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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639930/bradyrhizobium-mercantei-sp-nov-a-nitrogen-fixing-symbiont-isolated-from-nodules-of-deguelia-costata-syn-lonchocarpus-costatus
#1
Luisa Caroline Ferraz Helene, Jakeline Renata Marçon Delamuta, Renan Augusto Ribeiro, Mariangela Hungria
Some bacteria collectively known as rhizobia can establish symbiotic relationships and the N2-fixation process with several legumes used as green manure, in pastures and for wood production. Symbionts belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium are predominant in the tropics, and an increasing number of studies report high genetic diversity within the genus. We performed a polyphasic study with two strains belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium- SEMIA 6399T and SEMIA 6404-isolated from root nodules of Deguelia costata (syn...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636976/improving-soil-nutrient-availability-increases-carbon-rhizodeposition-under-maize-and-soybean-in-mollisols
#2
Yunfa Qiao, Shujie Miao, Xiaozeng Han, Shuping Yue, Caixian Tang
Rhizodeposited carbon (C) is an important source of soil organic C, and plays an important role in the C cycle in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. However, interactive effects of plant species and soil nutrient availability on C rhizodeposition remain unclear. This experiment examined the effect of soil nutrient availability on C rhizodeposition of C4 maize and C3 soybean with contrasting photosynthetic capacity. The soils (Mollisols) were collected from three treatments of no fertilizer (Control), inorganic fertilizer only (NPK), and NPK plus organic manure (NPKM) in a 24-year fertilization field trial...
June 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636835/use-of-bacteriophages-to-control-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-domestic-ruminants-meat-products-and-fruits-and-vegetables
#3
Lili Wang, Kunli Qu, Xiaoyu Li, Zhenhui Cao, Xitao Wang, Zhen Li, Yaxiong Song, Yongping Xu
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen that causes severe bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Ruminant manure is a primary source of E. coli O157:H7 contaminating the environment and food sources. Therefore, effective interventions targeted at reducing the prevalence of fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 by cattle and sheep and the elimination of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of meat products as well as fruits and vegetables are required. Bacteriophages offer the prospect of sustainable alternative approaches against bacterial pathogens with the flexibility of being applied therapeutically or for biological control purposes...
June 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636488/workers-exposure-to-bioaerosols-from-three-different-types-of-composting-facilities
#4
Laetitia Bonifait, Geneviève Marchand, Marc Veillette, Hamza M'Bareche, Marie-Eve Dubuis, Carole Pépin, Yves Cloutier, Yves Bernard, Caroline Duchaine
Composting is a natural dynamic biological process used to valorise putrescible organic matter. The composting process can involve vigorous movements of waste material piles, which release high concentrations of bioaerosols into the surrounding environment. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants (CP) as well as the potential occupational exposure of composting workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the workers exposure to bioaerosols during working activities in three different types of composting facilities (domestic, manure, carcass) using two different quantification methods (cultivation and qPCR) for bacteria and moulds concentrations...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633966/the-effect-of-feed-composition-on-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-animal-processing-by-products
#5
D Hidalgo, J M Martín-Marroquín, F Corona
Four streams and their mixtures have been considered for anaerobic co-digestion, all of them generated during pig carcasses processing or in related industrial activities: meat flour (MF), process water (PW), pig manure (PM) and glycerin (GL). Biochemical methane potential assays were conducted at 37 °C to evaluate the effects of the substrate mix ratio on methane generation and process behavior. The results show that the co-digestion of these products favors the anaerobic fermentation process when limiting the amount of meat flour in the mixture to co-digest, which should not exceed 10%...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632416/survival-of-escherichia-coli-on-lettuce-under-field-conditions-encountered-in-the-northeastern-united-states
#6
Daniel L Weller, Jasna Kovac, Sherry Roof, David J Kent, Jeffrey I Tokman, Barbara Kowalcyk, David Oryang, Renata Ivanek, Anna Aceituno, Christopher Sroka, Martin Wiedmann
Although wildlife intrusion and untreated manure have been associated with microbial contamination of produce, relatively few studies have examined the survival of Escherichia coli on produce under field conditions following contamination (e.g., via splash from wildlife feces). This experimental study was performed to estimate the die-off rate of E. coli on preharvest lettuce following contamination with a fecal slurry. During August 2015, field-grown lettuce was inoculated via pipette with a fecal slurry that was spiked with a three-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant nonpathogenic E...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631587/dietary-supplementation-with-a-nucleotide-rich-yeast-extract-modulates-gut-immune-response-and-microflora-in-weaned-pigs-in-response-to-a-sanitary-challenge
#7
S M Waititu, F Yin, R Patterson, A Yitbarek, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the short-term effect of supplementing a nucleotide-rich yeast extract (NRYE) on growth performance, gut structure, immunity and microflora of piglets raised under sanitary and unsanitary conditions. A total of 84, 21-day old piglets were used in this study; 42 piglets were raised in a room designated as the clean room that was washed once per week, whereas the other 42 piglets were raised in a room designated as the unclean room in which 7 kg of manure from the sow herd was spread on each pen floor on day 1 and 7 and the room was not washed throughout the experiment...
