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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633966/the-effect-of-feed-composition-on-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-animal-processing-by-products
#1
D Hidalgo, J M Martín-Marroquín, F Corona
Four streams and their mixtures have been considered for anaerobic co-digestion, all of them generated during pig carcasses processing or in related industrial activities: meat flour (MF), process water (PW), pig manure (PM) and glycerin (GL). Biochemical methane potential assays were conducted at 37 °C to evaluate the effects of the substrate mix ratio on methane generation and process behavior. The results show that the co-digestion of these products favors the anaerobic fermentation process when limiting the amount of meat flour in the mixture to co-digest, which should not exceed 10%...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631587/dietary-supplementation-with-a-nucleotide-rich-yeast-extract-modulates-gut-immune-response-and-microflora-in-weaned-pigs-in-response-to-a-sanitary-challenge
#2
S M Waititu, F Yin, R Patterson, A Yitbarek, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the short-term effect of supplementing a nucleotide-rich yeast extract (NRYE) on growth performance, gut structure, immunity and microflora of piglets raised under sanitary and unsanitary conditions. A total of 84, 21-day old piglets were used in this study; 42 piglets were raised in a room designated as the clean room that was washed once per week, whereas the other 42 piglets were raised in a room designated as the unclean room in which 7 kg of manure from the sow herd was spread on each pen floor on day 1 and 7 and the room was not washed throughout the experiment...
June 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628813/removal-of-antibiotics-during-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-pig-manure
#3
Lu Feng, Mònica Escolà Casas, Lars Ditlev Mørck Ottosen, Henrik Bjarne Møller, Kai Bester
Antibiotics are frequently used in animals to treat sickness and prevent infection especially in industrial meat production. Some of the antibiotics cannot be completely metabolized and, as an unavoidable result, are excreted and thus end up in manure which is then spread in the environment. Currently increasing amounts of manure is used in biogas production before spreading the residuals on agricultural fields. In this study, the removal patterns of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole) and macrolides (clarithromycin, erythromycin), as well as trimethoprim, were investigated during the anaerobic digestion of pig manure...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602001/effect-of-phosphate-additive-on-the-nitrogen-transformation-during-pig-manure-composting
#4
Juan Wu, Shengzhou He, Ying Liang, Guoxue Li, Song Li, Shili Chen, Faisal Nadeem, Jingwei Hu
Previous studies revealed that phosphate, as an additive to composting, could significantly reduce NH3 emission and nitrogen loss through change of pH and nitrogen fixation to form ammonium phosphate. However, few studies have explored the influence of pH change and phosphate additive on NO x(-)-N, NH4(+)-N, NH3, and N2O, which are dominate forms of nitrogen in composting. In this study, the equimolar H3PO4, H2SO4, and K2HPO4 were added into pig manure composting to evaluate the effect of H(+) and PO4(3-) on nitrogen transformation...
June 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595834/the-completely-annotated-genome-and-comparative-genomics-of-the-peptoniphilaceae-bacterium-str-ing2-d1g-a-novel-acidogenic-bacterium-isolated-from-a-mesophilic-biogas-reactor
#5
Geizecler Tomazetto, Sarah Hahnke, Thomas Langer, Daniel Wibberg, Jochen Blom, Irena Maus, Alfred Pühler, Michael Klocke, Andreas Schlüter
The strictly anaerobic Peptoniphilaceae bacterium str. ING2-D1G (=DSM 28672=LMG 28300) was isolated from a mesophilic laboratory-scale completely stirred tank biogas reactor (CSTR) continuously co-digesting maize silage, pig and cattle manure. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, the closest described relative to this strain is Peptoniphilus obesi ph1 showing 91.2% gene sequence identity, the most closely related species with a validly published name is Peptoniphilus indolicus DSM 20464(T) whose 16S rRNA gene sequence is 90...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582673/characterization-and-quantification-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-manure-of-piglets-and-adult-pigs-fed-on-different-diets
#6
Xiao-Ming Lu, Wen-Feng Li, Chao-Ben Li
Studies have shown that pig manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, little is known about the characteristics of ARGs in the manure of piglets and adult pigs fed on different diets. In the present study, the ARG characteristics of the manure of piglets and adult pigs fed on different diets (feed, grain) were analyzed using high-throughput fluorescence quantitative PCR. Correlations between heavy metals, antibiotics, and ARGs in pig manure were analyzed. The results showed that the heavy metal and antibiotic contents in the manure of pigs receiving feed significantly exceeded those in the manure of pigs receiving grain...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578866/nitrogen-losses-to-the-environment-following-food-based-digestate-and-compost-applications-to-agricultural-land
#7
Fiona Nicholson, Anne Bhogal, Laura Cardenas, Dave Chadwick, Tom Misselbrook, Alison Rollett, Matt Taylor, Rachel Thorman, John Williams
