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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817555/notes-from-the-field-death-of-a-farm-worker-after-exposure-to-manure-gas-in-an-open-air-environment-wisconsin-august-2016
#1
John M Shutske, Rebecca A Larson, Daniel M Schaefer, Liz Y Binversie, Scott Rifleman, Cheryl Skjolaas
On August 15, 2016, at approximately 6:30 a.m., a previously healthy male employee of a Wisconsin beef farm was found dead near the edge of an outdoor 60,400 square foot (1.4 acre) manure storage basin (Figure). The basin was approximately 15 feet (4.6 meters) deep and nearly full. The victim, aged 29 years, was discovered by another worker; the coroner was notified at 6:50 a.m., and he pronounced the victim dead at the scene. Thirteen dead cattle were discovered in an adjoining pen; three others were struggling to stand and were euthanized...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814344/microbial-phylogeny-determines-transcriptional-response-of-resistome-to-dynamic-composting-processes
#2
Cheng Wang, Da Dong, P J Strong, Weijing Zhu, Zhuang Ma, Yong Qin, Weixiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Animal manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that pose a potential health risk globally, especially for resistance to the antibiotics commonly used in livestock production (such as tetracycline, sulfonamide, and fluoroquinolone). Currently, the effects of biological treatment (composting) on the transcriptional response of manure ARGs and their microbial hosts are not well characterized. Composting is a dynamic process that consists of four distinct phases that are distinguished by the temperature resulting from microbial activity, namely the mesophilic, thermophilic, cooling, and maturing phases...
August 16, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813691/effects-of-superabsorbent-polymers-on-the-abundances-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-mobile-genetic-elements-and-the-bacterial-community-during-swine-manure-composting
#3
Aiyun Guo, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Ranran Zhang, Yanan Yin, Wei Sun, Xiaxia Tuo, Li Zhang
Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are considered suitable amendments for reducing the selection pressure due to heavy metals and the abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting. In this study, three SAP (sodium polyacrylate) levels (0, 5, and 15mgkg(-1) of compost) were applied and their effects on the abundances of ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and the bacterial community were investigated. After composting, the abundances of ARGs and MGEs decreased to different extent, where the removal efficiencies for tetW, dfrA7, ermX, aac(6')-ib-cr and MGEs exceeded 90%...
August 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810218/effect-of-cold-adapted-microbial-agent-inoculation-on-enzyme-activities-during-composting-start-up-at-low-temperature
#4
Qinghong Sun, Di Wu, Zhechao Zhang, Yue Zhao, Xinyu Xie, Junqiu Wu, Qian Lu, Zimin Wei
In order to put forward a method to promote composting start-up at low ambient temperature, the cold-adapted microbial agent (CAMA) was inoculated in chicken manure (CM), and compared the enzymes activities, including urease, proteases, β-glucosidase and invertase, with no CAMA group (CK). In this study, the temperature of CM reached 50°C in 53h, but it in CK was only around 30°C during the composting process. Moreover, the enzymes exhibited higher activity in CM than CK, indicating the effectiveness of CAMA...
August 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809507/persistence-of-indigenous-escherichia-coli-in-raw-bovine-manure-amended-soil
#5
Samantha K Çekiç, Jaysankar De, Mohammad Jubair, Keith R Schneider
The Food Safety Modernization Act attempts to reduce produce-related foodborne illness by using preventive rather than reactive measures. The goal of this research was to determine the persistence of manure-borne generic Escherichia coli under laboratory and field conditions. The population density of naturally occurring E. coli was ∼7.2 and 5.4 log CFU/10 g in pre- and postscreened manures, respectively. Postscreened (i.e. after the liquid manure has passed through a screen) manure was applied at light, medium, and heavy rates to fields in Live Oak and Citra, FL, during the fall and summer...
September 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808231/a-synthetic-analysis-of-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-manure-amended-agricultural-soils-in-china
#6
Fengling Ren, Xubo Zhang, Jian Liu, Nan Sun, Lianhai Wu, Zhongfang Li, Minggang Xu
Application of manure has been recommended as an effective strategy to to mitigate climate change. However, the magnitude of greenhouse gases emission derived by application of manure to agricultural soils across environmental conditions still remains unclear. Here, we synthesized data from 379 observations in China and quantified the responses of soil nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions to manure (Org-M) in comparison to chemical fertilizers (Min-F) or non-fertilizers (Non-F)...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806673/preservation-and-reactivation-of-candidatus-jettenia-asiatica-and-anammoxoglobus-propionicus-using-different-preservative-agents
#7
A Viancelli, M C Pra, L A Scussiato, M Cantão, A M G Ibelli, A Kunz
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria have peculiar characteristics that make them difficult to cultivate. The conservation of these microorganisms in culture collections or laboratories requires successful preservation and reactivation techniques. Furthermore, studies have shown that successful reactivation may be preservative dependent. Considering this, the present study aimed to evaluate the preservation and reactivation of anammox consortia enriched from swine manure treatment lagoons, by using different preservative agents at different temperatures: KNO3 (at 4 °C), glycerol (-20 °C, -80 °C), and skimmed cow milk (-20 °C, -80 °C, -200 °C)...
