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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527378/life-cycle-assessment-of-superheated-steam-drying-technology-as-a-novel-cow-manure-management-method
#1
Mohammadmatin Hanifzadeh, Zahra Nabati, Pairote Longka, Pomthong Malakul, Defne Apul, Dong-Shik Kim
Common methods of managing dairy manure are directly applying it to the farm field as a fertilizer. For direct application without any type of treatment, the majority of nutrients in the manure run off to the local river and lake during precipitation periods. The algae bloom is one of the environmental outcomes due to eutrophication of the lakes, which may jeopardize the quality of drinking water. In this study, superheated steam drying (SSD) technology is investigated as an alternative manure management method...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525939/green-manure-and-long-term-fertilization-effects-on-soil-zinc-and-cadmium-availability-and-uptake-by-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-at-different-growth-stages
#2
Roman Grüter, Benjamin Costerousse, Angelina Bertoni, Jochen Mayer, Cécile Thonar, Emmanuel Frossard, Rainer Schulin, Susan Tandy
Zinc (Zn) deficiency in human populations depending on cereals as a main source of Zn is a global malnutrition problem. In this field study, we investigated the potential of green manure application to increase soil Zn availability and wheat grain Zn concentrations (biofortification) on a Luvisol with different long-term fertilizer management. We also studied cadmium (Cd), as wheat is a major contributor of this undesired non-essential element to human diets. Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), mustard (Sinapis alba L...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523619/effect-of-calcium-bentonite-on-zn-and-cu-mobility-and-their-accumulation-in-vegetable-growth-in-soil-amended-with-compost-during-consecutive-planting
#3
Quan Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Ronghua Li, Feng Shen, Zengqiang Zhang
In this study, greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to investigate the Cu and Zn mobility and their accumulations in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapachinensis L.) growth in Ca-bentonite-pig manure co-compost (CBC)-soil system during three consecutive planting. Five composts (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% Ca-bentonite-pig manure co-composts) amended soil with 5% (w/w) application rate and compared to control without any additive. The results showed that the addition of CBC increased the biomass and chlorophyll content of pakchoi, and the maximum overall yield was found in 7...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522720/first-insight-into-the-genome-sequence-of-clostridium-thermobutyricum-dsm-4928-a-butyrate-producing-moderate-thermophile
#4
Anja Poehlein, Abirami Anbalagan, Alexandra Nagel, Rolf Daniel
The moderately thermophilic and Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium thermobutyricum is strictly anaerobic and forms subterminally located endospores. It was isolated from horse manure compost. C. thermobutyricum produces butyrate as the main fermentation product. The draft genome consists of one circular chromosome (3.425 Mb) and contains 3,201 predicted protein-coding genes.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522166/development-and-validation-of-a-simplified-titration-method-for-monitoring-volatile-fatty-acids-in-anaerobic-digestion
#5
Hao Sun, Jianbin Guo, Shubiao Wu, Fang Liu, Renjie Dong
The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration has been considered as one of the most sensitive process performance indicators in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. However, the accurate determination of VFAs concentration in AD processes normally requires advanced equipment and complex pretreatment procedures. A simplified method with fewer sample pretreatment procedures and improved accuracy is greatly needed, particularly for on-site application. This report outlines improvements to the Nordmann method, one of the most popular titrations used for VFA monitoring...
