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Shuangshuang Ma, Chen Fang, Xiaoxi Sun, Lujia Han, Xueqin He, Guangqun Huang
Bacteria play an important role in organic matter degradation and maturity during aerobic composting. This study analyzed composting with or without a membrane cover in laboratory-scale aerobic composting reactor systems. 16S rRNA gene analysis was used to study the bacterial community succession during composting. The richness of the bacterial community decreased and the diversity increased after covering with a semi-permeable membrane and applying a slight positive pressure. Principal components analysis based on operational taxonomic units could distinguish the main composting phases...
March 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
S Daguerre-Martini, M B Vanotti, M Rodriguez-Pastor, A Rosal, R Moral
Gas-permeable membranes coupled with low-rate aeration is useful to recover ammonia (NH4 + ) from livestock effluents. In this study, the role of inorganic carbon (bicarbonate, HCO3 - ) to enhance the N recovery process was evaluated using synthetic effluents with various NH4 + to HCO3 - molar ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. The study also evaluated the effect of increased organic matter on the NH4 + recovery using humic acids (3000-6000 mg L-1 ), and the N recovery from high-strength swine manure. The release of hydroxide from the HCO3 - with aeration increased the wastewater pH and promoted gaseous ammonia formation and membrane uptake...
March 6, 2018: Water Research
Qingqing Huang, Yao Yu, Yanan Wan, Qi Wang, Zhang Luo, Yuhui Qiao, Dechun Su, Huafen Li
A four-year field trial was conducted in a rice paddy in southern China to determine the effects of continuous phosphate fertilizer, pig manure, chicken manure, and sewage sludge application on soil Cd accumulation in soil and Cd uptake by rice. The results showed that continuous application of fertilizers with higher Cd levels caused Cd to accumulate and redistribute in various soil fractions. In turn, these effects influenced Cd bioavailability in rice plants. After four years of phosphate fertilizer, pig manure, chicken manure, and sewage sludge application, the annual soil Cd accumulation rates were 0...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Maolan Wang, Ronghao Liu, Xiuying Lu, Ziyi Zhu, Hailin Wang, Lei Jiang, Jingjing Liu, Zhihua Wu
Heavy metal are often added to animal fodder and accumulate in the soils with swine manure. In this study, heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Cr) concentrations were determined in agricultural soils irrigated with swine manure in Jiangxi Province, China. Results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, As and Cr (32.8, 93.7, 21.3 and 75.8 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than the background values, while Pb and Cd (15.2 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the background values. Contamination factors [Formula: see text] indicated that they were generally moderate for Cu, Zn, As and Cr and generally low for Pb and Cd...
March 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Haibin Zhou, Haibo Meng, Lixin Zhao, Yujun Shen, Yueqing Hou, Hongsheng Cheng, Liqiu Song
In this study, two different biochars (sawdust charcoal (SDC) and wheat straw charcoal (WSC)) and biological humic acid (BHA) were used with different addition rates in pig manure composting to illustrate the effect on heavy metals passivation. And the composts were applied to rape (Brassica campestris L.) growth to illustrate the stability of the passivation. Results showed the concentration of Cu, Cd, and Pb increased after composting, whereas the passivation rates of Cu, Pb, and Cd reached a maximum of 94...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Mehdi Beheshti, Hassan Etesami, Hossein Ali Alikhani
Previous studies suggest that biochar has potential to benefit soil when used as an amendment, but only few studies have investigated how the different biochars affect the microbial activity of soil in a calcareous soil. Hence, to study the effect of the biochars obtained from wheat straw and cow manure and produced under different production conditions on two biological soil indicators, dehydrogenase activity and soil respiration, after 0, 60, and 120 days of incubation (DOI), an incubation experiment as a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement in three replicates was conducted in a calcareous soil...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guo Yan-Li, Zou Yong-Gen, Xie Yi-Qing, Chen Hong, He Ming-Zhen, Lü Lai-Fu, Huang Li-Zhong, Jin Xiao-Lin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of major parasitic diseases and related knowledge, attitude and practice among rural residents in Liyang City, so as to provide the evidence for formulating appropriate preventive strategies and measures. METHODS: Three villages were selected from three towns as survey sites, and the residents who were above three years old and had been in the village for over six months were investigated. The Kato-Katz technique was applied to detect intestinal parasite eggs in residents' feces, and the cellophane anal swab was used to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs among children aged 3-6 years...
