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Pig manure

Haibin Zhou, Haibo Meng, Lixin Zhao, Yujun Shen, Yueqing Hou, Hongsheng Cheng, Liqiu Song
In this study, two different biochars (sawdust charcoal (SDC) and wheat straw charcoal (WSC)) and biological humic acid (BHA) were used with different addition rates in pig manure composting to illustrate the effect on heavy metals passivation. And the composts were applied to rape (Brassica campestris L.) growth to illustrate the stability of the passivation. Results showed the concentration of Cu, Cd, and Pb increased after composting, whereas the passivation rates of Cu, Pb, and Cd reached a maximum of 94...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Hui Mao, Zhiyuan Lv, Hongda Sun, Ronghua Li, Bingnian Zhai, Zhaohui Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Lina Zhou
Effect of bamboo biochar (BC) combined with two bacterial powders (B) on gaseous emission and variety of bacterial community during pig manure (PM) composting was investigated. The results showed that treatments of BC, BC + B1 and BC + B2 can reduce peak gaseous emission by 54%, 80% and 69% for CH4 , respectively, while 37%, 45% and 45% for N2 O, respectively, and 13%, 19% and 26% for NH3 , respectively. The evolution of the bacterial community quantified with 16S rDNA analysis showed that in the thermophile stage, total relative abundance percentage of bacterial phyla of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria reached 97%, 97%, 93% and 96% for CK, BC, BC + B1 and BC + B2, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
John Jensen, Niels Christian Kyvsgaard, Antonio Battisti, Keith Edward Baptiste
At great economic cost, important steps have been taken over the last many decades to reduce and control emissions of heavy metals in order to protect the environment and public health. Monitoring has confirmed the success of these policies with progressive declines of heavy metals in for example air, sewage sludge and environmental samples. For zinc, such improvements may nevertheless be counter-acted by its widely usage as a feed additive and veterinary medicinal product to piglets in the post-weaning period resulting in reduced occurrence of diarrhea and improvement of daily weight gain...
March 5, 2018: Environment International
Nada Hanna, Pan Sun, Qiang Sun, Xuewen Li, Xiwei Yang, Xiang Ji, Huiyun Zou, Jakob Ottoson, Lennart E Nilsson, Björn Berglund, Oliver James Dyar, Ashok J Tamhankar, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the occurrence of antibiotic residues in different types of environmental samples including water samples in rural Shandong province, China. Further, to characterize the potential ecological risk for development of antibiotic resistance in the environment, and the potential direct human health risk of exposure to antibiotics via drinking water and vegetables. METHODS: Environmental samples (n = 214) (river water, waste water, drinking water, sediments, manure, soil and edible parts of vegetables) were collected in twelve villages in Shandong province in eastern China...
March 1, 2018: Environment International
John I Alawneh, Christopher R Parke, Eduardo J Lapuz, Jose E David, Voltaire G Basinang, Augusto S Baluyut, Tamsin S Barnes, Edwin C Villar, Minnie L Lopez, Joanne Meers, Patrick J Blackall
A cross-sectional study of lungs from 1,887 randomly selected pigs from 471 farms from two provinces in the Philippines was carried out to estimate the prevalence of gross pathological lesions, identify potential risk factors and spatial clustering associated with high lung or pleurisy score farms. Lungs from pigs were scored at slaughter. Interviews with the farm managers were conducted to collect information about farm management and biosecurity practices. Of lungs examined, 48% had a lung score above 6 (maximum was 55) and 22% showed pleurisy...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Shohei Riya, Kazuhiro Suzuki, Lingyu Meng, Sheng Zhou, Akihiko Terada, Masaaki Hosomi
Dry anaerobic digestion is a promising technology for the recycling of agricultural waste to produce energy and fertilizer. Adding water to the substrate enables better handling and avoid inhibition caused by high total solid (TS) content in the reactor; however, it also increases leachate and operational costs. To assess the extent to which the amount of water added can be reduced, it was examined how the TS content in the reactor influenced the production of biogas. A semi-batch dry thermophilic anaerobic digester was fed with substrate (rice straw and pig manure) at a constant organic loading rate, and varied the TS contents (27%, 32%, 37%, and 42%) of the substrate by adding different amounts of water (representing 0-36% of the total substrate)...
