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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350065/molecular-typing-of-lactobacillus-brevis-isolates-from-korean-food-using-repetitive-element-polymerase-chain-reaction
#1
Jasmine Kaur, Anshul Sharma, Sulhee Lee, Young-Seo Park
Lactobacillus brevis is a part of a large family of lactic acid bacteria that are present in cheese, sauerkraut, sourdough, silage, cow manure, feces, and the intestinal tract of humans and rats. It finds its use in food fermentation, and so is considered a "generally regarded as safe" organism. L. brevis strains are extensively used as probiotics and hence, there is a need for identifying and characterizing these strains. For identification and discrimination of the bacterial species at the subspecific level, repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction method is a reliable genomic fingerprinting tool...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348066/multi-scale-measurements-show-limited-soil-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-kenyan-smallholder-coffee-dairy-systems
#2
Daniel Ortiz-Gonzalo, Andreas de Neergaard, Philippe Vaast, Víctor Suárez-Villanueva, Myles Oelofse, Todd S Rosenstock
Efforts have been made in recent years to improve knowledge about soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from sub-Saharan Africa. However, data on soil GHG emissions from smallholder coffee-dairy systems have not hitherto been measured experimentally. This study aimed to quantify soil GHG emissions at different spatial and temporal scales in smallholder coffee-dairy farms in Murang'a County, Central Kenya. GHG measurements were carried out for one year, comprising two cropping seasons, using vented static chambers and gas chromatography...
January 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346541/practical-implications-of-erythromycin-resistance-gene-diversity-on-surveillance-and-monitoring-of-resistance
#3
Jinlyung Choi, Elizabeth L Rieke, Thomas B Moorman, Michelle L Soupir, Heather K Allen, Schuyler D Smith, Adina Howe
Use of antibiotics in human and animal medicine has applied selective pressure for the global dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is of interest to develop strategies to mitigate the continued amplification and transmission of resistance genes in environmental reservoirs such as farms, hospitals, and watersheds. However, the efficacy of mitigation strategies is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear which resistance genes are important to monitor, and which primers to use to detect those genes...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342372/enrichment-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-soil-receiving-composts-derived-from-swine-manure-yard-wastes-or-food-wastes-and-evidence-for-multi-year-persistence-of-swine-i-i-clostridium-i-i-spp
#4
Andrew Scott, Yuan-Ching Tien, Craig F Drury, W Daniel Reynolds, Edward Topp
The impact of amendment with swine manure composts (SMC), yard waste compost (YWC), or food waste compost (FWC) on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil was evaluated. Following a commercial-scale application of the composts in a field experiment, soils were sampled periodically for a decade, and archived air-dried. Soil DNA was extracted and gene targets quantified by qPCR. Compared to untreated control soil, all three amendment types increased the abundance of gene targets for up to four years post-application...
January 17, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339265/spatio-temporal-distribution-of-soil-nitrogen-in-poyang-lake-ecological-economic-zone-south-china
#5
Yefeng Jiang, Lei Rao, Kai Sun, Yi Han, Xi Guo
Revealing the spatio-temporal distribution of soil nitrogen (N) contributes to N management and prevention of N pollution. The objective of this work is to study the spatio-temporal distribution of soil N and their driving factors in the topsoil (0-20 cm) of farmland in Yugan county, China in 1982 and 2012. Data were collected from 200 sampling sites of the second national soil survey in Yugan in 1982 and 423 sampling sites of the soil testing and formula fertilization project in 2012. On average total N (TN) and available N (AN) significantly increased from 1...
