. Three 10 L digesters were operated at 39 °C, each with a PM/FW feedstock composition of 85%/15%, 63%/37% and 40%/60% (volatile solids basis). While the PM/FW ratio was different among reactors, the organic loading rate applied was equal, and increased stepwise with reducing HRT...
November 4, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103690/clostridium-difficile-in-beef-cattle-farms-farmers-and-their-environment-assessing-the-spread-of-the-bacterium
#7
Cristina Rodriguez, Djalal-Eddine Hakimi, Raphael Vanleyssem, Bernard Taminiau, Johan Van Broeck, Michel Delmée, Nicolas Korsak, Georges Daube
In recent years, several studies have described the presence of Clostridium difficile in healthy and diarrhoeic farm and domestic animals. In pigs and cattle, the isolation of some PCR-ribotypes associated with human infection, especially PCR-ribotypes 014 and 078, has led us to hypothesize about the zoonotic transmission of C. difficile infections. If these animals are reservoirs of C. difficile, farmers in close contact with their animals are particularly at risk of acquiring and spreading the bacterium. This study investigates the presence of C...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096257/impact-of-direct-application-of-biogas-slurry-and-residue-in-fields-in-situ-analysis-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-from-pig-manure-to-fields
#8
Chengjun Pu, Hang Liu, Guochun Ding, Ying Sun, Xiaolu Yu, Junhao Chen, Jingyao Ren, Xiaoyan Gong
Biogas slurry and residue contaminated with antibiotics are widely used as fertilizers in vegetable crop planting. However, their impact on the spreading of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in vegetable fields is still largely unknown. In the present study, antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), ARGs and bacterial communities from pig manure to fields were monitored by using viable plate counts, high-throughput fluorescent quantitative PCR (HT-qPCR) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Eighty-three ARGs and 3 transposons genes were detected...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080526/adsorption-of-heavy-metals-from-aqueous-solution-by-uv-mutant-bacillus-subtilis-loaded-on-biochars-derived-from-different-stock-materials
#9
Ting Wang, Hongwen Sun, Xinhao Ren, Bing Li, Hongjun Mao
Two kinds of biochars, one derived from corn straw (CBC) and one from pig manure (PBC), were used as the carriers of a bacterium (B38) to adsorb heavy metals in solution. CBC exhibited high affinity to Hg(II), while PBC showed large adsorption capacity of Pb(II). After loading with B38, the sorption capacity of the co-sorbents were enhanced for Pb(II), but weakened for Hg(II). In a binary system, the overall adsorption capacity to Hg-Pb (CBC+B38, 136.7mg/g; PBC+B38, 181.3mg/g) on co-sorbents was equal to the sum of the single-component values for Hg(II) and Pb(II)...
October 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079729/manure-amendment-increases-the-content-of-nanomineral-allophane-in-an-acid-arable-soil
#10
Jianchao Zhang, Jian Xiao, Siliang Li, Wei Ran
Natural nanoparticles are of central importance in the environment, e.g. sorption of soil organic carbon (SOC) and contaminants. A large number of study have focused on the metal binding, transport and ecotoxicity of nanoparticles. Fertilizer amendments are routinely applied to arable soils and induce changes in soil chemical, physical and biological properties. However, the effects of fertilizer amendments on natural nanoparticles are still unknown. In this study, soil nanoparticles were separated from acid red soil (Ferralic Cambisol) including long-term (26 years) treatments of unfertilized control (CK), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK) and raw pig manure (M)...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076024/characterization-of-pig-manure-derived-hydrochars-for-their-potential-application-as-fertilizer
#11
Chengfang Song, Shengdao Shan, Karin Müller, Shengchun Wu, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Song Xu, Ying Shen, Jörg Rinklebe, Dan Liu, Hailong Wang
In China, intensive pig farming has led to serious environmental issues with the need to dispose off large quantities of pig manure. Chinese agriculture relies on high inputs of chemical fertilizers leading to gradual decreasing organic matter contents in many arable soils. We propose that hydrochars produced from pig manure could potentially replace chemical fertilizers and, at the same time, resolve the waste disposal problem. The hydrochars used in this study were produced from pig manure at five different pyrolysis temperatures ranging between 160 and 240 °C and three residence times (1, 5, and 8 h)...
October 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065938/review-pork-production-with-maximal-nitrogen-efficiency
#12
S Millet, M Aluwé, A Van den Broeke, F Leen, J De Boever, S De Campeneere
During growth, pigs convert plant protein into animal protein. The major part of the ingested protein is excreted via manure, with potential nitrogen (N) losses to the environment. To limit N losses and increase sustainability of pork production, the efficiency of protein conversion should be maximized. The aim of this paper is to critically evaluate diet and management strategies linked with N efficiency. Besides nutrition, we discuss three management strategies observed in science and in practice to be linked with improved N efficiency: genetic selection, castration and slaughter weight...