June 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628813/removal-of-antibiotics-during-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-pig-manure
#8
Lu Feng, Mònica Escolà Casas, Lars Ditlev Mørck Ottosen, Henrik Bjarne Møller, Kai Bester
Antibiotics are frequently used in animals to treat sickness and prevent infection especially in industrial meat production. Some of the antibiotics cannot be completely metabolized and, as an unavoidable result, are excreted and thus end up in manure which is then spread in the environment. Currently increasing amounts of manure is used in biogas production before spreading the residuals on agricultural fields. In this study, the removal patterns of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole) and macrolides (clarithromycin, erythromycin), as well as trimethoprim, were investigated during the anaerobic digestion of pig manure...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624599/biodegradable-hydrogel-derived-from-cellulose-acetate-and-edta-as-a-reduction-substrate-of-leaching-npk-compound-fertilizer-and-water-retention-in-soil
#9
André M Senna, Vagner R Botaro
To study the behavior of a biodegradable hydrogel derived from cellulose acetate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD), as a reduction substrate of NPK fertilizer in soil. The biodegradable hydrogel (HEDTA) was prepared from cellulose acetate (CA) with a degree substitution (DS) 2.5 by esterification crosslinking with EDTAD catalyzed by triethylamine. We systematically investigated the performance of the HEDTA in the reducing NPK (Ammonium, phosphate and potassium) fertilizer leaching. We also compare the percentage of leaching between the HEDTA and commercial fertilizers...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623020/two-step-gasification-of-cattle-manure-for-hydrogen-rich-gas-production-effect-of-biochar-preparation-temperature-and-gasification-temperature
#10
Ya Xin, Hongliang Cao, Qiaoxia Yuan, Dianlong Wang
Two-step gasification process was proposed to dispose cattle manure for hydrogen rich gas production. The effect of temperature on product distribution and biochar properties were first studied in the pyrolysis-carbonization process. The steam gasification of biochar derived from different pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures was then performed at 750°C and 850°C. The biochar from the pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures of 500°C had high carbon content and low volatiles content. According to the results of gasification stage, the pyrolysis-carbonization temperature of 500°C and the gasification temperature of 850°C were identified as the suitable conditions for hydrogen production...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622650/the-positive-effect-of-phosphogypsum-supplemented-composts-on-potato-plant-growth-in-the-field-and-tuber-yield
#11
Mariem Kammoun, Imen Ghorbel, Safa Charfeddine, Lotfi Kamoun, Radhia Gargouri-Bouzid, Oumèma Nouri-Ellouz
The production of phosphoric acid from phosphate rock leads to an industrial by-product called phosphogypsum (PG). One ton of phosphoric acid generates 5 tons of PG that is frequently stocked near the production units. Several attempts were made to test PG valorization via soil amendment because of its phosphate, sulphate and calcium content. In this study, the use of PG in composting was envisaged. Composts were produced by mixing olive oil wastes and spent coffee grounds. Two concentrations of PG, 10% (A10) and 30% (A30), were tested in composting substrate in addition to control compost without PG (AT)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620216/chinese-milk-vetch-improves-plant-growth-development-and-15-n-recovery-in-the-rice-based-rotation-system-of-south-china
#12
Zhijian Xie, Yaqin He, Shuxin Tu, Changxu Xu, Guangrong Liu, Huimin Wang, Weidong Cao, Hui Liu
Chinese milk vetch (CMV) is vital for agriculture and environment in China. A pot experiment combined with (15)N labeling (including three treatments: control, no fertilizer N and CMV; (15)N-labeled urea alone, (15)NU; substituting partial (15)NU with CMV, (15)NU-M) was conducted to evaluate the impact of CMV on plant growth, development and (15)NU recovery in rice-based rotation system. The (15)NU-M mitigated oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzymes activities and chlorophyll content while decreased malondialdehyde content in rice root and shoot, increased the biomass, total N and (15)N uptake of plant shoots by 8%, 12% and 39% respectively, thus inducing a noticeable increase of annual (15)N recovery by 77% versus (15)NU alone...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610326/macrochelid-mites-mesostigmata-macrochelidae-from-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil-with-description-of-a-new-species-of-macrocheles
#13
Letícia H Azevedo, Raphael C Castilho, Marielle M Berto, Gilberto J DE Moraes
Macrochelid mites have been reported in several papers about mites of different habitats in Brazil, but this is the first work specifically conducted to determine the macrochelids from that country. The main goal was to determine macrochelid species in microhabitats where the stable fly is usually found in commercial cattle farms. In total, 1359 specimens were collected from cow manure and litter in different regions of São Paulo state. These represented ten species of three genera. One of these, Macrocheles embersoni n...