The anaerobic digestion of food waste for energy recovery produces a nutrient-rich digestate which is a valuable source of crop available nitrogen (N). As with any 'new' material being recycled to agricultural land it is important to develop best management practices that maximise crop available N supply, whilst minimising emissions to the environment. In this study, ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to air and nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching losses to water following digestate, compost and livestock manure applications to agricultural land were measured at 3 sites in England and Wales...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523619/effect-of-calcium-bentonite-on-zn-and-cu-mobility-and-their-accumulation-in-vegetable-growth-in-soil-amended-with-compost-during-consecutive-planting
#8
Quan Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Ronghua Li, Feng Shen, Zengqiang Zhang
In this study, greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to investigate the Cu and Zn mobility and their accumulations in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapachinensis L.) growth in Ca-bentonite-pig manure co-compost (CBC)-soil system during three consecutive planting. Five composts (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% Ca-bentonite-pig manure co-composts) amended soil with 5% (w/w) application rate and compared to control without any additive. The results showed that the addition of CBC increased the biomass and chlorophyll content of pakchoi, and the maximum overall yield was found in 7...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511351/effects-of-various-fertilization-regimes-on-abundance-and-activity-of-anaerobic-ammonium-oxidation-bacteria-in-rice-wheat-cropping-systems-in-china
#9
Chao Gu, Huifang Zhou, Qichun Zhang, Yuhua Zhao, Hongjie Di, Yongchao Liang
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important process in many marine and paddy ecosystems. However, few studies have reported on the contribution to the nitrogen cycle of anammox and its dynamics in rice-wheat cropping systems with different fertilization regimes. Here, isotope tracing and molecular techniques were used to determine the potential rates of anammox and their association with bacterial abundance, diversity, and activity. Rice-wheat cropping systems at two sites in Jiangsu Province, China were selected and the treatments at each site were: 1) no fertilization (CK), 2) 100% chemical fertilization (CF), 3) pig manure compost plus 50% chemical fertilization (PMCF), and 4) straw plus 100% chemical fertilization (SRCF)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481880/a-link-between-damaging-behaviour-in-pigs-sanitary-conditions-and-dietary-protein-and-amino-acid-supply
#10
Yvonne van der Meer, Walter J J Gerrits, Alfons J M Jansman, Bas Kemp, J Elizabeth Bolhuis
The tendency to reduce crude protein (CP) levels in pig diets to increase protein efficiency may increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours such as ear and tail biting, particularly for pigs kept under suboptimal health conditions. We studied, in a 2×2×2 factorial design, 576 tail-docked growing-finishing entire male pigs in 64 pens, subjected to low (LSC) vs. high sanitary conditions (HSC), and fed a normal CP (NP) vs. a low CP diet (LP, 80% of NP) ad libitum, with a basal amino acid (AA) profile or supplemented AA profile with extra threonine, tryptophan and methionine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464983/effect-of-magnetite-powder-on-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-pig-manure-and-wheat-straw
#11
Yanzi Wang, Guangxin Ren, Tong Zhang, Shuzhen Zou, Chunlan Mao, Xiaojiao Wang
This study investigated the effects of different amounts of magnetite powder (i.e., 0g, 1.5g, 3g, 4.5g, 6g) on the anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure (PM) and wheat straw (WS). The variations in pH, alkalinity, cellulase activity (CEA), dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and methane production, were analyzed by phases. Correlation of the activities of the two enzymes with methane production was also analyzed, and the Gompertz model was used to evaluate the efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) with the addition of magnetite powder...
April 29, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448788/production-of-biogas-from-co-digestion-of-livestock-and-agricultural-residues-a-case-study
#12
Brahim Arhoun, Cesar Gomez-Lahoz, Roberto Teofilo Abdala-Diaz, Jose Miguel Rodriguez-Maroto, Francisco Garcia-Herruzo, Carlos Vereda-Alonso
This study was undertaken to determine the possible changes in the digester yield and performance for the anaerobic co-digestion under mesophilic conditions of strawberry residues (SRs) together with pig manure (PM). The first part of this paper deals with the digestion of SR as a single substrate. For organic loading rates (OLRs) of 4.4 (g L(-1) d(-1)) or less, the experimental specific biogas and methane productions are 0.588 and 0.231 L g(-1), respectively. When higher OLRs (5.5 g L(-1) d(-1)) are used the digester fails due to acidification...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444567/the-behavior-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-arsenic-influenced-by-biochar-during-different-manure-composting
#13
Erping Cui, Ying Wu, Yanan Jiao, Yiru Zuo, Christopher Rensing, Hong Chen
The effect of two different biochar types, rice straw biochar (RSB) and mushroom biochar (MB), on chicken manure composting was previously examined by monitoring the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and arsenic. The behavior of ARGs and arsenic in other kinds of manure composting with the same biochar types had not been examined. In this study, we added either RSB or MB to pig and duck manure composts to study the behavior of ARGs (tet genes, sul genes, and chloramphenicol resistance genes) and arsenic under the same experimental condition...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408756/apple-pomace-improves-the-quality-of-pig-manure-aerobic-compost-by-reducing-emissions-of-nh3-and-n2o
#14
Hui Mao, Teng Zhang, Ronghua Li, Bingnian Zhai, Zhaohui Wang, Quan Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