October 25, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055215/an-insight-into-the-adsorption-of-diclofenac-on-different-biochars-mechanisms-surface-chemistry-and-thermodynamics
#13
Linson Lonappan, Tarek Rouissi, Satinder Kaur Brar, Mausam Verma, Rao Y Surampalli
Biochars were prepared from feedstocks pinewood and pig manure. Biochar microparticles obtained through grinding were evaluated for the removal of emerging contaminant diclofenac (DCF) and the underlying mechanism were thoroughly studied. Characterization of biochar was carried out using particle size analyzer, SEM, BET, FT-IR, XRD, XPS and zeta potential instrument. Pig manure biochar (BC-PM) exhibited excellent removal efficiency (99.6%) over pine wood biochar (BC-PW) at 500 µg L(-1) of DCF (environmentally significant concentration)...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054657/feed-additives-shift-gut-microbiota-and-enrich-antibiotic-resistance-in-swine-gut
#14
Yi Zhao, Jian-Qiang Su, Xin-Li An, Fu-Yi Huang, Christopher Rensing, Kristian Koefoed Brandt, Yong-Guan Zhu
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants posing a threat to public health. Antibiotics and metals are widely used as feed additives and could consequently affect ARGs in swine gut. In this study, high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (HT-qPCR) based ARG chip and next-generation 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data were analyzed using multiple statistical approaches to profile the antibiotic resistome and investigate its linkages to antibiotics and metals used as feed additives and to the microbial community composition in freshly collected swine manure samples from three large-scale Chinese pig farms...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022521/a-stochastic-bio-economic-pig-farm-model-to-assess-the-impact-of-innovations-on-farm-performance
#15
B M Ali, P B M Berentsen, J W M Bastiaansen, A Oude Lansink
Recently developed innovations may improve the economic and environmental sustainability of pig production systems. Generic models are needed to assess the impact of innovations on farm performance. Here we developed a stochastic bio-economic farm model for a typical farrow-to-finish pig farm to assess the impact of innovations on private and social profits. The model accounts for emissions of greenhouse gases from feed production and manure by using the shadow price of CO2, and for stochasticity of economic and biological parameters...
October 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992004/the-effects-of-copper-source-and-concentration-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-pen-cleanliness-in-finishing-pigs
#16
K F Coble, J M DeRouchey, M D Tokach, S S Dritz, R D Goodband, J C Woodworth, J L Usry
A total of 1,143 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050, initially 25.1 ± 0.03 kg BW) were used in a 111-d study to determine the effects of copper sulfate (CuSO; Prince Agri-Products, Quincy, IL) or tribasic copper chloride (TBCC; IntelliBond C; Micronutrients, Indianapolis, IN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pen cleanliness. Pens of pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, balanced on average pen weight in a randomized complete block design with 25 to 28 pigs per pen and 7 replications per treatment...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958462/composted-biogas-residue-and-spent-mushroom-substrate-as-a-growth-medium-for-tomato-and-pepper-seedlings
#17
Xingyao Meng, Jiali Dai, Yue Zhang, Xiaofen Wang, Wanbin Zhu, Xufeng Yuan, Hongli Yuan, Zongjun Cui
A composted material derived from biogas production residues, spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and pig manure was evaluated as a partial or total replacement for peat in growth medium for tomato and pepper seedlings. Five different substrates were tested: T1, compost + perlite (5:1, v:v); T2, compost + peat + perlite (4:1:1, v:v:v); T3, compost + peat + perlite (2.5:2.5:1, v:v:v); T4, compost + peat + perlite (1:4:1, v:v:v); and CK, a commercial peat + perlite (5:1, v:v). The physical-chemical characteristics of the various media were analyzed, and the germination rate and morphological growth were also measured...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935871/evaluation-of-biochars-from-different-stock-materials-as-carriers-of-bacterial-strain-for-remediation-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-soil
#18
Ting Wang, Hongwen Sun, Xinhao Ren, Bing Li, Hongjun Mao
Two kinds of biochars, one derived from corn straw and one from pig manure, were studied as carriers of a mutant genotype from Bacillus subtilis (B38) for heavy metal contaminated soil remediation. After amendment with biochar, the heavy metal bioavailability decreased. Moreover, the heavy metal immobilization ability of the biochar was enhanced by combining it with B38. The simultaneous application of B38 and pig manure-derived biochar exhibited a superior effect on the promotion of plant growth and the immobilization of heavy metals in soil...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926818/effects-of-genetically-modified-cotton-stalks-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-inti1-and-inti2-during-pig-manure-composting
#19
Manli Duan, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Yang Li, Sheqi Zhang, Yanan Yin, Ranran Zhang
Genetically modified (GM) cotton production generates a large yield of stalks and their disposal is difficult. In order to study the feasibility of using GM cotton stalks for composting and the changes that occur in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting, we supplemented pig manure with GM or non-GM cotton stalks during composting and we compared their effects on the absolute abundances (AA) of intI1, intI2, and ARGs under the two treatments. The compost was mature after processing based on the germination index and C/N ratio...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898824/comparison-of-biochar-zeolite-and-their-mixture-amendment-for-aiding-organic-matter-transformation-and-nitrogen-conservation-during-pig-manure-composting
#20
Quan Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Ronghua Li, Zhen Wang, Hongyu Chen, Meijing Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
The aim of this work was to compare the impact of biochar, zeolite and their mixture on nitrogen conservation and organic matter transformation during pig manure (PM) composting. Four treatments were set-up from PM mixed with wheat straw and then applied 10% biochar (B), 10% zeolite (Z) and 10% biochar+10% zeolite (B+Z) into composting mixtures (dry weight basis), while treatment without additives applied used as control. Results indicated that adding B, Z and B+Z could obviously (p<0.05) improve the organic matter degradation and decrease the nitrogen loss...
December 2017: Bioresource Technology
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