January 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338206/application-of-ptr-ms-and-33s-isotope-labelling-for-monitoring-sulfur-processes-in-livestock-waste
#6
Frederik Rask Dalby, Michael Jørgen Hansen, Anders Feilberg
Reduced sulfur compounds emitted from livestock production cause odor nuisance for local residents. The microbial processes responsible for this are not well described in swine manure and a method for monitoring the biological processes is necessary to develop strategic abatement technologies. In this study, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry and isotope labelled sulfate was combined and applied to elucidate the sulfur processes in swine manure with high time resolution. We successfully monitored reduction of isotope 33S labelled sulfate into corresponding 33S hydrogen sulfide and that some of the 33S hydrogen sulfide was further methylated into 33S methanethiol...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335873/agricultural-non-point-source-pollution-management-in-a-reservoir-watershed-based-on-ecological-network-analysis-of-soil-nitrogen-cycling
#7
Wen Xu, Yanpeng Cai, Qiangqiang Rong, Zhifeng Yang, Chunhui Li, Xuan Wang
The Miyun Reservoir plays a pivotal role in providing drinking water for the city of Beijing. In this research, ecological network analysis and scenario analysis were integrated to explore soil nitrogen cycling of chestnut and Chinese pine forests in the upper basin of the Miyun Reservoir, as well as to seek favorable fertilization modes to reduce agricultural non-point source pollution. Ecological network analysis results showed that (1) the turnover time was 0.04 to 0.37 year in the NH4+ compartment and were 15...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331670/circulation-of-alphacoronavirus-betacoronavirus-and-paramyxovirus-in-hipposideros-bat-species-in-zimbabwe
#8
Mathieu Bourgarel, Davies M Pfukenyi, Vanina Boué, Loïc Talignani, Ngoni Chiweshe, Fodé Diop, Alexandre Caron, Gift Matope, Dorothée Missé, Florian Liégeois
Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330452/assessment-of-the-responses-of-soil-pore-properties-to-combined-soil-structure-amendments-using-x-ray-computed-tomography
#9
Yonghui Yang, Jicheng Wu, Shiwei Zhao, Qingyuan Han, Xiaoying Pan, Fang He, Chun Chen
Soil amendments, such as straw mulch, organic fertilizers and superabsorbent polymer (SAP), are extensively applied to improve soil structure and porosity, and we reported the functional consequences of the individual application of these amendments in our previous study. However, whether combined amendments are more effective than their individual applications for improving soil pore structure is unknown. Here, we conducted X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning on undisturbed soil columns to investigate the efficiency of two-amendment application, including straw mulch and organic manure, SAP and organic manure, or SAP and straw mulch, for improving soil pore properties and pore distribution...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329262/contamination-and-risk-assessment-of-estrogens-in-livestock-manure-a-case-study-in-jiangsu-province-china
#10
Pengcheng Xu, Xian Zhou, Defu Xu, Yanbing Xiang, Wanting Ling, Mindong Chen
This study investigated the occurrence and contamination risk of estrogens in livestock manure in Jiangsu Province, China. Four estrogens-estriol (E3), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), bisphenol A (BPA), and 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2)-were detected in livestock manure from hens, ducks, swine, and cows. The respective mean concentrations of each estrogen found in these manures were 289.8, 334.1, 330.3, and 33.7 μg/kg for E3; 38.6, 10.9, 52.9, and 38.8 μg/kg for 17β-E2; 63.6, 48.7, 51.9, and 11.7 μg/kg for BPA; and 14...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326987/assessment-of-nutrient-quality-heavy-metals-and-phytotoxic-properties-of-chicken-manure-on-selected-commercial-vegetable-crops
#11
Balasubramani Ravindran, Hupenyu A Mupambwa, Sibongiseni Silwana, Pearson N S Mnkeni
Due to rapid expansion in the poultry industry, production of poultry manure has also consequently increased, resulting in unplanned disposal of this manure to the soil in some cases, with possible negative environmental consequences. In this study, 10 separate poultry manure samples were collected from different sites located in the central Eastern Cape, South Africa and characterized for chemical and phytotoxic properties. The poultry manures had an average neutral pH (range 6.94 - 7.97) whilst the electrical conductivity was highly variable from 2...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323288/impacts-of-simulated-erosion-and-soil-amendments-on-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-and-maize-yield-in-miamian-soil-of-central-ohio
#12
Yanru Liang, Rattan Lal, Shengli Guo, Ruiqiang Liu, Yaxian Hu
Erosion-induced topsoil loss is a threat to sustainable productivity. Topsoil removal from, or added to, the existing surface is an efficient technique to simulate on-site soil erosion and deposition. A 15-year simulated erosion was conducted at Waterman Farm of Ohio State University to assess impacts of topsoil depth on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and maize yield. Three topsoil treatments were investigated: 20 cm topsoil removal, 20 cm topsoil addition, and undisturbed control. Results show that the average global warming potential (GWP) (Mg CO2 Eq ha-1 growing season-1) from the topsoil removal plot (18...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321101/bioremediation-and-detoxification-of-industrial-wastes-by-earthworms-vermicompost-as-powerful-crop-nutrient-in-sustainable-agriculture
#13
REVIEW
Sartaj Ahmad Bhat, Sharanpreet Singh, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar, Bhawana, Adarsh Pal Vig
Vermicompost is the final product of the vermicomposting process involving the collective action of earthworms and microbes. During this process, the waste is converted into useful manure by reducing the harmful effects of waste. Toxicity of industrial wastes is evaluated by plant bioassays viz. Allium cepa and Vicia faba test. These bioassays are sensitive and cost-effective for the monitoring of environmental contamination. The valorization potential of earthworms and their ability to detoxify heavy metals in industrial wastes is because of their strong metabolic system and involvement of earthworm gut microbes and chloragocyte cells...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320450/nitrogen-nutrition-of-fruit-trees-to-reconcile-productivity-and-environmental-concerns
#14
Corina Carranca, Gustavo Brunetto, Massimo Tagliavini
Although perennial fruit crops represent 1% of global agricultural land, they are of a great economic importance in world trade and in the economy of many regions. The perennial woody nature of fruit trees, their physiological stages of growth, the root distribution pattern, and the presence of herbaceous vegetation in alleys make orchard systems efficient in the use and recycling of nitrogen (N). The present paper intends to review the existing literature on N nutrition of young and mature deciduous and evergreen fruit trees with special emphasis to temperate and Mediterranean climates...