May 23, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605843/evaluation-of-fertilizer-and-water-management-effect-on-rice-performance-and-greenhouse-gas-intensity-in-different-seasonal-weather-of-tropical-climate
#14
Hyun-Hwoi Ku, Keiichi Hayashi, Ruth Agbisit, Gina Villegas-Pangga
Intensively double cropping rice increases greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in tropical countries, and hence, finding better management practices is imperative for reducing global warming potential (GWP), while sustaining rice yield. This study demonstrated an efficient fertilizer and water management practice targeting seasonal weather conditions effects on rice productivity, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), GWP, and GHG intensity (GHGI). Two-season experiments were conducted with two pot-scale experiments using urea and urea+cattle manure (CM) under continuous flooding (CF) during the wet season (2013WS), and urea with/without CaSiO3 application under alternate wetting and drying (AWD) during the dry season (2014DS)...
June 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604783/chemical-structures-and-characteristics-of-animal-manures-and-composts-during-composting-and-assessment-of-maturity-indices
#15
Jieying Huang, Zixuan Yu, Hongjian Gao, Xiaoming Yan, Jiang Chang, Chengming Wang, Jingwei Hu, Ligan Zhang
Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics were measured by routine analyses and chemical structures by solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR. Three manures were of distinct properties. Their changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures, and maturity were different not only from each other but also from those with addition of bulking agents during composting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604176/irrigation-water-sources-and-time-intervals-as-variables-on-the-presence-of-campylobacter-spp-and-listeria-monocytogenes-on-romaine-lettuce-grown-in-muck-soil
#16
Evelyne Guévremont, Lisyanne Lamoureux, Mylène Généreux, Caroline Côté
Irrigation water has been identified as a possible source of vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens. Risk management for pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in fields can be influenced by the source of the irrigation water and the time interval between last irrigation and harvest. Plots of romaine lettuce were irrigated with manure-contaminated water or aerated pond water 21, 7, or 3 days prior to harvesting, and water and muck soil samples were collected at each irrigation treatment...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604068/comparison-of-the-effects-of-poultry-manure-and-its-biochar-on-barley-growth-in-petroleum-contaminated-soils
#17
Maryam Barati, Fereshteh Bakhtiari, Dariush Mowla, Sedigheh Safarzadeh
This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two organic amendments (poultry manure (PM) and poultry manure biochar (PMB)) for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by barley plant at three levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) during 5 month under greenhouse conditions. TPHs removal efficiency and microbial respiration were shown to be higher at soil cultivated plant than uncultivated soil and in lowest level of contamination rather than other levels of contamination and at organic amendment treatment than unamended soil...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603450/changes-in-soil-organic-matter-over-70%C3%A2-years-in-continuous-arable-and-ley-arable-rotations-on-a-sandy-loam-soil-in-england
#18
A E Johnston, P R Poulton, K Coleman, A J Macdonald, R P White
The sequestration in soil of organic carbon (SOC) derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by replacing arable crops with leys, has been measured over 70 years on a sandy loam soil. The experiment was designed initially to test the effect of leys on the yields of arable crops. A 3-year grazed grass with clover (grass + clover) ley in a 5-year rotation with arable crops increased percentage organic carbon (%OC) in the top 25 cm of the soil from 0.98 to 1.23 in 28 years, but with little further increase during the next 40 years with all-grass leys given fertilizer nitrogen (N)...
May 2017: European Journal of Soil Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602001/effect-of-phosphate-additive-on-the-nitrogen-transformation-during-pig-manure-composting
#19
Juan Wu, Shengzhou He, Ying Liang, Guoxue Li, Song Li, Shili Chen, Faisal Nadeem, Jingwei Hu
Previous studies revealed that phosphate, as an additive to composting, could significantly reduce NH3 emission and nitrogen loss through change of pH and nitrogen fixation to form ammonium phosphate. However, few studies have explored the influence of pH change and phosphate additive on NO x(-)-N, NH4(+)-N, NH3, and N2O, which are dominate forms of nitrogen in composting. In this study, the equimolar H3PO4, H2SO4, and K2HPO4 were added into pig manure composting to evaluate the effect of H(+) and PO4(3-) on nitrogen transformation...
June 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601464/methane-emissions-from-dairy-lagoons-in-the-western-united-states
#20
A B Leytem, D L Bjorneberg, A C Koehn, L E Moraes, E Kebreab, R S Dungan
Methane generation from dairy liquid storage systems is a major source of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. However, little on-farm research has been conducted to estimate and determine the factors that may affect these emissions. Six lagoons in south-central Idaho were monitored for 1 yr, with CH4 emissions estimated by inverse dispersion modeling. Lagoon characteristics thought to contribute to CH4 emissions were also monitored over this time period. Average emissions from the lagoons ranged from 30 to 126 kg/ha per day or 22 to 517 kg/d...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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