September 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Xiaoyun Wang, Wanqiang Wang, Qiao Gao, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Fen Zhu
Chrysomya megacephala is a saprophagous fly whose larvae can compost manure and yield biomass and bio-fertilizer simultaneously. However, there are concerns for the safety of the composting system, that is risk of diseases spread by way of manure pathogens, residue of harmful metals and emission of greenhouse gases. Microbiota analysis and heavy metal speciation by European Communities Bureau of Reference were evaluated in raw, C. megacephala-composted and natural stacked swine manure to survey pathogenic bacterial changes and mobility of lead and cadmium in manure after C...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Lige Huang, Yuanyuan Li, Man Zhao, Yuanqing Chao, Rongliang Qiu, Yanhua Yang, Shizhong Wang
To explore the effect of different biochars on Cassia alata L. growth and heavy metal immobilization in multi-metal mine tailings, a 100-day pot experiment was conducted. Three biochars derived from Hibiscus cannabinus core (HB), sewage sludge (SB) and chicken manure (MB), were added to mine tailings at rates of 0.4%, 1% and 3% ( w / w ). The results showed that the root biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and root length were 1.2-2.8, 1.7-3.2, 1-1.5 and 1.6-3.3 times of those in the control group, respectively...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Luisa F Gómez, Isaura P Torres, María Del P Jiménez, Juan G McEwen, Catalina de Bedout, Carlos A Peláez, José M Acevedo, María L Taylor, Myrtha Arango
Histoplasma capsulatum is the causative agent of histoplasmosis and this fungus inhabits soils rich in phosphorus and nitrogen that are enriched with bird and bat manure. The replacement of organic matter in agroecosystems is necessary in the tropics, and the use of organic fertilizers has increased. Cases and outbreaks due to the presence of the fungus in these components have been reported. The Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario resolution 150 of 2003 contains the parameters set by the Colombian Technical Standard (NTC 5167) on the physicochemical and microbiological features of fertilizers, but it does not regulate the search for H...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jiemeng Tao, Delong Meng, Chong Qin, Xueduan Liu, Yili Liang, Yunhua Xiao, Zhenghua Liu, Yabing Gu, Juan Li, Huaqun Yin
Microbes play a critical role in soil global biogeochemical circulation and microbe-microbe interactions have also evoked enormous interests in recent years. Utilization of green manures can stimulate microbial activity and affect microbial composition and diversity. However, few studies focus on the microbial interactions or detect the key functional members in communities. With the advances of metagenomic technologies, network analysis has been used as a powerful tool to detect robust interactions between microbial members...
March 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jiangang Yu, Xingwen Zhang, Dong Wang, Ping Li
In this work, the biochar adsorbent carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), was prepared from the pyrolysis (600 °C, 120 min) of chicken manure for the removal of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solution, and its physicochemical properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). The experimental parameters including agitation speed, initial solution pH, biochar dosage and contact time on the adsorption properties of MO from aqueous solution onto CMC were investigated in batch experiments...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Michael Hemkemeyer, Anja B Dohrmann, Bent T Christensen, Christoph C Tebbe
Genetic fingerprinting demonstrated in previous studies that differently sized soil particle fractions (PSFs; clay, silt, and sand with particulate organic matter (POM)) harbor microbial communities that differ in structure, functional potentials and sensitivity to environmental conditions. To elucidate whether specific bacterial or archaeal taxa exhibit preference for specific PSFs, we examined the diversity of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes by high-throughput sequencing using total DNA extracted from three long-term fertilization variants (unfertilized, fertilized with minerals, and fertilized with animal manure) of an agricultural loamy sand soil and their PSFs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
A L Collins, Y Zhang, S McMillan, E R Dixon, A Stringfellow, S Bateman, D A Sear
Oxygen demand in river substrates providing important habitats for the early life stages of aquatic ecology, including lithophilous fish, can arise due to the oxidation of sediment-associated organic matter. Oxygen depletion associated with this component of river biogeochemical cycling, will, in part, depend on the sources of such material. A reconnaissance survey was therefore undertaken to assess the relative contributions from bed sediment-associated organic matter sources potentially impacting on the River Axe Special Area of Conservation (SAC), in SW England...