January 10, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315060/comparative-study-on-the-removal-efficiency-of-hydrogen-sulfide-h2s-using-three-different-packings
#15
Shihua Pu, Zuohua Liu, Feiyun Yang, Dingbiao Long, Wen Liu, Hao Wang, Kaipei Huang, Xiu Huang
To improve the removal efficiency on hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a biofilter was developed and was made of PVC pipes. The effects of three different packings (i.e., packing A, packing B, and packing C), containing different proportions of activated carbon, sawdust, wormcast, perlite, and pig manure compost, based on different biofilter parameters on H2S removal efficiency were investigated. With the extension of running time, the H2S removal rate of packing A reached up to 90.12%, that of packing B reached a peak at 92...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310743/how-do-farm-models-compare-when-estimating-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-dairy-cattle-production
#16
N J Hutchings, Ş Özkan Gülzari, M de Haan, D Sandars
The European Union Effort Sharing Regulation (ESR) will require a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2030 compared with 2005 from the sectors not included in the European Emissions Trading Scheme, including agriculture. This will require the estimation of current and future emissions from agriculture, including dairy cattle production systems. Using a farm-scale model as part of a Tier 3 method for farm to national scales provides a more holistic and informative approach than IPCC (2006) Tier 2 but requires independent quality control...
January 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306842/effects-of-process-parameters-on-the-distribution-characteristics-of-inorganic-nutrients-from-hydrothermal-carbonization-of-cattle-manure
#17
Ke Wu, Xin Zhang, Qiaoxia Yuan
In this study, dairy manure was converted into solid and liquid products via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) to determine optimal reaction conditions to retain the greatest amounts of inorganic nutrients. The influence of three parameters, reaction temperature (150-270 °C), residence time (0.5-6 h) and manure/water ratio (5/200-25/200 g/mL), on the total nutrient content (TNC) in the solid and liquid products were investigated using a 5-level, 3-factor orthogonal test and principal components analysis (PCA)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306340/review-nutritional-ecology-of-heavy-metals
#18
M Hejna, D Gottardo, A Baldi, V Dell'Orto, F Cheli, M Zaninelli, L Rossi
The aim of this review is to focus the attention on the nutrition ecology of the heavy metals and on the major criticisms related to the heavy metals content in animal feeds, manure, soil and animal-origin products. Heavy metals are metallic elements that have a high density that have progressively accumulated in the food chain with negative effects for human health. Some metals are essential (Fe, I, Co, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se) to maintain various physiological functions and are usually added as nutritional additives in animal feed...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306199/effect-of-composting-and-soil-type-on-dissipation-of-veterinary-antibiotics-in-land-applied-manures
#19
Chaoqi Chen, Partha Ray, Katharine F Knowlton, Amy Pruden, Kang Xia
The objective of this study was to determine the fate of commonly used veterinary antibiotics in their naturally excreted form when manure-based amendments are applied to soil. Beef cattle were administered sulfamethazine, tylosin, and chlortetracycline and dairy cows were treated with pirlimycin. The resulting manure was composted for 42 d under static or turned conditions and applied at agronomic N rates to sandy, silt, and silty clay loam soils and compared with amendment with corresponding raw manures in sacrificial microcosms over a 120-day period...
December 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306130/effect-of-composting-on-the-thermal-decomposition-behavior-and-kinetic-parameters-of-pig-manure-derived-solid-waste
#20
Vaibhav Dhyani, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Jitendra Kumar, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Hongyu Chen, Meijing Wang, Thallada Bhaskar, Zengqiang Zhang
In this work, the influence of composting on the thermal decomposition behavior and decomposition kinetics of pig manure-derived solid wastes was analyzed using thermogravimetry. Wheat straw, biochar, zeolite, and wood vinegar were added to pig manure during composting. The composting was done in the 130 L PVC reactors with 100 L effective volume for 50 days. The activation energy of pyrolysis of samples before and after composting was calculated using Friedman's method, while the pre-exponential factor was calculated using Kissinger's equation...
December 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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