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Pig manure

Sikandar I Mulla, Qian Sun, Anyi Hu, Yuwen Wang, Muhammad Ashfaq, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Chang-Ping Yu
This study is aimed to assess the biodegradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and characterization of heavy metal resistance in three pure bacterial cultures and also their chemotactic response towards 2-aminopyrimidine. The bacterial cultures were isolated from pig manure, activated sludge and sediment samples, by enrichment technique on SDZ (6 mg L-1). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the microorganisms were identified within the genera of Paracoccus, Methylobacterium and Kribbella, which were further designated as SDZ-PM2-BSH30, SDZ-W2-SJ40 and SDZ-3S-SCL47...
2016: PloS One
Elisabeth Richter, Silvia Berkner, Ina Ebert, Bernhard Förster, Nadin Graf, Monika Herrchen, Ute Kühnen, Jörg Römbke, Markus Simon
BACKGROUND: Residues of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) enter the environment via application of manure onto agricultural areas where in particular antibiotics can cause phytotoxicity. Terrestrial plant tests according to OECD guideline 208 are part of the environmental risk assessment of VMPs. However, this standard approach might not be appropriate for VMPs which form non-extractable residues or transformation products in manure and manure-amended soil. Therefore, a new test design with a more realistic exposure scenario via manure application is needed...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Yi-Ru Yang, Xiao-Gang Li, Zhi-Gao Zhou, Tao-Lin Zhang, Xing-Xiang Wang
Excessive pig manure application probably degrades arable soil quality in some intensive pig farming areas. The responses of the nematode community to dosages of pig manure were investigated in Ferric Acrisols under 3-season peanut monoculture. Varying dosages of manure (1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1)) in combination with chemical fertilizer were applied to field plots, and chemical fertilizer alone was also applied as a control. With increasing manure application, the abundance of bacterivores and omnivores-predators increased, the abundance of plant parasites decreased, and fungivores abundance exhibited hump-shaped variation...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rosangela Tozzoli, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Federica Gigliucci, Gianfranco Brambilla, Marina Monini, Edoardo Vignolo, Alfredo Caprioli, Stefano Morabito
AIMS: to investigate the presence of genomic traits associated with a set of enteric viruses as well as pathogenic Escherichia coli in Top Soil Improvers (TSI) from Italy METHODS: 24 TSI samples originating from municipal sewage sludges, pig manure, green and household wastes were analysed by Real Time PCR for the presence of Hepatitis E virus, porcine and human adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus and diarrheagenic E. coli. RESULTS: None of the samples was found positive for Hepatitis E virus, and rotavirus...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ken-Lin Chang, Xi-Mei Chen, Jian Sun, Jing-Yong Liu, Shui-Yu Sun, Zuo-Yi Yang, Yin Wang
Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a bulky waste byproduct of commercial mushroom production, which can cause serious environmental problems and, therefore, poses a significant barrier to future expansion of the mushroom industry. In the present study, we explored the use of SMS as a biochar to improve the quality of bio-fertilizer. Specifically, we performed a series of experiments using composting reactors to investigate the effects of SMS biochar on the physio-chemical properties of bio-fertilizer. Biochar was derived from dry SMS pyrolysed at 500°C and mixed with pig manure and rice straw...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Technology
Zhou Jiang-Ming
Composting of agricultural wastes can not only reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but also recycle of agricultural wastes and transforms them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for agricultural applications. However, the composting process and final product are easily affected by the limited oxygen supply that results from insufficient aeration, especially in the center of a large-scale windrow. Hence, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the turning frequency on the composting efficiency and compost quality of used pig manure and fungus residue...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Song Yeob Kim, Saranya Kuppusamy, Jang Hwan Kim, Young-Eun Yoon, Kwon-Rae Kim, Yong Bok Lee
Reports on the occurrence and diversity of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes, which are considered to be emerging pollutants worldwide, have, to date, not been published on South Korean agricultural soils. This is the first study to investigate the persistence of tetracycline (oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline)-resistant bacterial community and genes in natural and long-term fertilized (NPK, pig, and cattle manure composts) agricultural soils in South Korea. The results showed that oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline could be the dominant residues in animal manures; regular fertilization of manures, particularly pig manures, may be the prime cause for the spread and abundance of tetracycline resistance in South Korean agricultural soils...
September 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vinicio Carrión-Paladines, Andreas Fries, Beatriz Gómez-Muñoz, Roberto García-Ruiz
Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures...
September 7, 2016: Waste Management
Quan Wang, Zhen Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Yahui Jiang, Ronghua Li, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Feng Shen, Meijing Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of medical stone (MS) on nitrogen conservation and improving the compost quality during the pig manure (PM) composting. Five treatments were designed with different concentrations of MS0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% (on dry weight of pig manure basis) mixed with initial feed stock and then composted for 60days. The results showed that MS amendment obviously (p<0.05) promoted the organic waste degradation and prolonged the thermophilic phase as well as enhanced the immobilization of heavy metals Cu and Zn...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Ruibo Sun, Melissa Dsouza, Jack A Gilbert, Xisheng Guo, Daozhong Wang, Zhibin Guo, Yingying Ni, Haiyan Chu
Organic matter application is a widely used practice to increase soil carbon content and maintain soil fertility. However, little is known about the effect of different types of organic matter, or the input of exogenous species from these materials, on soil fungal communities. In this study, fungal community composition was characterized from soils amended with three types of organic matter over a 30-year fertilization experiment. Chemical fertilization significantly changed soil fungal community composition and structure, which was exacerbated by the addition of organic matter, with the direction of change influenced by the type of organic matter used...