December 2017: River Research and Applications
A E Johnston, P R Poulton
Long-term field experiments that test a range of treatments and are intended to assess the sustainability of crop production, and thus food security, must be managed actively to identify any treatment that is failing to maintain or increase yields. Once identified, carefully considered changes can be made to the treatment or management, and if they are successful yields will change. If suitable changes cannot be made to an experiment to ensure its continued relevance to sustainable crop production, then it should be stopped...
January 2018: European Journal of Soil Science
Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye, Ian Singleton, Anderson S Sant'Ana
Foodborne illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated fresh produce is a common phenomenon and has severe effects on human health together with severe economic and social impacts. The implications of foodborne diseases associated with fresh produce have urged research into the numerous ways and mechanisms through which pathogens may gain access to produce, thereby compromising microbiological safety. This review provides a background on the various sources and pathways through which pathogenic bacteria contaminate fresh produce; the survival and proliferation of pathogens on fresh produce while growing and potential methods to reduce microbial contamination before harvest...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Javed Nawab, Junaid Ghani, Sardar Khan, Wang Xiaoping
Mining activity releases toxic metals (TMs) into the soil ecosystem and creates serious problems for the environment and human beings due to their adverse eco-toxilogical impacts. Currently, several remediation techniques can be used to immobilize TMs within contaminated soil. The present study focuses on the application of different organic amendments biochar (B), farmyard manure (FYM) and peat moss (PTM) - at different application rates (1%, 2% and 5%) in mining-impacted agricultural soil to immobilize TMs (Ni, Cr, As, Zn, Cd and Pb) and minimize their bioaccumulation in pea (Pisum sativum) and chili (Capsicum annuum) and the associated human health risk...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Hui Mao, Zhiyuan Lv, Hongda Sun, Ronghua Li, Bingnian Zhai, Zhaohui Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Lina Zhou
Effect of bamboo biochar (BC) combined with two bacterial powders (B) on gaseous emission and variety of bacterial community during pig manure (PM) composting was investigated. The results showed that treatments of BC, BC + B1 and BC + B2 can reduce peak gaseous emission by 54%, 80% and 69% for CH4 , respectively, while 37%, 45% and 45% for N2 O, respectively, and 13%, 19% and 26% for NH3 , respectively. The evolution of the bacterial community quantified with 16S rDNA analysis showed that in the thermophile stage, total relative abundance percentage of bacterial phyla of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria reached 97%, 97%, 93% and 96% for CK, BC, BC + B1 and BC + B2, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Junya Zhang, Qianwen Sui, Hui Zhong, Xiaoshan Meng, Ziyue Wang, Yawei Wang, Yuansong Wei
This study investigated the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during mesophilic (mAD) and thermophilic digestion (tAD) of swine manure through zero valent iron (ZVI), natural zeolite and Dnase addition. Changes of microbial community, intI1, heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs) and virulence factors (VFs) were followed to clarify the influencing factors to ARGs reduction. Results showed that AD could realize ARGs reduction with tAD superior to mAD, and ZVI and natural zeolite could further enhance the reduction, especially for natural zeolite addition at mAD...
March 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Alexej Parchomenko, Stefan Borsky
In this paper, we analyze the phosphorus balance as a result of manure application on the parish level for Denmark and investigate its local geographic distribution. For our analysis, we determine phosphorus loads for the five main animal groups and the phosphorus demand of the fifteen major crop categories. Our results show that there is a large variability in the phosphorus balance within Denmark. Due to industry agglomeration statistically significant hot spots appear mainly along the west coast, while cold spots are predominantly present on southern and eastern coasts towards the Baltic Sea...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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