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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088412/short-communication-urea-hydrolysis-in-dairy-cattle-manure-under-different-temperature-urea-and-ph-conditions
#1
L E Moraes, S A Burgos, E J DePeters, R Zhang, J G Fadel
The objective of the study was to quantify the rate of urea hydrolysis in dairy cattle manure under different initial urea concentration, temperature, and pH conditions. In particular, by varying all 3 factors simultaneously, the interactions between them could also be determined. Fresh feces and artificial urine solutions were combined into a slurry to characterize the rate of urea hydrolysis under 2 temperatures (15°C and 35°C), 3 urea concentrations in urine solutions (500, 1,000, and 1,500 mg of urea-N/dL), and 3 pH levels (6, 7, and 8)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081167/bacterial-communities-associated-with-houseflies-musca-domestica-l-sampled-within-and-between-farms
#2
Simon Bahrndorff, Nadieh de Jonge, Henrik Skovgård, Jeppe Lund Nielsen
The housefly feeds and reproduces in animal manure and decaying organic substances and thus lives in intimate association with various microorganisms including human pathogens. In order to understand the variation and association between bacteria and the housefly, we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to describe bacterial communities of 90 individual houseflies collected within and between ten dairy farms in Denmark. Analysis of gene sequences showed that the most abundant classes of bacteria found across all sites included Bacilli, Clostridia, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, and all classes of Proteobacteria and at the genus level the most abundant genera included Corynebacterium, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella, Lactococcus, and Aerococcus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076772/impact-of-dairy-manure-pre-application-treatment-on-manure-composition-soil-dynamics-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-abundance-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-on-vegetables-at-harvest
#3
Yuan-Ching Tien, Bing Li, Tong Zhang, Andrew Scott, Roger Murray, Lyne Sabourin, Romain Marti, Edward Topp
Manuring ground used for crop production is an important agricultural practice. Should antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria carried in the manure be transferred to crops that are consumed raw, their consumption by humans or animals will represent a route of exposure to antibiotic resistance genes. Treatment of manures prior to land application is a potential management option to reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes entrained with manure application. In this study, dairy manure that was untreated, anaerobically digested, mechanically dewatered or composted was applied to field plots that were then cropped to lettuce, carrots and radishes...
January 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070317/prevention-of-microbial-hazard-on-fresh-cut-lettuce-through%C3%A2-adoption-of-food-safety-and-hygienic-practices-by%C3%A2-lettuce-farmers
#4
Lateefah A Oyinlola, Adewale O Obadina, Adebukunola M Omemu, Olusola B Oyewole
Lettuce is consumed raw in salads and is susceptible to microbial contamination through environment, agricultural practices, and its morphology, thus, a potential vehicle for food-borne illness. This study investigated the effect of adoption of food safety and hygienic practices by lettuce farmers on the microbial safety of field sourced lettuce in Lagos State, Nigeria. Ten structured questionnaires were administered randomly to 10 lettuce farmers to assess food safety and hygienic practices (FSH). Two farmers who practice FSH and two farmers who do not practice NFSH were finally used for this study...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065545/geochemical-isotopic-composition-in-the-loess-plateau-and-corresponding-source-analyses-a-case-study-of-china-s-yangjuangou-catchment
#5
Yafeng Wang, Liding Chen, Yang Gao, Shibo Chen, Weiliang Chen, Zhuo Hao, Junjie Jia, Ning Han
Isotopic fractionation technology is widely used in identifying sources and the speciation of geochemical isotopic elements. With the increase in human activity, geochemical element transport by soil erosion has become the most critical environmental problem in the Loess Plateau, so tracing the geochemical element source would help in the identification and management of local soil erosion. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H) isotopes in water and then further analyzed (13)C and (15)N in soil and vegetation to better understand the C and N sources and their biogeochemical cycling function in the Loess Plateau...
January 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063709/radical-change-of-zn-speciation-in-pig-slurry-amended-soil-key-role-of-nano-sized-sulfide-particles
#6
Thiago Augusto Formentini, Samuel Legros, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo Fernandes, Adilson Pinheiro, Maureen Le Bars, Clément Levard, Fábio Joel Kochem Mallmann, Milton da Veiga, Emmanuel Doelsch
Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056374/kinetic-parameter-estimation-model-for-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-waste-activated-sludge-and-microalgae
#7
Eunyoung Lee, Jewel Cumberbatch, Meng Wang, Qiong Zhang
Anaerobic co-digestion has a potential to improve biogas production, but limited kinetic information is available for co-digestion. This study introduced regression-based models to estimate the kinetic parameters for the co-digestion of microalgae and Waste Activated Sludge (WAS). The models were developed using the ratios of co-substrates and the kinetic parameters for the single substrate as indicators. The models were applied to the modified first-order kinetics and Monod model to determine the rate of hydrolysis and methanogenesis for the co-digestion...
