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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#1
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902335/defluviitalea-raffinosedens-sp-nov-a-novel-thermophilic-anaerobic-saccharolytic-bacterium-isolated-from-an-anaerobic-batch-digester-treating-animal-manure-and-rice-straw
#2
Shichun Ma, Yan Huang, Cong Wang, Hui Fan, Lirong Dai, Zheng Zhou, Xing Liu, Yu Deng
A thermophilic, anaerobic, fermentative bacterium, strain A6T, was obtained from an anaerobic batch digester treating animal manure and rice straw. The strain was Gram-positive, slightly curved rods with a size of 0.6-1 μm × 2.5-8.2 μm, non-motile, and produced terminal spores. The temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration ranges for growth were 40°C-60°C, 6.5-8.0, and 0-15.0 g/L, with optimum growth noted at 50°C-55°C, pH 7.5, and in the absence of NaCl, respectively. Yeast extract was required for growth...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902244/chelatococcus-composti-sp-nov-isolated-from-compost-of-penicillin-fermentation-fungi-residue-with-pig-manure
#3
Zhenhua Zhang, Yan Liu, Juan Zhao, Cigang Yu, Shanshan Dong, Huiying Duan, Ran Yu, Changyong Wang
A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain PC-2T, was isolated from penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure co-compost in China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain PC-2T should be assigned to the genus Chelatococcus and that it was 98.95% to Chelatococcus daeguensis, 98.84% Chelatococcus sambhunathii, 98.43%, Chelatococcus caeni, and 95.97% to Chelatococcus asaccharovorans. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 70.89 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, strain PC-2 T represents a novel species of the genus Chelatococcus, for which the name Chelatococcus composti sp...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899920/impacts-of-fertilization-regimes-on-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-amf-community-composition-were-correlated-with-organic-matter-composition-in-maize-rhizosphere-soil
#4
Chen Zhu, Ning Ling, Junjie Guo, Min Wang, Shiwei Guo, Qirong Shen
The understanding of the response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) community composition to fertilization is of great significance in sustainable agriculture. However, how fertilization influences AMF diversity and composition is not well-established yet. A field experiment located in northeast China in typical black soil (Chernozem) was conducted and high-throughput sequencing approach was used to investigate the effects of different fertilizations on the variation of AMF community in the rhizosphere soil of maize crop...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898927/effect-of-feeding-strategy-on-environmental-impacts-of-pig-fattening-in-different-contexts-of-production-evaluation-through-life-cycle-assessment
#5
A N T R Monteiro, F Garcia-Launay, L Brossard, A Wilfart, J-Y Dourmad
Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898801/reduction-of-methane-emission-during-slurry-storage-by-the-addition-of-effective-microorganisms-and-excessive-carbon-source-from-brewing-sugar
#6
Mohd Saufi B Bastami, Davey L Jones, David R Chadwick
Storing livestock manure is the primary stage of manure management where microbial processes and chemical reactions result in the release of methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ammonia (NH), and carbon dioxide (CO). This study examined the reduction of CH emissions from slurry storage under two temperatures (cool [10°C] and warm [30°C]) when a glucose-rich substrate (brewing sugar) and activated effective microorganisms were applied at 10% (w/w) and 5% (v/w), respectively. Brewing sugar addition influenced microbial anaerobic respiration, resulting in a reduction of slurry pH to <5...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898800/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-stored-dairy-slurry-from-multiple-farms
#7
Etienne L Le Riche, Andrew C VanderZaag, Jeffrey D Wood, Claudia Wagner-Riddle, Kari Dunfield, N Martin Ngwabie, John McCabe, Robert J Gordon
A significant need exists to improve our understanding of the extent of greenhouse gas emissions from the storage of livestock manure to both improve the reliability of inventory assessments and the impact of beneficial management practice adoption. Factors affecting the extent and variability of greenhouse gas emissions from stored dairy manure were investigated. Emissions from six slurries stored in clean concrete tanks under identical "warm-season" conditions were monitored consecutively over 173 d (18°C average air temperature)...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898788/field-nitrogen-losses-induced-by-application-timing-of-digestate-from-dairy-manure-biogas-production
#8
Emily A Schwager, Andrew C VanderZaag, Claudia Wagner-Riddle, Anna Crolla, Chris Kinsley, Ed Gregorich
Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure has environmental benefits, but the impact of effluent (i.e., digestate [DG]) application on environmental nitrogen (N) losses from soils has not been well quantified. Our objective was to evaluate how field application of DG affected nitrous oxide (NO) emissions and nitrate (NO) leaching compared with raw dairy manure (RM) in spring versus fall applications. We measured N losses year-round for 2.5 yr in silage corn on tile-drained clay soil in Alfred, Ontario, Canada. Treatments were: digestate applied in spring (DS) and fall (DF), raw dairy manure applied in spring (RS) and fall (RF), urea applied in spring, and a control...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898786/the-extent-of-manure-removal-from-storages-and-its-impact-on-gaseous-emissions
#9
N M Ngwabie, R J Gordon, A VanderZaag, K Dunfield, A Sissoko, C Wagner-Riddle
Manure remaining in storage due to incomplete removal is a source of microbial inoculum that may affect methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH) emissions during subsequent storage. Manure removal was studied by loading fresh manure into outdoor concrete tanks (10.6 m) that contained previously stored manure (inoculum) at six levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%, with 0% representing an empty tank). Emissions were continuously measured for 6-mo storage periods (warm and cold seasons) using flow-through chambers...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898780/estrogen-transport-in-surface-runoff-from-agricultural-fields-treated-with-two-application-methods-of-dairy-manure
#10
Odette Mina, Heather E Gall, Louis S Saporito, Peter J A Kleinman
This study compares two methods of dairy manure application-surface broadcast and shallow disk injection-on the fate and transport of natural estrogens in surface runoff from 12 field plots in central Pennsylvania. Ten natural surface runoff events were sampled over a 9-mo period after fall manure application. Results show that the range of estrogen concentrations observed in surface runoff from the broadcast plots was several orders of magnitude higher (>5000 ng L) than the concentrations in runoff from the shallow disk injection plots (<10 ng L)...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898776/does-fall-removal-of-the-dairy-manure-sludge-in-a-storage-tank-reduce-subsequent-methane-emissions
#11
Hambaliou Baldé, Andrew C VanderZaag, Stephen D Burtt, Robert J Gordon, Raymond L Desjardins
When liquid manure is removed from storages for land application, "sludge" generally remains at the bottom of the tank. This may serve as an inoculum when fresh manure is subsequently added, thereby increasing methane (CH) emissions. Previous pilot-scale studies have shown that completely emptying storages can decrease CH emissions; however, no farm-scale studies have been conducted to quantify the effect of sludge removal. In this study, a commercial dairy farm removed as much manure and sludge from their concrete storage as possible in the fall (∼2% by volume remained)...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898775/sodium-tetraborate-decahydrate-treatment-reduces-hydrogen-sulfide-and-the-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-population-of-swine-manure
#12
Melvin T Yokoyama, Cheryl Spence, Susan M Hengemuehle, Terence R Whitehead, Robert von Bernuth, Michael Cotta
Emission of odorous and toxic gases from stored livestock manure is well documented and poses a serious health risk to farmers and livestock. Hydrogen sulfide emissions have been sharply rising with increasingly intensive livestock production and are of particular concern because of the acute toxicity of this gas. Numerous strategies, technologies, and chemical treatments have been used to control hydrogen sulfide emissions, but none have worked particularly well because they are neither cost-effective nor environmentally sustainable, or they are too toxic for animals...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898774/effects-of-feeding-encapsulated-nitrate-to-beef-cattle-on-ammonia-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-their-manure-in-a-short-term-manure-storage-system
#13
Chanhee Lee, Rafael C Araujo, Karen M Koenig, Michael L Hile, Eileen E Fabian-Wheeler, Karen A Beauchemin
A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898317/ammonia-tolerant-inocula-provide-a-good-base-for-anaerobic-digestion-of-microalgae-in-third-generation-biogas-process
#14
Ahmed Mahdy, Ioannis A Fotidis, Enrico Mancini, Mercedes Ballesteros, Cristina González-Fernández, Irini Angelidaki
This study investigated the ability of an ammonia-acclimatized inoculum to digest efficiently protein-rich microalgae for continuous 3rd generation biogas production. Moreover, we investigated whether increased C/N ratio could alleviate ammonia toxicity. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of five different algae (Chlorella vulgaris)/manure (cattle) mixtures showed that the mixture of 80/20 (on VS basis) resulted in the highest BMP value (431mLCH4 gVS(-1)), while the BMP of microalgae alone (100/0) was 415mLCH4 gVS(-1)...