May 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512705/predicting-fecal-coliform-using-the-interval-to-interval-approach-and-swat-in-the-miyun-watershed-china
#6
Jianwen Bai, Zhenyao Shen, Tiezhu Yan, Jiali Qiu, Yangyang Li
Pathogens in manure can cause waterborne-disease outbreaks, serious illness, and even death in humans. Therefore, information about the transformation and transport of bacteria is crucial for determining their source. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate fecal coliform bacteria load in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. The data for the fecal coliform were obtained at three sampling sites, Chenying (CY), Gubeikou (GBK), and Xiahui (XH). The calibration processes of the fecal coliform were conducted using the CY and GBK sites, and validation was conducted at the XH site...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512466/salinity-stress-does-not-affect-root-uptake-dissemination-and-persistence-of-salmonella-in-sweet-basil-ocimum-basilicum
#7
Nirit Bernstein, Shlomo Sela Saldinger, Nativ Dudai, Elena Gorbatsevich
Crop produce can be contaminated in the field during cultivation by bacterial human pathogens originating from contaminated soil or irrigation water. The bacterial pathogens interact with the plant, can penetrate the plant via the root system and translocate and survive in above-ground tissues. The present study is first to investigate effects of an abiotic stress, salinity, on the interaction of plants with a bacterial human pathogen. The main sources of human bacterial contamination of plants are manures and marginal irrigation waters such as treated or un-treated wastewater...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511351/effects-of-various-fertilization-regimes-on-abundance-and-activity-of-anaerobic-ammonium-oxidation-bacteria-in-rice-wheat-cropping-systems-in-china
#8
Chao Gu, Huifang Zhou, Qichun Zhang, Yuhua Zhao, Hongjie Di, Yongchao Liang
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important process in many marine and paddy ecosystems. However, few studies have reported on the contribution to the nitrogen cycle of anammox and its dynamics in rice-wheat cropping systems with different fertilization regimes. Here, isotope tracing and molecular techniques were used to determine the potential rates of anammox and their association with bacterial abundance, diversity, and activity. Rice-wheat cropping systems at two sites in Jiangsu Province, China were selected and the treatments at each site were: 1) no fertilization (CK), 2) 100% chemical fertilization (CF), 3) pig manure compost plus 50% chemical fertilization (PMCF), and 4) straw plus 100% chemical fertilization (SRCF)...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511295/anaerobic-ammonium-oxidizing-bacteria-in-cow-manure-composting
#9
Tingting Wang, Lijun Cheng, Wenhao Zhang, Xiuhong Xu, Qingxin Meng, Xuewei Sun, Huajing Liu, Hongtao Li, Yu Sun
Composting is widely used to transform waste into valuable agricultural organic fertilizer. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (Anammox) bacteria play an important role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their role in composting remains poorly understood. In the present study, the community structure, diversity, and abundance of anammox bacteria were analyzed using cloning and sequencing methods by targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the hydrazine oxidase gene (hzo) in samples isolated from compost produced from cow manure and rice straw...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506886/experimental-mouse-lethality-of-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-free-ranging-tibetan-yaks
#10
Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Hui Zhang, Yajing Wang, Khalid Mehmood, Shucheng Huang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Jiakui Li
The present study has examined the virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolates harboring at least one virulence gene (associated with ExPEC or InPEC pathotype and belonging to different phylogenetic groups: A, B1, B2 or D), isolated from free ranging Tibetan yak feces. The E. coli isolates (n = 87) were characterized for different serogroups and a mouse model of subcutaneous-infection was used to envisage the virulence within these E. coli strains. Of the 87 E. coli isolates examined, 23% of the E...
May 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501399/effect-of-feeding-strategies-and-cropping-systems-on-greenhouse-gas-emission-from-wisconsin-certified-organic-dairy-farms
#11
D Liang, F Sun, M A Wattiaux, V E Cabrera, J L Hedtcke, E M Silva
Organic agriculture continues to expand in the United States, both in total hectares and market share. However, management practices used by dairy organic producers, and their resulting environmental impacts, vary across farms. This study used a partial life cycle assessment approach to estimate the effect of different feeding strategies and associated crop production on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. Field and livestock-driven emissions were calculated using 2 data sets...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493951/properties-of-biochar-derived-from-wood-and-high-nutrient-biomasses-with-the-aim-of-agronomic-and-environmental-benefits
#12
Rimena R Domingues, Paulo F Trugilho, Carlos A Silva, Isabel Cristina N A de Melo, Leônidas C A Melo, Zuy M Magriotis, Miguel A Sánchez-Monedero
Biochar production and use are part of the modern agenda to recycle wastes, and to retain nutrients, pollutants, and heavy metals in the soil and to offset some greenhouse gas emissions. Biochars from wood (eucalyptus sawdust, pine bark), sugarcane bagasse, and substances rich in nutrients (coffee husk, chicken manure) produced at 350, 450 and 750°C were characterized to identify agronomic and environmental benefits, which may enhance soil quality. Biochars derived from wood and sugarcane have greater potential for improving C storage in tropical soils due to a higher aromatic character, high C concentration, low H/C ratio, and FTIR spectra features as compared to nutrient-rich biochars...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490754/effect-of-alkaline-microwaving-pretreatment-on-anaerobic-digestion-and-biogas-production-of-swine-manure
#13
Tao Yu, Yihuan Deng, Hongyu Liu, Chunping Yang, Bingwen Wu, Guangming Zeng, Li Lu, Fumitake Nishimura
Microwave assisted with alkaline (MW-A) condition was applied in the pretreatment of swine manure, and the effect of the pretreatment on anaerobic treatment and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The two main microwaving (MW) parameters, microwaving power and reaction time, were optimized for the pretreatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of alkaline microwaving process for manure pretreatment at various values of pH and energy input. Results showed that the manure disintegration degree was maximized of 63...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488474/prevalence-of-salmonella-spp-in-environmental-samples-from-table-egg-barns-in-alberta
#14
Joan A St Amand, Rashed Cassis, Robin K King, Colleen B Annett Christianson
Some Salmonella spp. are zoonotic, a frequent cause of food borne illness in Canada, and known to infect humans through contaminated poultry and poultry products. Certain serotypes of Salmonella spp. have been demonstrated to be vertically transmitted from hen to egg. The incidence of Salmonella spp. isolation in the flock has been correlated to its isolation from the environment. Twenty-one producers were enrolled in this study to examine the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in 48 table egg layer flocks housed in 35 barns in Alberta...
