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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778022/low-cost-composited-accelerants-for-anaerobic-digestion-of-dairy-manure-focusing-on-methane-yield-digestate-utilization-and-energy-evaluation
#1
Chen Zhang, Sining Yun, Xue Li, Ziqi Wang, Hongfei Xu, Tingting Du
To improve the methane yield and digestate utilization of anaerobic digestion (AD), low-cost composited accelerants consisting of urea (0.2-0.5%), bentonite (0.5-0.8%), active carbon (0.6-0.9%), and plant ash (0.01-0.3%) were designed and tested in batch experiments. Total biogas yield (485.7-681.9 mL/g VS) and methane content (63.0-66.6%) were remarkably enhanced in AD systems by adding accelerants compared to those of control group (361.9 mL/g VS, 59.4%). Composited accelerant addition led to the highest methane yield (454...
May 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772500/influence-of-zeolite-and-superphosphate-as-additives-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-bacterial-communities-during-factory-scale-chicken-manure-composting
#2
Shuang Peng, Huijie Li, Dan Song, Xiangui Lin, Yiming Wang
Factory-scale chicken manure composting added with zeolite (F), superphosphate (G), or zeolite and ferrous sulfate (FL) simultaneously, were evaluate for their effects on the behaviors of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial communities. After composting, ARGs in manure decreased by 67.3% in the control, whereas the reductions were 86.5%, 68.6% and 72.2% in F, G and FL, respectively. ARGs encoding ribosomal protection proteins (tetO, tetB(P), and tetM) were reduced to a greater extent than tetG, tetL, sul1 and sul2...
April 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770940/effluent-composition-prediction-of-a-two-stage-anaerobic-digestion-process-machine-learning-and-stoichiometry-techniques
#3
Luz Alejo, John Atkinson, Víctor Guzmán-Fierro, Marlene Roeckel
Computational self-adapting methods (Support Vector Machines, SVM) are compared with an analytical method in effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Experimental data for the AD of poultry manure were used. The analytical method considers the protein as the only source of ammonia production in AD after degradation. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total volatile solids (TVS) were measured in the influent and effluent of the process...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770051/agriculture-and-agri-food-canada-s-research-program-on-antimicrobial-resistance
#4
E Topp
A key strategy for attenuating the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is ensuring judicious use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine and in agriculture. Research on AMR in agriculture includes risk assessment, risk management, and identifying the role of agricultural practices in development of AMR. Risk assessment includes an impact assessment of antimicrobial use in livestock and on the environment; for example, many antimicrobials are excreted unchanged and thus reach the environment through manure application...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769137/laboratory-studies-on-the-oviposition-stimuli-of-culicoides-stellifer-diptera-ceratopogonidae-a-suspected-vector-of-orbiviruses-in-the-united-states
#5
Dinesh Erram, Nathan Burkett-Cadena
BACKGROUND: Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) exert a significant impact on animal agriculture worldwide because they transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) to ruminants. Without effective vaccines, BTV/EHDV vector management strategies are needed, particularly in commercial white-tailed deer (WTD) facilities. However, detailed information on the ecology of midge immatures in/around cervid operations is currently lacking...
May 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767839/jak2-v617f-positive-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-aml-a-comparison-between-de-novo-aml-and-secondary-aml-transformed-from-an-underlying-myeloproliferative-neoplasm-a-study-from-the-bone-marrow-pathology-group
#6
Jason Aynardi, Rashmi Manur, Paul R Hess, Seble Chekol, Jennifer J D Morrissette, Daria Babushok, Elizabeth Hexner, Heesun J Rogers, Eric D Hsi, Elizabeth Margolskee, Attilio Orazi, Robert Hasserjian, Adam Bagg
The JAK2 V617F mutation is characteristic of most Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and occurs rarely in de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We sought to characterize AMLs that harbour this mutation and distinguish those that arise de novo (AML-DN) from those that reflect transformation of an underlying MPN (AML-MPN). Forty-five patients with JAK2 V617F-mutated AML were identified; 15 were AML-DN and 30 were AML-MPN. AML-MPN cases were more likely to have splenomegaly (P = 0·02), MPN-like megakaryocytes and higher mean JAK2 V617F VAF at diagnosis (P = 0·04)...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762789/an-optimist-s-view-on-limiting-necrotic-enteritis-and-maintaining-broiler-gut-health-and-performance-in-today-s-marketing-food-safety-and-regulatory-climate
#7
Charles L Hofacre, John A Smith, Greg F Mathis
The future poultry nutritionist, veterinarian, and husbandryman will have many new regulatory requirements and consumer preferences to navigate in addition to their normal responsibility of raising birds in a cost-efficient and wholesome manner. New challenges include changes to antibiotic use, increased food safety regulations, and more concern over how birds are raised and how to dispose of poultry house waste. All of these new programs and new regulations will alter how we have been raising birds for the last 60 years since the inception of the integrated poultry industry...