August 31, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Hongjun Liu, Dandan Chen, Ruifu Zhang, Xinnan Hang, Rong Li, Qirong Shen
High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H(+) contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Margaret Carrel, Sean G Young, Eric Tate
Given the primacy of Iowa in pork production for the U.S. and global markets, we sought to understand if the same relationship with traditional environmental justice (EJ) variables such as low income and minority populations observed in other concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) studies exists in the relationship with swine CAFO densities in Iowa. We examined the potential for spatial clustering of swine CAFOs in certain parts of the state and used spatial regression techniques to determine the relationships of high swine concentrations to these EJ variables...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marieke Ten Hoeve, Beatriz Gómez-Muñoz, Lars S Jensen, Sander Bruun
Global livestock production is increasing rapidly, leading to larger amounts of manure and environmental impacts. Technologies that can be applied to treat manure in order to decrease certain environmental impacts include separation and acidification. In this study, a life cycle assessment was used to investigate the environmental effects of slurry acidification and separation, and whether there were synergetic environmental benefits to combining these technologies. Furthermore, an analysis was undertaken into the effect of implementing regulations restricting the P application rate to soils on the environmental impacts of the technologies...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Sébastien Olivier Leclercq, Chao Wang, Yaxin Zhu, Hai Wu, Xiaochen Du, Zhipei Liu, Jie Feng
Tetracycline antibiotics are widely used in livestock, and tetracycline resistance genes (TRG) are frequently reported in the manure of farmed animals. However, the diversity of TRG-carrying transposons in manure has still been rarely investigated. Using a culture-free functional metagenomic procedure, combined with large-insert library construction and sequencing, bioinformatic analyses, and functional experiments, we identified 17 distinct TRGs in a single pig manure sample, including two new tet genes: tet(59), encoding a tetracycline efflux pump, and tet(W/N/W), encoding mosaic ribosomal protection...
November 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ruth Cox, Crawford W Revie, Daniel Hurnik, Javier Sanchez
Identification and quantification of pathogen threats need to be a priority for the Canadian swine industry so that resources can be focused where they will be most effective. Here we create a tool based on a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) to model the interaction between biosecurity practices and the probability of occurrence of four different diseases on Canadian swine farms. The benefits of using this novel approach, in comparison to other methods, is that it enables us to explore both the complex interaction and the relative importance of biosecurity practices on the probability of disease occurrence...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Søren O Petersen, Anne B Olsen, Lars Elsgaard, Jin Mi Triolo, Sven G Sommer
Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection...
2016: PloS One
Birgit Wolters, Arum Widyasari-Mehta, Robert Kreuzig, Kornelia Smalla
Pig manures are frequently used as fertilizer or co-substrate in biogas plants (BGPs) and typically contain antibiotic residues (ARs), as well as bacteria carrying resistance genes (RGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). A survey of manures from eight pig fattening and six pig breeding farms and digestates from eight BGPs in Lower Saxony, Germany was conducted to evaluate the link between antibiotic usage and ARs to RGs and MGEs present in organic fertilizers. In total, 11 different antibiotics belonging to six substance classes were applied in the farms investigated...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Like Xu, Yanyun Qian, Chao Su, Weixiao Cheng, Jianan Li, Mark L Wahlqvist, Hong Chen
The wide use of antibiotics in the animal husbandry and the relevant sustainable industries may promote the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), which constitutes a growing threat to human health. The objective of this study was to determine the abundance and diversity of sulfonamide- and tetracycline-resistant bacteria within an eco-agricultural system (EAS) in Hangzhou, China. We investigated samples at every link in the EAS, from livestock manure, to biogas residues and biogas slurry, to vegetable and ryegrass fields, to a fish pond...
August 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dan Zhou, Sören Thiele-Bruhn, Martina Gesine Arenz-Leufen, Diederik Jacques, Peter Lichtner, Irina Engelhardt
Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport...
September 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Jonathan W C Wong, Obulisamy P Karthikeyan, Ammaiyappan Selvam
Composting of pig manure is a challenging task that requires appropriate co-substrate and bulking agent to provide optimum composting conditions and reduce nitrogen loss. In this study, paper waste is co-composted with pig manure as well as wood chips as the bulking agents. These raw materials were mixed at three different ratios of paper: pig manure: wood chips = 1:1:0 (pile 1), 3:2:1 (pile 2) and 3:1:1(pile 3), respectively. Each composting pile was about 11 m(3) in size. Negative pressure forced aeration was provided to the piles and compost samples were collected at different time intervals for monitoring the physico-chemical changes...
July 22, 2016: Environmental Technology
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