November 23, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895284/spatial-and-temporal-dynamics-of-agricultural-residue-resources-in-the-last-30-years-in-china
#15
Yanli Yang, Peidong Zhang, Xutong Yang, Xiaoning Xu
The availability and distribution of biomass resources are important for the development of the bioenergy industry in a region. Biomass resources are abundant in China; however, the raw material is severely deficient, which makes the Chinese bioenergy industry an embarrassment and a contradiction. Unclear reserves and distribution and changing trends of biomass resources are the reason for this situation. A collection coefficient model of Chinese agricultural residue resources was established and the spatial and temporal pattern dynamics of agricultural residue resources in the last 30 years were analyzed...
December 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894805/leaching-behavior-of-veterinary-antibiotics-in-animal-manure-applied-soils
#16
Min Pan, L M Chu
Agricultural fields worldwide are being contaminated by the escalating application of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) via animal manure and biosolids applied as fertilizers or of wastewater for irrigation, resulting in soil degradation and damage to the health of terrestrial environments. This paper describes a series of column studies investigating the leaching behavior of five VAs, tetracycline (TC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), norfloxacin (NOR), erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP), under different simulated rainfall conditions that could occur in agricultural environments...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890692/rapid-identification-of-robinsoniella-peoriensis-using-specific-16s-rrna-gene-pcr-primers
#18
Terence R Whitehead, Christelle Anoma, Richard W McLaughlin
Robinsoniella peoriensis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium initially isolated and characterized from swine manure and feces. Since then strains of this species have been identified from a variety of mammalian and other GI tracts. More recently strains of this species have been isolated from a plethora of human infections. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop methods to rapidly identify this microorganism in the medical and other laboratories. This report describes the use of PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of R...
November 23, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886540/the-effect-of-different-pyrolysis-temperatures-on-the-speciation-and-availability-in-soil-of-p-in-biochar-produced-from-the-solid-fraction-of-manure
#19
Sander Bruun, Sarah L Harmer, Georgios Bekiaris, Wibke Christel, Lucia Zuin, Yongfeng Hu, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Enzo Lombi
Biochar application to agricultural land has been proposed as a means for improving phosphorus (P) availability in soil. The purpose of the current study was to understand how pyrolysis temperature affects P speciation in biochar and how this affects availability of P in the amended soil. Biochar was produced at different temperatures from digestate solids. The primary species of P in digestate solids were simple calcium phosphates. However, a high co-occurrence of magnesium (Mg) and P, indicated that struvite or other magnesium phosphates may also be important species...
November 22, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884528/reducing-future-river-export-of-nutrients-to-coastal-waters-of-china-in-optimistic-scenarios
#20
Maryna Strokal, Carolien Kroeze, Mengru Wang, Lin Ma
Coastal waters of China are rich in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and thus often eutrophied. This is because rivers export increasing amounts of nutrients to coastal seas. Animal production and urbanization are important sources of nutrients in Chinese rivers. In this study we explored the future from an optimistic perspective. We present two optimistic scenarios for 2050 (OPT-1 and OPT-2) for China. Maximized recycling of manure on land in OPT-1 and OPT-2, and strict sewage control in OPT-2 (e.g., all sewage is collected and treated efficiently) are essential nutrient strategies in these scenarios...
November 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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