December 23, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054530/does-fall-in-serum-glutathione-predict-the-long-term-outcome-to-concurrent-chemoradiation-for-cervical-cancer-patients
#8
Manjunath Gudibande Narasappa, Janaki Manur Gururajachar, Vasudha Kambam Chokkanna, Mohankumar Somashekar
BACKGROUND: Wide variations are seen in clinical practice with respect to response to concurrent chemo radiation among cervical cancer patients. Fall in serum glutathione (GSH) level directly correlates with early response to treatment. Whether this early response translates to a better long term outcome is the subject of this prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty eight women with cervical cancer were treated with concurrent chemo radiation followed by brachytherapy...
July 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051195/risk-factors-for-developing-work-related-musculoskeletal-disorders-during-dairy-farming
#9
Sayed Mohammad Taghavi, Hamidreza Mokarami, Omran Ahmadi, Lorann Stallones, Asghar Abbaspour, Hossein Marioryad
BACKGROUND: Dairy farming work involves frequent use of poor postures. These postures may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. OBJECTIVE: To assess postural load during performance of various tasks related to dairy farming. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a dairy farm in Iran. In order to assess postural load, tasks related to dairy farming were divided into 3 categories: feeding, milking, and manure disposal...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050848/microbial-communities-in-pyrene-amended-soil-compost-mixture-and-fertilized-soil
#10
Iris K U Adam, Márcia Duarte, Jananan Pathmanathan, Anja Miltner, Thomas Brüls, Matthias Kästner
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are distributed ubiquitously in the environment and form metabolites toxic to most organisms. Organic amendment of PAH contaminated soil with compost and farmyard manure has proven to be efficient for PAH bioremediation mediated by native microorganisms, even though information on the identity of PAH degraders in organic-amended soil is still scarce. Here we provide molecular insight into the bacterial communities in soil amended with compost or farmyard manure for which the degradation mass balances of (13)C-labeled pyrene have been recently published and assess the relevant bacterial genera capable of degrading pyrene as a model PAH...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050057/aggregate-size-distribution-in-a-biochar-amended-tropical-ultisol-under-conventional-hand-hoe-tillage
#11
Bernard Fungo, Johannes Lehmann, Karsten Kalbitz, Margaret Thionģo, Irene Okeyo, Moses Tenywa, Henry Neufeldt
Biochar (or pyrogenic organic matter) is increasingly proposed as a soil amendment for improving fertility, carbon sequestration and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, little is known about its effects on aggregation, an important indicator of soil quality and functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Eucalyptus wood biochar (B, pyrolyzed at 550 °C, at 0 or 2.5 t ha(-1)), green manure (T, from Tithonia diversifolia at 0, 2.5 or 5.0 t ha(-1)) and mineral nitrogen (U, urea, at 0, or 120 kg N ha(-1)) on soil respiration, aggregate size distribution and SOC in these aggregate size fractions in a 2-year field experiment on a low-fertility Ultisol in western Kenya under conventional hand-hoe tillage...
January 2017: Soil & Tillage Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046142/nitrogen-utilization-efficiency-and-prediction-of-nitrogen-excretion-in-sheep-offered-fresh-perennial-ryegrass
#12
Y G Zhao, A W Gordon, N E O'Connell, T Yan
Nitrogen excretion from sheep production systems is an important source of nitrate, ammonia, and nitrous oxide responsible for groundwater pollution and global warming. The present study aimed to identify key parameters influencing N utilization efficiency and develop prediction equations for manure N, feces N, and urine N outputs in sheep. Data used were collected from 82 sheep offered fresh perennial ryegrass () as the sole diet in 6 metabolism experiments (data from non-grass-only diets were not used). Sheep were from breeds of Highlander, Texel, Scottish Blackface, and Swaledale at the age of 5 to 18 mo and weighing from 24...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043869/isolation-of-rhamnolipids-producing-cultures-from-faeces-influence-of-interspecies-communication-on-the-yield-of-rhamnolipid-congeners
#13
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Kamila Myszka, Agata Sznajdrowska, Alicja Szulc, Agnieszka Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Łukasz Ławniczak, Philippe F-X Corvini, Łukasz Chrzanowski
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of bacterial cultures isolated from cattle, poultry or pig faeces and manure to produce rhamnolipids, as well as to investigate the influence of interspecies communication on possible quantitative differences in the production of rhamnolipid congeners. Initial screening methods (oil spreading, drop collapse, haemolytic activity and emulsification activity) showed that approximately 36% of the 51 isolated cultures exhibited the ability to produce biosurfactants...