July 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805912/prediction-of-fecal-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-excretion-for-chinese-holstein-lactating-dairy-cows
#8
Q B Qu, P Yang, R Zhao, S L Zhi, Z W Zhai, F F Ding, K Q Zhang
Mathematical models for predicting nitrogen and phosphorus excretion play a key role in manure application and environment monitoring. An analysis for prediction of fecal nitrogen (FN, g/d) and fecal phosphorus (FP, g/d) excretion for Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows was conducted using a data set from 15 dairy farms in northern China. The whole independent-variable data set, obtained with questionnaires, consisted of 110 sets of average diet nutrient compositions, including DMI (kg/d), CP content (% DM), OM intake (OMI, kg/d), nitrogen intake (NI, g/d), and phosphorus intake (PI, g/d), and animal characteristics, including average days in milk (DIM, d), average milk yield (MY, kg/d), and average BW (kg)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805900/effects-of-dietary-tannins-on-total-and-extractable-nutrients-from-manure
#9
J J Halvorson, S L Kronberg, A E Hagerman
The effects of condensed tannins on N dynamics in ruminants have been a topic of research for some time, but much less work has focused on their impacts on other nutrients in manure. A 4 × 4 Latin square trial was used to determine if intake of sericea lespedeza (; SL; a condensed tannin source), at 0, 10, 20, or 40% of the diet (as-fed basis), would affect concentrations of nutrients in manure and patterns of total excretion when offered with alfalfa (; ALF) to sheep. With SL additions, average daily manure production increased linearly ( ≤ 0...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805899/effects-of-forage-types-on-digestibility-methane-emissions-and-nitrogen-utilization-efficiency-in-two-genotypes-of-hill-ewes
#10
Y G Zhao, R Annett, T Yan
Thirty-six nonpregnant hill ewes (18 pure Scottish Blackface and 18 Swaledale × Scottish Blackface) aged 18 mo and weighing 48 ± 4.8 kg were allocated to 3 forage treatments balanced for genotype and BW. Each genotype was offered 3 forages (pelleted ryegrass, fresh lowland grass, and fresh hill grass) ad libitum with 6 ewes for each of the 6 genotype × diet combination treatments. Pelleted ryegrass was sourced from a commercial supplier (Drygrass South Western Ltd, Burrington, UK). Fresh lowland grass was harvested daily in the morning from a third regrowth perennial ryegrass () sward...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805897/effects-of-grass-silage-quality-and-level-of-feed-intake-on-enteric-methane-production-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#11
D Warner, A Bannink, B Hatew, H van Laar, J Dijkstra
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of level of feed intake and quality of ryegrass silage as well as their interaction on enteric methane (CH) emission from dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 56 lactating dairy cows received a diet of grass silage, corn silage, and a compound feed meal (70:10:20 on DM basis). Treatments consisted of 4 grass silage qualities prepared from grass harvested from leafy through late heading stage, and offered to dairy cows at 96 ± 2.4 (mean ± SEM) days in milk (namely, high intake) and 217 ± 2...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805737/effects-of-short-term-set-aside-management-practices-on-soil-microorganism-and-enzyme-activity-in-china
#12
Guangyu Li, Cifang Wu
Set-aside farmland can effectively improve the self-rehabilitation of arable soil. Long-term set-asides however cannot satisfy provisionment, therefore the use of short-term set-asides to restore cultivated soil is a better option. Few studies have compared short-term set-aside patterns, and the effects of set-asides on soil microbial community and enzyme enzymes. We analyzed the bacterial structure, microbial biomass carbon/nitrogen and enzyme activity of farmland soil under different set-aside regimes in the Yellow River Delta of China...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803100/optimization-of-aqueous-ammonia-soaking-of-manure-fibers-by-response-surface-methodology-for-unlocking-the-methane-potential-of-swine-manure
#13
Anna Lymperatou, Hariklia N Gavala, Ioannis V Skiadas
Swine manure mono-digestion often results to economically non-feasible processes, due to the high dilution and ammonia concentration together with the low degradation rates it presents. The effects of different parameters of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) as a pretreatment for improving the digestion of manure fibers when coupled to an ammonia removal step were investigated in this study. Response Surface Methodology was followed and the influence and interactions of the following AAS parameters were studied: NH3 concentration, duration and solid-to-liquid ratio...