February 26, 2018: Waste Management
Jun Meng, Sijie Liang, Mengming Tao, Xingmei Liu, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
Pig manure has been utilized as a good feedstock to produce biochar. However, the pig manure-derived biochar from intensive pig cultivation contains high levels of total and bioavailable heavy metals. In this study, the co-pyrolysis of pig manure with other biomass (e.g. rice straw) at 300-700 °C was investigated to solve the above-mentioned topic. The ammonium acetate (CH3 COONH4 ), Tessier sequential extraction procedure and hydrogen peroxide were adopted to evaluate the bioavailability, chemical speciation, and potential risk of Cu and Zn in the biochars...
February 23, 2018: Chemosphere
Judit Martín Juárez, Elena Riol Pastor, José M Fernández Sevilla, Raúl Muñoz Torre, Pedro A García-Encina, Silvia Bolado Rodríguez
Methane production from pretreated and raw mixed microalgae biomass grown in pig manure was evaluated. Acid and basic pretreatments provided the highest volatile solids solubilisation (up to 81%) followed by alkaline-peroxide and ultrasounds (23%). Bead milling and steam explosion remarkably increased the methane production rate, although the highest yield (377 mL CH4 /g SV) was achieved by alkali pretreatment. Nevertheless, some pretreatments inhibited biogas production and resulted in lag phases of 7-9 days...
February 16, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shuyan Li, Danyang Li, Jijin Li, Yangyang Li, Guoxue Li, Bing Zang, Yun Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the gaseous emissions (CH4 , N2 O, and NH3 ) and compost quality during the pig manure composting by adding spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a bulking agent. The control treatment was also studied using corn stalk (CS) as a bulking agent. The experiment was conducted in a pilot scale composting reactor under aerobic condition with the initial C/N ratio of 20. Results showed that bulking agents significantly affected gaseous emissions and compost quality. Using SMS as a bulking agent improved composting efficiency by shortening the time for maturity...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rafael da Rosa Couto, Jéssica Faversani, Carlos Alberto Ceretta, Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira, Carina Marchezan, Daniela Basso Facco, Luana Paula Garlet, Jussiane Souza Silva, Jucinei José Comin, Cezar Augusto Bizzi, Erico Marlon Moraes Flores, Gustavo Brunetto
Heavy metals and bromine (Br) derived from organic and industrialized fertilizers can be absorbed, transported and accumulated into parts of plants ingested by humans. This study aimed to evaluate in an experiment conducted under no-tillage for 10 years, totaling 14 applications of pig slurry manure (PS), pig deep-litter (PL), dairy slurry (DS) and mineral fertilizer (MF), the heavy metal and Br contents in soil and in whether the grains produced by corn (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under these conditions could result in risk to human health...
February 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Erangu Purath Mohankumar Sajeev, Wilfried Winiwarter, Barbara Amon
Farm livestock manure is an important source of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Concerns over the environmental impact of emissions from manure management have resulted in research efforts focusing on emission abatement. However, questions regarding the successful abatement of manure-related emissions remain. This study uses a meta-analytical approach comprising 89 peer-reviewed studies to quantify emission reduction potentials of abatement options for liquid manure management chains from cattle and pigs. Analyses of emission reductions highlight the importance of accounting for interactions between emissions...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Long Pang, Liming Ge, Peijie Yang, Han He, Hongzhong Zhang
In this study, the degradation of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in sewage sludge with aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion was investigated. The total concentrations of six OPEs (ΣOPEs) in the whole treatment process reduced in the order of anaerobic digestion combined with pig manure (T3) > aerobic composting combined with pig manure (T1) > aerobic composting (T2) > anaerobic digestion (T4). The addition of pig manure significantly enhanced the removal rate of OPEs in both aerobic and anaerobic treatments...
January 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yijun Kang, Qing Li, Zhifeng Yin, Min Shen, Haitao Zhao, Yanchao Bai, Lijuan Mei, Jian Hu
By performing a microcosm experiment mimicking fertilization, we assessed the dynamic distribution of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) and corresponding tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) from pig manure (PM) to the fertilized soil, by culture-dependent methods and PCR detection. Cultivable TRB were most abundant in PM, followed by fertilized soil and unfertilized soil. By restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, TRB were assigned to 29, 20, and 153 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in PM, unfertilized soil, and fertilized soil, respectively...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Quan Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Ronghua Li, Zhen Wang, Meijing Wang, Hongyu Chen, Zengqiang Zhang
The effect of enhancing wood vinegar (WV) with a mixture of biochar (B) and zeolite (Z) to compost pig manure (PM) in a 130 L reactor was evaluated to determine the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia emissions. Six treatments were prepared in a 2:1 ratio of PM mixed with wheat straw (WS; dry weight basis): PM + WS (control), PM + WS + 10%B, PM + WS + 10%B + 10%Z, and PM + WS with 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%WV combined with 10%B + 10%Z. These were composted for 50 days, and the results indicated that the combined use of B, Z, and WV could shorten the thermophilic phase and improve the maturity of compost compared to the control treatment...
