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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239739/occurrence-of-veterinary-antibiotics-in-swine-manure-from-large-scale-feedlots-in-zhejiang-province-china
#1
Hua Wang, Yixuan Chu, Chengran Fang
The occurrence and distribution of five sulfonamides and three tetracyclines in swine manure sampled from large-scale feedlots in different areas of Zhejiang Province, China were detected using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. All eight test antibiotics were detected in most of the manure samples. The dominant antibiotics in swine manure were sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfadimidine, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline. The maximum concentration of residual antibiotic reached up to 57...
February 27, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238374/metagenomic-assessment-of-methane-production-oxidation-and-nitrogen-metabolism-of-long-term-manured-systems-in-lowland-rice-paddy
#2
P Bhattacharyya, K S Roy, A K Nayak, M Shahid, B Lal, P Gautam, T Mohapatra
Biochemical pathways of methanogenesis and methanotrophy coupled with carbon (C)-nitrogen (N) metabolism were studied in long term (13years) manured systems in lowland rice paddy through metagenomics approach. Manured systems included in this study were, control (exclusion of application of any manure), farm yard manure (FYM, @5Mgha(-1)yr(-1)) and green manuring (GM with Sesbania aculeata). Metagenomic sequence data revealed the dominance of C decomposing bacterial communities' like Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, in manure amended soils as compared to control...
February 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238371/characterization-of-lignocellulosic-compositions-degradation-during-chicken-manure-composting-with-added-biochar-by-phospholipid-fatty-acid-plfa-and-correlation-analysis
#3
Ning Liu, Jialiang Zhou, Lujia Han, Guangqun Huang
Biorefractory high polymer lignocellulosic compositions may limit rapid composting and stable decomposition. Because their degradation during composting is not well understood, the correlation with microbial community profiles was assessed to reveal degradation mechanism of lignocellulosic compositions. Testing of chicken manure aerobic composting with added biochar was performed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and correlation analysis. Results demonstrated a good composting effect with good dynamic correlation between microbial characteristic (PLFA) and lignocellulosic compositions' degradation ratio...
February 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222348/effects-of-bamboo-charcoal-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-during-chicken-manure-composting
#4
Haichao Li, Manli Duan, Jie Gu, Yajun Zhang, Xun Qian, Jun Ma, Ranran Zhang, Xiaojuan Wang
Composting is widely used for animal waste disposal, and bamboo charcoal (BC) can be used for nitrogen conservation during composting. However, the effects of BC on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during chicken manure composting are still unclear. This study investigated the effects on ARGs of adding different proportions of BC (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% w/w) to chicken manure compost. After 26 days, the relative abundances (RAs) of most ARGs (tetC, tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, drfA7, ermB, ermF, ermQ, and ermX) and intI1 declined by 21...
February 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222270/the-effects-of-pig-manure-application-on-the-spread-of-tetracycline-resistance-in-bulk-and-cucumber-rhizosphere-soils-a-greenhouse-experiment
#5
Yijun Kang, Yangyang Hao, Dan Xia, Min Shen, Qing Li, Jian Hu
Understanding the dynamics of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in bulk and rhizosphere soils is important to evaluate the spread of TRGs from pig manure to human. In this work, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the difference in abundance of TRB, tetracycline-resistant E. coli (TRE), tetracycline-resistant Pseudomonas spp. (TRP), as well as TRGs between bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. The application of pig manure resulted in the long-term persistence of TRB, TRE, TRP and TRGs in bulk soil and rhizosphere of cucumber for at least 65 days...
