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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432950/effects-of-chlortetracycline-and-copper-on-tetracyclines-and-copper-resistance-genes-and-microbial-community-during-swine-manure-anaerobic-digestion
#1
Rui Wang, Meixue Chen, Feng Feng, Junya Zhang, Qianwen Sui, Juan Tong, Yuansong Wei, Dongbin Wei
As antibiotic and heavy metals are over used in the livestock industry, animal manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Anaerobic digestion has been reported to have the potential to reduce ARGs. However, few studies investigated whether reduction of ARGs would be affected by different external pressures including antibiotics and heavy metals during anaerobic digestion. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate effects of both chlortetracycline (CTC) and Cu on reduction of ARGs, heavy metal resistance genes (HMRGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during the swine manure anaerobic digestion...
March 25, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427739/boosting-biogas-production-from-sewage-sludge-by-adding-small-amount-of-agro-industrial-by-products-and-food-waste-residues
#2
A E Maragkaki, M Fountoulakis, A Kyriakou, K Lasaridi, T Manios
In Greece, in many cities, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operate their own anaerobic digestion (AD) facility in order to treat sewage sludge rather than achieve optimum biogas production. Nowadays, there is a growing interest regarding the addition of other co-substrates in these existing facilities in order to increase gas yield from the biomass. This practice may be possible by adding small amount of co-substrates which will not affect significantly in the designed hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the lack of experimental data regarding this option is a serious obstacle...
April 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425288/tracking-nitrogen-sources-transformation-and-transport-at-a-basin-scale-with-complex-plain-river-networks
#3
Qitao Yi, Qiuwen Chen, Liuming Hu, Wenqing Shi
This research developed an innovative approach to reveal nitrogen sources, transformation and transport in large and complex river networks in the Taihu Lake basin using measurement of dual stable isotopes of nitrate. The spatial patterns of δ15N corresponded to the urbanization level, and the nitrogen cycle was associated with the hydrological regime at the basin level. During the high flow season of summer, nonpoint sources from fertilizer/soils and atmospheric deposition constituted the highest proportion of the total nitrogen load...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411348/quantitative-detection-of-fecal-contamination-with-domestic-poultry-feces-in-environments-in-china
#4
Fang-Fang Zhuang, Hu Li, Xin-Yuan Zhou, Yong-Guan Zhu, Jian-Qiang Su
Poultry are an important source of fecal contamination in environments. However, tools for detecting and tracking this fecal contamination are in the early stages of development. In practice, we have found that source tracking methods targeting the 16S rRNA genes of poultry-specific microbiota are not sufficiently sensitive. We therefore developed two quantitative PCR assays for detection of poultry fecal contamination, by targeting chicken and duck mitochondrial genes: NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) and cytochrome b (cytb)...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410611/recurrent-scedosporium-apiospermum-mycetoma-successfully-treated-by-surgical-excision-and-terbinafine-treatment-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Eszter J Tóth, Géza R Nagy, Mónika Homa, Marianna Ábrók, Ildikó É Kiss, Gábor Nagy, Zsuzsanna Bata-Csörgő, Lajos Kemény, Edit Urbán, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp
BACKGROUND: Scedosporium apiospermum is an emerging opportunistic filamentous fungus, which is notorious for its high levels of antifungal-resistance. It is able to cause localized cutaneous or subcutaneous infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons, pulmonary infections in patients with predisposing pulmonary diseases and invasive mycoses in immunocompromised patients. Subcutaneous infections caused by this fungus frequently show chronic mycetomatous manifestation...