January 18, 2018: Waste Management
Pengcheng Xu, Xian Zhou, Defu Xu, Yanbing Xiang, Wanting Ling, Mindong Chen
This study investigated the occurrence and contamination risk of estrogens in livestock manure in Jiangsu Province, China. Four estrogens-estriol (E3), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), bisphenol A (BPA), and 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2)-were detected in livestock manure from hens, ducks, swine, and cows. The respective mean concentrations of each estrogen found in these manures were 289.8, 334.1, 330.3, and 33.7 μg/kg for E3; 38.6, 10.9, 52.9, and 38.8 μg/kg for 17β-E2; 63.6, 48.7, 51.9, and 11.7 μg/kg for BPA; and 14...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shihua Pu, Zuohua Liu, Feiyun Yang, Dingbiao Long, Wen Liu, Hao Wang, Kaipei Huang, Xiu Huang
To improve the removal efficiency on hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a biofilter was developed and was made of PVC pipes. The effects of three different packings (i.e., packing A, packing B, and packing C), containing different proportions of activated carbon, sawdust, wormcast, perlite, and pig manure compost, based on different biofilter parameters on H2S removal efficiency were investigated. With the extension of running time, the H2S removal rate of packing A reached up to 90.12%, that of packing B reached a peak at 92...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Vaibhav Dhyani, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Jitendra Kumar, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Hongyu Chen, Meijing Wang, Thallada Bhaskar, Zengqiang Zhang
In this work, the influence of composting on the thermal decomposition behavior and decomposition kinetics of pig manure-derived solid wastes was analyzed using thermogravimetry. Wheat straw, biochar, zeolite, and wood vinegar were added to pig manure during composting. The composting was done in the 130 L PVC reactors with 100 L effective volume for 50 days. The activation energy of pyrolysis of samples before and after composting was calculated using Friedman's method, while the pre-exponential factor was calculated using Kissinger's equation...
December 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ning Liu, Hejing Han, Hongjie Yin, Lujia Han, Guangqun Huang
In this study, 100 mg/kg of amoxicillin (AMX) was added to pig manure during aerobic composting using a laboratory-scale reactor system, for better understanding the degradation of AMX and its potential risks. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of AMX and its main degradation products (DPs) were then conducted using solid phase extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally, hydrolysis testing was performed to monitor DPs produced from AMX degradation under various controlled conditions...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Qichun Zhang, Chao Gu, Huifang Zhou, Yongchao Liang, Yuhua Zhao, Hongjie Di
In this study, soil samples from the typical rice-wheat cropping system in Jiangsu Province, China, subjected to different fertilizer application treatments-no carbon (CK), urea (UR), straw (SR), pig manure (PM), starch (ST), and glucose (GL)-were used to determine potential anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) rate and its association with bacterial abundance, diversity, and activity by using DNA stable isotope probing combined with 15N isotope tracing and molecular techniques. The effects of different organic carbon sources on anammox were significant, in the following order: GL > ST, SR > UR > PM; anammox activity differed significantly across treatments; however, the 13C active anammox bacteria were only closely related to Ca...
December 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Peng Zhang, Hongwen Sun, Chao Ren, Lujuan Min, Huiming Zhang
To elucidate the sorption affinity of biochars for neonicotinoid pesticides and the influence of biochar structure on sorption mechanisms therein, 24 biochar samples were obtained by pyrolyzing maize straw and pig manure at pyrolyzing temperatures (PTs) of 200-700 °C and by further deashing them using acids, and the sorption of three typical neonicotinoids, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiacloprid on untreated and acid-deashed biochars were evaluated. All the biochar samples could efficiently adsorb the three neonicotinoids and multiple mechanisms were involved in sorption...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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