February 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221847/thermal-and-starvation-stress-response-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-isolates-selected-from-agricultural-environments
#6
Achyut Adhikari, Andy Bary, Craig Cogger, Caleb James, Gülhan Ünlü, Karen Killinger
Pathogens exposed to agricultural production environments are subject to multiple stresses that may alter their survival under subsequent stress conditions. The objective of this study was to examine heat and starvation stress response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from agricultural matrices. Seven E. coli O157:H7 isolates from different agricultural matrices-soil, compost, irrigation water, and sheep manure-were selected, and two ATCC strains were used as controls. The E. coli O157:H7 isolates were exposed to heat stress (56°C in 0...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221845/occurrence-and-dispersal-of-indicator-bacteria-on-cucumbers-grown-horizontally-or-vertically-on-various-mulch-types
#7
Shirley A Micallef, Mary Theresa Callahan, Sivaranjani Pagadala
No data exist on the impact of cultivation practices on food safety risks associated with cucumber. Cucumbers are typically grown horizontally over a mulch cover, with fruit touching the ground, but this vining plant grows well in vertical systems. To assess whether production system affects bacterial dispersal onto plants, field trials were conducted over 2 years. Cucumber cultivar 'Marketmore 76' was grown horizontally on plastic, straw, or bare ground or vertically on trellises installed on bare ground in soil previously amended with raw dairy manure...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220869/nitric-oxide-is-involved-in-the-oxytetracycline-induced-suppression-of-root-growth-through-inhibiting-hydrogen-peroxide-accumulation-in-the-root-meristem
#8
Qing-Xiang Yu, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Yan-Hong Zhou, Kai Shi, Jie Zhou, Yunlong Yu, Jing-Quan Yu, Xiao-Jian Xia
Use of antibiotic-contaminated manure in crop production poses a severe threat to soil and plant health. However, few studies have studied the mechanism by which plant development is affected by antibiotics. Here, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, gene expression analysis and fluorescent dyes to study the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC), a widely used antibiotic in agriculture, on root meristem activity and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the root tips of tomato seedlings...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219787/a-novel-archaeal-species-belonging-to-methanoculleus-genus-identified-via-de-novo-assembly-and-metagenomic-binning-process-in-biogas-reactors
#9
Panagiotis G Kougias, Stefano Campanaro, Laura Treu, Xinyu Zhu, Irini Angelidaki
Recently, a first comprehensive catalogue of microbial genomes populating biogas reactors treating manure and agro-industrial residues was determined by sequencing samples collected from 22 biogas reactors including laboratory and full scale. Among the archaeal community, one of the most abundant methanogens belongs to Methanoculleus genus and for this reason it was provisionally named Methanoculleus sp. DTU006. Its full length 16S rRNA sequence is 97% similar to Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1 and to Methanoculleus palmolei DSM 4273...
February 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216003/enhanced-volatile-fatty-acids-production-during-anaerobic-digestion-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-via-micro-oxygenation
#10
Chayanon Sawatdeenarunat, Shihwu Sung, Samir Kumar Khanal
A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of inoculum type, oxygen (O2) dosage, and incubation time on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production during anaerobic digestion (AD) of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), a high yielding energy crop. The results showed that anaerobically digested cattle manure (ADCM) as an inoculum generated significantly higher VFAs compared to that of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge (ADWAS) as an inoculum. Additionally, the incubation time of 3days and O2 dosage of 15mL/g volatile solidsadded showed the highest VFAs production when ADCM was used as an inoculum...
February 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215973/stabilization-of-different-starting-materials-through-vermicomposting-in-a-continuous-feeding-system-changes-in-chemical-and-biological-parameters
#11
Mercedes García-Sánchez, Hana Taušnerová, Aleš Hanč, Pavel Tlustoš
In this study the feasibility of Eisenia andrei to digest great amount of wastes including horse manure (HM), apple pomace (AP), grape pomace (GP), and digestate (DG) was monitored through a continuous-feeding system. New layers of fresh material were gradually added to form an aged-profile of layers in order to understand the interaction between earthworms and microorganisms during vermicomposting. Thus, changes in chemical and biological parameters were evaluated for 240days. The earthworm population reached maximum values in 120 d-old-layer, which was related to an increase in overall microbial biomass, assayed as dehydrogenase activity, in all of the processed materials...
February 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215811/intra-annual-variation-of-the-association-between-agricultural-best-management-practices-and-stream-nutrient-concentrations
#12
Nolan J T Pearce, Adam G Yates
Temporal variation may influence the ability of best management practices (BMPs) to mitigate the loss of agricultural pollutants to streams. Our goal was to assess variation in mitigation effects of BMPs by examining the associations between instream nutrient concentrations and the abundance and location of four structural BMPs over a hydrologic year. Water samples were collected monthly (Nov. 2013-Oct. 2014) in 15 headwater streams representing a gradient of BMP use in Southern Ontario, Canada. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models were used to associate two groups of collinear nutrient forms with the abundance and location of BMPs, antecedent precipitation and time of year...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215193/the-impact-of-livestock-manure-control-policy-on-human-leptospirosis-in-republic-of-korea-using-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#13
S Ryu, C L Lau, B C Chun
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that the pathogen can be transmitted to humans through the excretions of infected animals. In the Republic of Korea, the Livestock Manure Control Act was enforced in September 2007 to improve underground water hygiene. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of Livestock Manure Control Policy on the incidence and the trend of human leptospirosis. An interrupted time series analysis using the monthly incidence of leptospirosis was conducted based on data derived from the Korean National Surveillance System between January 1999 and January 2015...