December 30, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042601/the-current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-interaction-of-escherichia-coli-within-vegetative-filter-strips-as-a-sustainable-best-management-practice-to-reduce-fecal-pathogen-loading-into-surface-waters
#14
Casianes Owino Olilo, Anastasia Wairimu Muia, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, Japhet Ogalo Onyando, Ford Roegner Amber
Agro-pastoral operations have the potential to threaten public health with loading of diverse pathogens into surface waters through overland flow; increasing awareness of the limitations of fecal indicators has led to development of a number of advancements in detection, source tracking and predictive modeling of public health risk. These tools and techniques are beginning to be integrated into management strategies. The objective of this review was to determine the status of current knowledge and challenges of the fate and transport of Escherichia coli in overland flow and their interaction within vegetative filter strip (VFS) as one of these implemented best management practices and to critically evaluate its use in that setting as an indicator organism...
August 2016: Energy Ecol Environ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041728/associations-between-housing-and-management-practices-and-the-prevalence-of-lameness-hock-lesions-and-thin-cows-on-us-dairy-operations
#15
A E Adams, J E Lombard, C P Fossler, I N Román-Muñiz, C A Kopral
The objective of this study was to determine the association among different housing and management practices on the prevalence of lameness, hock lesions, and thin cows on US dairy operations. This study was conducted as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2014 study, which included dairy operations in 17 states. Size categories were assigned as follows: small (30-99 cows), medium (100-499 cows), and large (≥500 cows). Trained assessors visited 191 dairy operations from March through July 2014 and recorded locomotion and hock scores (on a 3-point scale), and the number of thin cows (body condition score ≤2...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038908/comparative-characterization-of-digestate-versus-pig-slurry-and-cow-manure-chemical-composition-and-effects-on-soil-microbial-activity
#16
Kajsa Risberg, Harald Cederlund, Mikael Pell, Veronica Arthurson, Anna Schnürer
The growing number of biogas plants in Europe has resulted in increased production of nutrient-rich digestate with great potential as fertilizer for arable land. The nutrient composition of digestate varies with the substrate treated in the biogas plant and may contain compounds that stimulate or inhibit soil microbial activity. This study compared 20 digestates (D) with 10 pig slurries (PS) and 10 cow manures (CM) regarding their chemical content and their effect on soil microbial activities, i.e. potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO) and soil respiration...
December 27, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038401/thermochemical-pretreatment-and-anaerobic-digestion-of-dairy-cow-manure-experimental-and-economic-evaluation
#17
Fabiana Passos, Valentina Ortega, Andrés Donoso-Bravo
The aim of this study was to assess technically and economically the application thermochemical pretreatment in the anaerobic digestion of dairy cow manure. After selecting the optimum substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio in a preliminary BMP test, the following tests compared 20 different pretreatment conditions varying temperature (100 and 37°C), exposure time (5 and 30min and 12 and 24h) and chemical doses (0.5, 2, 6 and 10% of HCl or NaOH). The highest value of maximum production rate was achieved at an S/I ratio of 0...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031470/effectiveness-of-naturally-occurring-substances-added-to-duck-litter-in-reducing-emergence-and-landing-of-adult-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae
#18
Simon Lachance, Justine Shiell, Michele T Guerin, Cynthia Scott-Dupree
Poultry barns provide an ideal breeding environment for Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) owing to the controlled temperatures and litter (manure plus bedding material) accumulation. Management techniques that render the litter less suitable for immature stage development, such as the addition of naturally occurring insecticidal substances, could reduce fly infestations. The effectiveness of acetic, boric, and citric acids; diatomaceous earth; and hydrated lime at restricting female landing and growth of house flies in duck litter was evaluated...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030599/climate-smart-livestock-systems-an-assessment-of-carbon-stocks-and-ghg-emissions-in-nicaragua
#19
Lucía Gaitán, Peter Läderach, Sophie Graefe, Idupulapati Rao, Rein van der Hoek
Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027782/the-effects-of-nitrogen-pollutants-on-the-isotopic-signal-%C3%AE-15-n-of-ulva-lactuca-microcosm-experiments
#20
Lucia Orlandi, Edoardo Calizza, Giulio Careddu, Pasquale Carlino, Maria Letizia Costantini, Loreto Rossi
Effects of two chemical forms of Nitrogen (NH4(+) and NO3(-)) on δ(15)N in Ulva lactuca were analysed separately and in mixture at two concentrations. We assessed whether the δ(15)N values of U. lactuca discriminate between Nitrogen from synthetic fertilisers (inorganic) and from fresh cow manure (organic), and the isotopic ability of the macroalga to reflect Nitrogen concentrations. Isotopic signature and N content of the macroalga reflected different nitrogenous sources and their concentrations after 48h...
December 24, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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