June 1, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760689/-trichoderma-biofertilizer-links-to-altered-soil-chemistry-altered-microbial-communities-and-improved-grassland-biomass
#8
Fengge Zhang, Yunqian Huo, Adam B Cobb, Gongwen Luo, Jiqiong Zhou, Gaowen Yang, Gail W T Wilson, Yingjun Zhang
In grasslands, forage and livestock production results in soil nutrient deficits as grasslands typically receive no nutrient inputs, leading to a loss of grassland biomass. The application of mature compost has been shown to effectively increase grassland nutrient availability. However, research on fertilization regime influence and potential microbial ecological regulation mechanisms are rarely conducted in grassland soil. We conducted a two-year experiment in meadow steppe grasslands, focusing on above- and belowground consequences of organic or Trichoderma biofertilizer applications and potential soil microbial ecological mechanisms underlying soil chemistry and microbial community responses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758921/mineral-n-stock-and-nitrate-accumulation-in-the-50-to-200m-profile-on-the-loess-plateau
#9
Xiaoxu Jia, Yuanjun Zhu, Laiming Huang, Xiaorong Wei, Yunting Fang, Lianhai Wu, Andrew Binley, Mingan Shao
Nitrogen (N) stored in deep profiles is important in assessing regional and/or global N stocks and nitrate leaching risk to groundwater. The Chinese Loess Plateau, which is characterized by significantly thick loess deposits, potentially stores immense stocks of mineral N, posing future threats to groundwater quality. In order to determine the vertical distributions of nitrate and ammonium content in the region, as well as to characterize the potential accumulation of nitrate in the deep loess profile, we study loess samples collected at five sites (Yangling, Changwu, Fuxian, An'sai and Shenmu) through a 50 to 200m loess profile...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758894/environmental-and-economic-analysis-of-power-generation-in-a-thermophilic-biogas-plant
#10
D Ruiz, G San Miguel, B Corona, A Gaitero, A Domínguez
This paper investigates the environmental and economic performance of the power production from biogas using Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing and Cost Benefit Analysis methodologies. The analysis is based on a commercial thermophilic biogas plant located in Spain where is installed a Combined Heat and Power system that produces electricity that is sold to the grid. Power generation has been assumed as the only function of the biogas system, expanding the system boundaries to include the additional function related to the end-of-life management of the biowastes...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758436/n-2-o-and-co-2-emissions-following-repeated-application-of-organic-and-mineral-n-fertiliser-from-a-vegetable-crop-rotation
#11
Daniele De Rosa, David W Rowlings, Johannes Biala, Clemens Scheer, Bruno Basso, Peter R Grace
Accounting for nitrogen (N) release from organic amendments (OA) can reduce the use of synthetic N-fertiliser, sustain crop production, and potentially reduce soil borne greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. However, it is difficult to assess the GHG mitigation potential for OA as a substitute of N-fertiliser over the long term due to only part of the organic N added to soil is being released in the first year after application. High-resolution nitrous oxide (N2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions monitored from a horticultural crop rotation over 2...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758045/the-microbial-killing-capacity-of-aqueous-and-gaseous-ozone-on-different-surfaces-contaminated-with-dairy-cattle-manure
#12
Ameer Megahed, Brian Aldridge, James Lowe
A high reactivity and leaving no harmful residues make ozone an effective disinfectant for farm hygiene and biosecurity. Our objectives were therefore to (1) characterize the killing capacity of aqueous and gaseous ozone at different operational conditions on dairy cattle manure-based pathogens (MBP) contaminated different surfaces (plastic, metal, nylon, rubber, and wood); (2) determine the effect of microbial load on the killing capacity of aqueous ozone. In a crossover design, 14 strips of each material were randomly assigned into 3 groups, treatment (n = 6), positive-control (n = 6), and negative-control (n = 2)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754097/amendment-soil-with-biochar-to-control-antibiotic-resistance-genes-under-unconventional-water-resources-irrigation-proceed-with-caution
#13
Er-Ping Cui, Feng Gao, Yuan Liu, Xiang-Yang Fan, Zhong-Yang Li, Zhen-Jie Du, Chao Hu, Andrew L Neal
The spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has become a cause for serious concern because of its potential risk to public health. The use of unconventional water resources (e.g., reclaimed water or piggery wastewater) in agriculture to relieve groundwater shortages may result in an accumulation of ARGs in soil. Biochar addition has been proven to be a beneficial method to alleviate the pollution of ARGs in manure-amended soil. However, the role of biochar on ARGs in soil-plant systems repeatedly irrigated with unconventional water resources is unknown...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754055/response-of-the-denitrifier-community-and-its-relationship-with-multiple-n-2-o-emission-peaks-after-mature-compost-addition-into-dairy-manure-compost-with-forced-aeration
#14
Koki Maeda, Fumihito Miyatake, Ryoki Asano, Kei-Ichi Nakajima, Takeki Maeda, Kazunori Iwabuchi
Animal manure is a source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O), therefore understanding the mechanisms underlying its production is essential for developing mitigating strategies and sustainable livestock production system. In this study, microbial communities potentially involved in multiple emission peaks during initial stage of laboratory-scale dairy manure composting with forced aeration system were investigated. Mature compost was used for the bulking agent. Change of overall bacterial community and nitrification-denitrification gene abundance were monitored by using 16S rRNA gene amoA, nirS, nirK or nosZ genes, respectively...