May 10, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483355/combined-effects-of-led-lights-and-chicken-manure-on-neochloris-oleoabundans-growth
#15
Meltem Altunoz, Onofrio Pirrotta, Luca Forti, Giulio Allesina, Simone Pedrazzi, Olcay Obali, Paolo Tartarini, Laura Arru
In this study a photobioreactor prototype is presented for the culture growth of microalgae model organism Neochloris oleoabundans by using chicken manure waste as feedstock along with the optimum combination of led light wavelengths and light intensity. Particularly interesting results are observed on the strains fed by chicken manure medium under the proper combination of red and blue LED light illumination, the microalgal growth resulted comparable with the strains fed by the costly commercial microalgal growth medium (BG 11 medium)...
April 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482457/nutrient-losses-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-dairy-production-in-china-lessons-learned-from-historical-changes-and-regional-differences
#16
Nannan Zhang, Zhaohai Bai, Jiafa Luo, Stewart Ledgard, Zhiguo Wu, Lin Ma
The dairy industry in China was rapidly expanded and intensified from 1980 to 2010, engendering potential long-term impacts on the environment and natural resources. However, impacts of dairy intensification on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were unknown. This study was undertaken to examine these relations using the NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use (NUFER)-dairy model. Results showed that milk yield increased by 64% from 1980 to 2010 on average, and the use of concentrate feeds increased by 57% associated with a shift of production from traditional and grassland systems to collective and industrialized systems...
May 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482307/fate-of-antibiotics-in-soil-and-their-uptake-by-edible-crops
#17
REVIEW
Min Pan, L M Chu
Antibiotics are bioactive substances, and their use as human and animal medicines for illness prevention, disease treatment and growth promotion has increased in recent decades. They are excreted, either unchanged or metabolized, and are discharged to the environment through animal manure, municipal wastewater or biosolids. Consequently, these chemicals reach cropland, which is advocated as a means of recycling. As these drugs are used in escalating quantities, there is growing concern over their presence, toxicity and fate in the soil, which may pose adverse effects on plant growth and productivity, as well as result in their uptake and accumulation in crops...
May 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481880/a-link-between-damaging-behaviour-in-pigs-sanitary-conditions-and-dietary-protein-and-amino-acid-supply
#18
Yvonne van der Meer, Walter J J Gerrits, Alfons J M Jansman, Bas Kemp, J Elizabeth Bolhuis
The tendency to reduce crude protein (CP) levels in pig diets to increase protein efficiency may increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours such as ear and tail biting, particularly for pigs kept under suboptimal health conditions. We studied, in a 2×2×2 factorial design, 576 tail-docked growing-finishing entire male pigs in 64 pens, subjected to low (LSC) vs. high sanitary conditions (HSC), and fed a normal CP (NP) vs. a low CP diet (LP, 80% of NP) ad libitum, with a basal amino acid (AA) profile or supplemented AA profile with extra threonine, tryptophan and methionine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472159/isotope-analyses-to-explore-diet-and-mobility-in-a-medieval-muslim-population-at-tauste-ne-spain
#19
Iranzu Guede, Luis Angel Ortega, Maria Cruz Zuluaga, Ainhoa Alonso-Olazabal, Xabier Murelaga, Miriam Pina, Francisco Javier Gutierrez, Paola Iacumin
The Islamic necropolis discovered in Tauste (Zaragoza, Spain) is the only evidence that a large Muslim community lived in the area between the 8th and 10th centuries. A multi-isotope approach has been used to investigate the mobility and diet of this medieval Muslim population living in a shifting frontier region. Thirty-one individuals were analyzed to determine δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr composition. A combination of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis indicated that most individuals were of local origin although three females and two males were non-local...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471504/multi-exposure-pathway-model-to-compare-escherichia-coli-o157-risks-and-interventions
#20
B Chapman, K Pintar, B A Smith
The relative contributions of exposure pathways associated with cattle-manure-borne Escherichia coli O157:H7 on public health have yet to be fully characterized. A stochastic, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model was developed to describe a hypothetical cattle farm in order to compare the relative importance of five routes of exposure, including aquatic recreation downstream of the farm, consumption of contaminated ground beef processed with limited interventions, consumption of leafy greens, direct animal contact, and the recreational use of a cattle pasture...
May 4, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
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