April 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408756/apple-pomace-improves-the-quality-of-pig-manure-aerobic-compost-by-reducing-emissions-of-nh3-and-n2o
#6
Hui Mao, Teng Zhang, Ronghua Li, Bingnian Zhai, Zhaohui Wang, Quan Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
In this study, the effects of apple pomace (AP) addition (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% on a dry weight basis, named as control, AP1, AP2, and AP3) and citric acid (CA) addition on nitrogen conservation were investigated during aerobic composting of pig manure. Gaseous emissions of NH3 and N2O were inhibited by AP and CA addition, with AP's effect greater. The inhibition improved with increasing AP addition. The AP3 treatment was the most effective on NH3 adsorption and transformation to [Formula: see text]-N, improved with subsequent transformation to [Formula: see text]-N, and inhibition of N2O and [Formula: see text] production...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405627/bacterial-community-composition-associated-with-pyrogenic-organic-matter-biochar-varies-with-pyrolysis-temperature-and-colonization-environment
#7
Zhongmin Dai, Albert Barberán, Yong Li, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
Microbes that colonize pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) (also called biochar) play an important role in PyOM mineralization and crucially affect soil biogeochemical cycling, while the microbial community composition associated with PyOM particles is poorly understood. We generated two manure-based PyOMs with different characteristics (PyOM pyrolyzed at the low temperature of 300°C [i.e., PyOM300] and at the high temperature of 700°C [i.e., PyOM700]) and added them to high-carbon (4.15%) and low-C (0.37%) soil for microbial colonization...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405460/provision-of-straw-by-a-foraging-tower-effect-on-tail-biting-in-weaners-and-fattening-pigs
#8
Carolin Holling, Elisabeth Grosse Beilage, Beatriz Vidondo, Christina Nathues
BACKGROUND: Straw is one of the most effective rooting materials to reduce tail biting in pigs. A so-called foraging-tower (FT) provides only small quantities of straw compatible with liquid manure systems. The focus of the present study was on the effect of providing straw by FT in order to prevent tail biting in tail docked pigs. Four consecutive batches of 160 pigs, randomly divided into a straw (SG) and a control group (CG) were followed up from weaning to slaughter. RESULTS: Tail wounds (Score ≥ 2) were detected in 104 out of 12,032 single observations (SG n = 48; CG n = 56) in 9 pens (SG n = 4/32; CG n = 5/32) mainly focused on the fattening period of batch 2 due to a failure in the ventilation system...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402918/improvement-of-wheat-straw-anaerobic-digestion-through-alkali-pre-treatment-carbohydrates-bioavailability-evaluation-and-economic-feasibility
#9
Maycoll Stiven Romero-Güiza, Radziah Wahid, Verónica Hernández, Henrik Møller, Belén Fernández
Lignocellulosic biomasses such as wheat straw are widely used as a feedstock for biogas production. However, these biomasses are mainly composed of a compact fibre structure and therefore, it is recommended to treat them prior to its usage for biogas production in order to improve their bioavailability. The aim of this work is to evaluate, in terms of performance stability, methane yield and economic feasibility, two different scenarios: a mesophilic codigestion of wheat straw and animal manure with or without a low-energy demand alkaline pre-treatment (0...
April 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402870/long-chain-fatty-acid-feeding-frequency-in-anaerobic-codigestion-impacts-syntrophic-community-structure-and-biokinetics
#10
Ryan M Ziels, David A C Beck, H David Stensel
This study investigated the impacts of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) feeding frequencies on microbial community structure, bioconversion kinetics, and process stability during anaerobic codigestion. Parallel laboratory-scale anaerobic codigesters fed with dairy cattle manure were either pulse-fed every two days or continuously-fed daily, respectively, with oleate (C18:1) in incremental step increases over 200 days up to 64% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD). The effluent acetate concentration exceeded 3000 mg/L in the continuous-fed codigester at the highest oleate loading rate, but remained below 100 mg/L in the pulse-fed codigester at the end of its 48-hr oleate feed cycle...
March 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401385/enrofloxacin-degradation-in-broiler-chicken-manure-under-field-conditions-and-its-residuals-effects-to-the-environment
#11
M Slana, D Žigon, M Sollner-Dolenc
The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterised. Its degradation was investigated in manure excreted by broiler chickens in an intensively reared chicken facility; further, the degradation also followed after transfer of the excreta into the natural environment occurred. The effect of enrofloxacin and its degradation products on cucumber and tomato was also investigated. Enrofloxacin degradation was shown to take place within the rearing facility and also continuing after the manure was transferred into the environment...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400002/salmonella-weltevreden-in-integrated-and-non-integrated-tilapia-aquaculture-systems-in-guangdong-china
#12
Kang Li, Gitte Petersen, Lisa Barco, Kristian Hvidtfeldt, Liping Liu, Anders Dalsgaard
Integrated tilapia-pig farming, which uses manure from pigs as fertilizers in fish pond, is a traditional and common production system practised by small-scale farmers in South-east Asia. Although such systems may be environmentally sustainable, they also pose potential food safety hazards including transmission of faecal zoonotic pathogens and accumulation of antimicrobial and other chemical residues. This study aimed to determine differences in occurrence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from tilapia-pig and non-integrated aquaculture systems in Guangdong province, China...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399273/house-flies-in-the-confined-cattle-environment-carry-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#13