July 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803007/associations-between-biosecurity-practices-and-bovine-digital-dermatitis-in-danish-dairy-herds
#14
Victor H S Oliveira, Jan T Sørensen, Peter T Thomsen
The relationship between biosecurity and digital dermatitis (DD) was evaluated in 8,269 cows from a convenience sample of 39 freestall dairy herds. The hypothesis was that poor implementation of biosecurity was associated with higher within-herd prevalence of DD. All lactating cows were scored as negative or positive for DD at the hind legs during milking in the milking parlor. Information about biosecurity was obtained through questionnaires addressed to farmers, on-farm observations, and information from the Danish Cattle Database (www...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802274/horizontal-dissemination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-in-multiple-salmonella-serotypes-following-isolation-from-the-environment-of-commercial-swine-operations-after-manure-application
#15
Suchawan Pornsukarom, Siddhartha Thakur
The aim of this study was to characterize the plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants in multiple Salmonella serotypes recovered from the commercial swine farms environment after manure application on land. Manure and soil samples were collected on day0 before and after manure application on six farms in North Carolina and sequential soil samples were recollected on day7, 14, and 21 from the same plots. All environmental samples were processed for Salmonella and their plasmid contents were further characterized...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801215/nitrogen-removal-from-digested-slurries-using-a-simplified-ammonia-stripping-technique
#16
Giorgio Provolo, Francesca Perazzolo, Gabriele Mattachini, Alberto Finzi, Ezio Naldi, Elisabetta Riva
This study assessed a novel technique for removing nitrogen from digested organic waste based on a slow release of ammonia that was promoted by continuous mixing of the digestate and delivering a continuous air stream across the surface of the liquid. Three 10-day experiments were conducted using two 50-L reactors. In the first two, nitrogen removal efficiencies were evaluated from identical digestates maintained at different temperatures (30°C and 40°C). At the start of the first experiment, the digestates were adjusted to pH 9 using sodium hydroxide, while in the second experiment pH was not adjusted...
August 8, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800695/long-term-impact-of-manuring-and-fertilization-on-enrichment-stability-and-quality-of-organic-carbon-in-inceptisol-under-two-potato-based-cropping-systems
#17
R K Yadav, T J Purakayastha, M A Khan, S C Kaushik
Soil organic matter (SOM) stability is a prerequisite for long-term C sequestration. The long-term effect of manuring and fertilization on stability of SOM in rice-potato-wheat (R-P-W) and maize-potato-onion (M-P-O) cropping systems was studied in an Inceptisol of semi-arid subtropical India. Soil samples were collected (0-15 and 15-30cm soil depths) from the following treatments: control, 100% NPK-Fertilizer, 100% N-Vermicompost (VC), 50% NPK-Fertilizer+50%N-Vermicompost (VC), 100%NPK-Fertilizer+crop residue (CR), 100% N-VC+CR...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798913/assessing-nutrient-removal-kinetics-in-flushed-manure-using-chlorella-vulgaris-biomass-production
#18
Pramod Pandey, Jun Shi
The utilization of dairy wastewater for producing algal biomass is seen as a two-fold opportunity to treat wastewater and produce algae biomass, which can be potentially used for production of biofuels. In animal agriculture system, one of the major waste streams is dairy manure that contains high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Furthermore, it is produced abundantly in California's dairy industry, as well as many other parts of the world. We hypothesized that flushed manure, wastewater from a dairy farm, can be used as a potential feedstock after pretreatment to grow Chlorella vulgaris biomass and to reduce nutrients of manure...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797062/why-organic-resources-and-current-fertilizer-formulations-in-southern-africa-cannot-sustain-maize-productivity-evidence-from-a-long-term-experiment-in-zimbabwe
#19
Tongai J Mtangadura, Florence Mtambanengwe, Hatirarami Nezomba, Jairos Rurinda, Paul Mapfumo
Sustainability of maize-based cropping systems is a major challenge for southern Africa, yet the demand for maize as staple food and animal feed in the region continues to increase. A study was conducted on a sandy clay loam (220 g clay kg-1 soil) at Domboshawa in Zimbabwe to investigate the long-term effects of organic resource quality and application rate, and nitrogen (N) fertilization on soil chemical properties and maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. Crotalaria juncea (high quality), Calliandra calothyrsus (medium quality), cattle manure (variable quality), maize stover and Pinus patula sawdust (both low quality) were incorporated into soil at 4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793397/the-carbon-footprint-of-integrated-milk-production-and-renewable-energy-systems-a-case-study
#20
Elisabetta Vida, Doriana Eurosia Angela Tedesco
Dairy farms have been widely acknowledged as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need for a more environmentally friendly milk production system will likely be important going forward. Whereas methane (CH4) enteric emissions can only be reduced to a limited extent, CH4 manure emissions can be reduced by implementing mitigation strategies, such as the use of an anaerobic digestion (AD). Furthermore, implementing a photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation system could mitigate the fossil fuels used to cover the electrical needs of farms...
August 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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