April 30, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753245/effects-of-long-term-pig-manure-application-on-antibiotics-abundance-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-args-anammox-and-denitrification-rates-in-paddy-soils
#15
M Mizanur Rahman, Jun Shan, Pinpin Yang, Xiaoxia Shang, Yongqiu Xia, Xiaoyuan Yan
Previous studies of long-term manure applications in paddy soil mostly focused on the effects on denitrification, occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) without considering the effects on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the potential rates of anammox and denitrification, occurrence of antibiotics and AGRs in response to three fertilization regimes (C, no fertilizer; N, mineral fertilizer; and NM, N plus pig manure) in six long-term paddy experiment sites across China...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751447/source-estimation-of-pharmaceuticals-based-on-catchment-population-and-in-stream-attenuation-in-yodo-river-watershed-japan
#16
Seiya Hanamoto, Norihide Nakada, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
Fifty-five pharmaceuticals were monitored at four rivers and inlets and/or outlets of three sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Yodo River watershed, Japan over 17 sampling events. Twenty-six quantified pharmaceuticals were classified by source and fate. The load per person (LPP) of nine pharmaceuticals, including six with observed mass balance in studied river stretch of <80%, was appreciably lower in river water (RW) than in the effluent (EF) of STPs (RW/EF <0.5), indicating that they were susceptible to in-stream attenuation in the study area, while the others were relatively conservative...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748804/heavy-metal-and-%C3%AE-13-c-value-variations-and-characterization-of-dissolved-organic-matter-dom-during-vermicomposting-of-pig-manure-amended-with-13-c-labeled-rice-straw
#17
Weiqin Zhu, Wu Yao, Xuyang Shen, Weiwen Zhang, Huiting Xu
In this work, a mixture of pig manure and 13 C-labeled rice straw was vermicomposted with Eisenia fetida for 40 days. The results showed that after they acclimated to the vermicomposting environment, the earthworms helped to degrade the substrate residues. After 40 days, the vermicomposting led to much higher pH, EC, C/N, available K, available P, available Zn, and CEC values but much lower available N and available Cu values in the substrate residues compared to the initial values. The earthworms accumulated 13 C, Cu, and Zn with a heavy metal enrichment capacity in the order of Cu > Zn...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746125/effects-of-organic-and-conventional-crop-nutrition-on-profiles-of-polar-metabolites-in-grain-of-wheat
#18
Peter R Shewry, Marianna Rakszegi, Alison Lovegrove, Dominic Amos, Delia-Irina Corol, Ahmed Tawfike, Peter Miko, Jane L Ward
The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate and choline, and decreased fructose and succinate, with increasing nitrogen fertilisation. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96kgN/Ha, but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars and organic acids...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745205/-effects-of-long-term-fertilization-on-organic-nitrogen-fractions-in-aquic-brown-soil
#19
Jin Feng Ren, Hua Zhou, Qiang Ma, Yong Gang Xu, Chun Ming Jiang, Fei Fei Pan, Wan Tai Yu
The purpose of present research was to investigate how different fertilization regimes altered soil organic nitrogen fractions and their inter-annual dynamics based on a series of long-term experiment (initiated at 1990), including: CK (non-fertilization); M (recycled pig manure); NPK (chemical fertilizer NPK); NPK + M (recycled pig manure with chemical fertilizer NPK). The results showed that soil organic nitrogen components under the different fertilization treatments presented contrastive patterns from the establishment the experiments to 2015...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745199/-effects-of-fertilizing-regime-and-planting-age-on-soil-calcium-decline-in-luochuan-apple-orchards
#20
Peng Li, Chun Yue Li, Yi Quan Wang, Cai Qiang Jiao
This study was conducted to assess the effects of fertilizing regime and orchard planting age on soil calcium contents and stocks in the apple orchards on the Loess Plateau. The apple orchards in Luochuan County, one of the best regions for apple plantation in the world, were selec-ted in this study. The contents of calcium carbonate,water-soluble calcium and exchangeable cal-cium at 0-100 cm soil layer under different fertilizing regimes and various planting ages were mea-sured, their stocks were calculated and their variation features were analyzed...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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