R Puri-Giri, A Ghosh, J L Thomson, L Zurek
Cattle manure is one of the primary larval developmental habitats of house flies, Musca domestica (L.). Cattle serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and bacteria are released into the environment in cattle feces. The USDA-FSIS declared seven STEC serogroups (O157, O26, O45, O103, O145, O121, and O111) as adulterants in beef products. In addition, the serogroup O104 was a culprit of a large outbreak in Germany in 2011. Our study aimed to assess the prevalence of seven non-O157 STEC (O26, O45, O145, O103, O121, O111, and O104) serogroups in adult house flies...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398534/filth-fly-activity-associated-with-composted-and-noncomposted-beef-cadavers-and-laboratory-studies-on-volatile-organic-compounds
#14
T R Dubie, J L Talley, J B Payne, A W Wayadande, J Dillwith, C Richards
Commercial livestock facilities are faced with the challenge of managing large amounts of waste including manure and animal mortalities. One method of disposing of dead animals is composting. The cadavers are enveloped in carbon material that creates a barrier between the dead tissue and the surrounding environment. Dead tissue can release materials that not only contaminate the soil but also the groundwater and nearby surface water. Animal cadaver composting is designed to facilitate decomposition without the aid of carrion-feeding insects and reduce the presence of common pathogens associated with animal waste and dead tissue...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396169/the-effect-of-airflow-rates-and-aeration-mode-on-the-respiration-activity-of-four-organic-wastes-implications-on-the-composting-process
#15
Laura Mejias, Dimitrios Komilis, Teresa Gea, Antoni Sánchez
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the airflow and of the aeration mode on the composting process of non-urban organic wastes that are found in large quantities worldwide, namely: (i) a fresh, non-digested, sewage sludge (FSS), (ii) an anaerobically digested sewage sludge (ADSS), (iii) cow manure (CM) and (iv) pig sludge (PS). This assessment was done using respirometric indices. Two aeration modes were tested, namely: (a) a constant air flowrate set at three different initial fixed airflow rates, and (b) an oxygen uptake rate (OUR)-controlled airflow rate...
April 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394116/improvement-of-soil-ecosystem-multifunctionality-by-dissipating-manure-induced-antibiotics-and-resistance-genes
#16
Yuting Liang, Meng Pei, Dandan Wang, Shengnan Cao, Xian Xiao, Bo Sun
The application of animal manure containing antibiotic residues to farmlands as an organic fertilizer causes a long-term potential threat to the ecological environment of farmland. This study analyzed the effects of abating typical antibiotics and resistance genes (ARGs) applied with pig manure on farmland soil as well as on soil ecosystem multifunctionality (EMF) and its influencing factor. The results showed that Lolium multiflorum exhibited significantly stronger abatement of typical antibiotics and ARGs when combined with biochar than when used alone (p < 0...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393682/new-feed-ingredients-the-insect-opportunity
#17
L W D van Raamsdonk, H J van der Fels-Klerx, J de Jong
In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc...
April 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393102/effect-of-vegetated-filter-strips-on-transport-and-deposition-rates-of-escherichia-coli-in-overland-flow-in-the-eastern-escarpments-of-the-mau-forest-njoro-river-watershed-kenya
#18
C O Olilo, J O Onyando, W N Moturi, A W Muia, P Ombui, W A Shivoga, A F Roegner
The fate and transport of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in lotic waters through vegetated filter strips (VFSs) was evaluated in a field model pasture, utilizing VFSMOD Windows along with direct pathogen testing. This study assessed effects of VFS on transport and deposition rates of E. coli in lotic overland flow waters. The VFS measured 44 m long by 40 m wide, covering an area of 1584 m(2) and land slope of 15 %. Cowpat was applied onto the model pasture and washed by overland flow into the VFS. The 4-methylumbelliferyl β-D-glucuronide substrate confirmed the identity of E...
June 2016: Energy, Ecology & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392123/reduced-turning-frequency-and-delayed-poultry-manure-addition-reduces-n-loss-from-sugarcane-compost
#19
S Bryndum, R Muschler, A Nigussie, J Magid, A de Neergaard
Composting is an effective method to recycle biodegradable waste as soil amendment in smallholder farming systems. Although all essential plant nutrients are found in compost, a substantial amount of nitrogen is lost during composting. This study therefore investigated the potential of reducing N losses by (i) delaying the addition of nitrogen-rich substrates (i.e. poultry manure), and (ii) reducing the turning frequency during composting. Furthermore, we tested the effect of compost application method on nitrogen mineralization...
April 6, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391921/selected-dark-sides-of-biomass-derived-biochars-as-environmental-amendments
#20
Zien Chen, Lei Luo, Diyi Xiao, Jitao Lv, Bei Wen, Yibing Ma, Shuzhen Zhang
With the rapid increase in the application of biochars as amendments, studies are needed to clarify the possible environmental risks derived from biochars to use safely the biomass resources. This work reported selected dark sides of maize straw- and swine manure-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 300 and 500°C. During the pyrolysis processes, total heavy metals in the biochars were enriched greatly accompanying with considerable emission of the heavy metals into atmosphere and the trends became increasingly obvious with pyrolysis temperature...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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