In this study, the effects of apple pomace (AP) addition (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% on a dry weight basis, named as control, AP1, AP2, and AP3) and citric acid (CA) addition on nitrogen conservation were investigated during aerobic composting of pig manure. Gaseous emissions of NH3 and N2O were inhibited by AP and CA addition, with AP's effect greater. The inhibition improved with increasing AP addition. The AP3 treatment was the most effective on NH3 adsorption and transformation to [Formula: see text]-N, improved with subsequent transformation to [Formula: see text]-N, and inhibition of N2O and [Formula: see text] production...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405460/provision-of-straw-by-a-foraging-tower-effect-on-tail-biting-in-weaners-and-fattening-pigs
#15
Carolin Holling, Elisabeth Grosse Beilage, Beatriz Vidondo, Christina Nathues
BACKGROUND: Straw is one of the most effective rooting materials to reduce tail biting in pigs. A so-called foraging-tower (FT) provides only small quantities of straw compatible with liquid manure systems. The focus of the present study was on the effect of providing straw by FT in order to prevent tail biting in tail docked pigs. Four consecutive batches of 160 pigs, randomly divided into a straw (SG) and a control group (CG) were followed up from weaning to slaughter. RESULTS: Tail wounds (Score ≥ 2) were detected in 104 out of 12,032 single observations (SG n = 48; CG n = 56) in 9 pens (SG n = 4/32; CG n = 5/32) mainly focused on the fattening period of batch 2 due to a failure in the ventilation system...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400002/salmonella-weltevreden-in-integrated-and-non-integrated-tilapia-aquaculture-systems-in-guangdong-china
#16
Kang Li, Gitte Petersen, Lisa Barco, Kristian Hvidtfeldt, Liping Liu, Anders Dalsgaard
Integrated tilapia-pig farming, which uses manure from pigs as fertilizers in fish pond, is a traditional and common production system practised by small-scale farmers in South-east Asia. Although such systems may be environmentally sustainable, they also pose potential food safety hazards including transmission of faecal zoonotic pathogens and accumulation of antimicrobial and other chemical residues. This study aimed to determine differences in occurrence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from tilapia-pig and non-integrated aquaculture systems in Guangdong province, China...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396169/the-effect-of-airflow-rates-and-aeration-mode-on-the-respiration-activity-of-four-organic-wastes-implications-on-the-composting-process
#17
Laura Mejias, Dimitrios Komilis, Teresa Gea, Antoni Sánchez
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the airflow and of the aeration mode on the composting process of non-urban organic wastes that are found in large quantities worldwide, namely: (i) a fresh, non-digested, sewage sludge (FSS), (ii) an anaerobically digested sewage sludge (ADSS), (iii) cow manure (CM) and (iv) pig sludge (PS). This assessment was done using respirometric indices. Two aeration modes were tested, namely: (a) a constant air flowrate set at three different initial fixed airflow rates, and (b) an oxygen uptake rate (OUR)-controlled airflow rate...
April 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394116/improvement-of-soil-ecosystem-multifunctionality-by-dissipating-manure-induced-antibiotics-and-resistance-genes
#18
Yuting Liang, Meng Pei, Dandan Wang, Shengnan Cao, Xian Xiao, Bo Sun
The application of animal manure containing antibiotic residues to farmlands as an organic fertilizer causes a long-term potential threat to the ecological environment of farmland. This study analyzed the effects of abating typical antibiotics and resistance genes (ARGs) applied with pig manure on farmland soil as well as on soil ecosystem multifunctionality (EMF) and its influencing factor. The results showed that Lolium multiflorum exhibited significantly stronger abatement of typical antibiotics and ARGs when combined with biochar than when used alone (p < 0...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391157/contrasting-effects-of-composting-and-pyrolysis-on-bioavailability-and-speciation-of-cu-and-zn-in-pig-manure
#19
Jun Meng, Lu Wang, Libin Zhong, Xingmei Liu, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu, Hongjin Chen
The intensive and unregulated application of feed additives to commercial pig foods has resulted in high levels of Cu and Zn in pig manure. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of composting and pyrolysis processes on the bioavailability and chemical speciation of Cu and Zn in pig manure products by single and sequential extractions, and to compare metal bioavailability in composts and biochar-amended soils in incubation experiments. Composting and pyrolysis processes can convert exchangeable and carbonate-bound Cu and Zn to organic matter and residual fractions, and significantly reduce the potential availability of metals in composts and biochars...
April 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391144/sources-and-fate-of-antimicrobials-in-integrated-fish-pig-and-non-integrated-tilapia-farms
#20
Kang Li, Liping Liu, Jia Zhan, Marie-Louise Scippo, Kristian Hvidtfeldt, Yuan Liu, Anders Dalsgaard
Antimicrobial contamination in aquaculture products constitutes a food safety hazard, but little is known about the introduction and accumulation of antimicrobials in integrated fish-pig aquaculture. This study, conducted in 2013, aimed to determine the residues of 11 types of antimicrobials by UPLC-MS/MS analysis in fish feed (n=37), pig feed (n=9), pig manure (n=9), pond sediment (n=20), fish skin (n=20) and muscle tissue (n=20) sampled from integrated tilapia-pig farms, non-integrated tilapia farms and fish feed supply shops...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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