February 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214122/anaerobic-co-digestion-of-recalcitrant-agricultural-wastes-characterizing-of-biochemical-parameters-of-digestate-and-its-impacts-on-soil-ecosystem
#14
Adele Muscolo, Giovanna Settineri, Teresa Papalia, Emilio Attinà, Carmelo Basile, Maria Rosaria Panuccio
Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes is a promising alternative to landfilling for reducing Greenhouse Gas Emission (GHG) and it is encouraged by current regulation in Europe. Biogas-AD produced, represents a useful source of green energy, while its by-product (digestate) is a waste, that needs to be safely disposal. The sustainability of anaerobic digestion plants partly depends on the management of their digestion residues. This study has been focused on the environmental and economic benefits of co-digest recalcitrant agricultural wastes such olive wastes and citrus pulp, in combination with livestock wastes, straw and cheese whey for biogas production...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199898/differential-release-of-manure-borne-bioactive-phosphorus-forms-to-runoff-and-leachate-under-simulated-rain
#15
R A Blaustein, Thanh H Dao, Y A Pachepsky, D R Shelton
Limited information exists on the unhindered release of bioactive phosphorus (P) from a manure layer to model the partitioning and transport of component P forms before they reach an underlying soil. Rain simulations were conducted to quantify effects of intensity (30, 60, and 90 mm h(-1)) on P release from an application of 60 Mg ha(-1) of dairy manure. Runoff contained water-extractable- (WEP), exchangeable and enzyme-labile bioactive P (TBIOP), in contrast to the operationally defined "dissolved-reactive P" form...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199354/nitrate-capture-and-slow-release-in-biochar-amended-compost-and-soil
#16
Nikolas Hagemann, Claudia I Kammann, Hans-Peter Schmidt, Andreas Kappler, Sebastian Behrens
Slow release of nitrate by charred organic matter used as a soil amendment (i.e. biochar) was recently suggested as potential mechanism of nutrient delivery to plants which may explain some agronomic benefits of biochar. So far, isolated soil-aged and composted biochar particles were shown to release considerable amounts of nitrate only in extended (>1 h) extractions ("slow release"). In this study, we quantified nitrate and ammonium release by biochar-amended soil and compost during up to 167 h of repeated extractions in up to six consecutive steps to determine the effect of biochar on the overall mineral nitrogen retention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199147/microbiological-safety-of-animal-wastes-processed-by-physical-heat-treatment-an-alternative-to-eliminate-human-pathogens-in-biological-soil-amendments-as-recommended-by-the-food-safety-modernization-act
#17
Zhao Chen, Xiuping Jiang
Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197941/properties-and-evolution-of-dissolved-organic-matter-during-co-composting-of-dairy-manure-and-chinese-herbal-residues
#18
Qunliang Li, Yanyu Lu, Xiaobo Guo, Guangchun Shan, Junhao Huang
Composting is an effective method in treating solid organic wastes, in which dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in transformation of organic matter and microbial activity. Therefore, an understanding of the properties and evolution of DOM during composting is crucial. In this study, DOM was studied using elemental analysis, spectroscopic analysis (UV-vis, FTIR, and pyrolysis-GC/MS), and colloidal analysis during a 120-day composting. Results showed that the content of N and O in DOM increased while C and H content declined progressively over the composting time...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196757/influence-of-total-solids-concentration-on-the-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-sugar-beet-by-products-and-livestock-manures
#19
K Aboudi, C J Álvarez-Gallego, L I Romero-García
A series of batch anaerobic digestion assays were implemented to determine the influence of total solids concentration on the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet by-products and their co-digestion with two kind of livestock manures (pig and cow manures). The two total solid concentrations studied were 8% and 5%. Total solids contents above 8% were not evaluated because of the inappropriate rheological behaviour of sugar beet by-products at these concentrations. The best total solid content tested corresponded to 8%, achieving specific methane yields of 464...
February 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188339/microbial-composition-and-diversity-are-associated-with-plant-performance-a-case-study-on-long-term-fertilization-effect-on-wheat-growth-in-an-ultisol
#20
Lihua Li, Fenliang Fan, Alin Song, Chang Yin, Peiyuan Cui, Zhaojun Li, Yongchao Liang
The association between microbial communities and plant growth in long-term fertilization system has not been fully studied. In the present study, impacts of long-term fertilization have been determined on the size and activity of soil microbial communities and wheat performance in a red soil (Ultisol) collected from Qiyang Experimental Station, China. For this, different microbial communities originating from long-term fertilized pig manure (M), mineral fertilizer (NPK), pig manure plus mineral fertilizer (MNPK), and no fertilizer (CK) were used as inocula for the Ultisol tested...
February 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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