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Melatonin in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911044/utilization-of-stimulants-and-atomoxetine-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-among-5-4-million-children-using-population-based-longitudinal-data
#1
Kari Furu, Øystein Karlstad, Helga Zoega, Jaana E Martikainen, Shahram Bahmanyar, Helle Kieler, Anton Pottegård
Use of stimulants to treat Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including co-medication with other psychothropic drugs in the entire child population in the five Nordic countries. We included longitudinal data on dispensed ADHD drugs from five Nordic prescription registers during 2008-2012; which in 2012 comprised 48,296 individuals among 5...
December 2, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904735/urinary-metabolomics-of-young-italian-autistic-children-supports-abnormal-tryptophan-and-purine-metabolism
#2
Federica Gevi, Lello Zolla, Stefano Gabriele, Antonio M Persico
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still diagnosed through behavioral observation, due to a lack of laboratory biomarkers, which could greatly aid clinicians in providing earlier and more reliable diagnoses. Metabolomics on human biofluids provides a sensitive tool to identify metabolite profiles potentially usable as biomarkers for ASD. Initial metabolomic studies, analyzing urines and plasma of ASD and control individuals, suggested that autistic patients may share some metabolic abnormalities, despite several inconsistencies stemming from differences in technology, ethnicity, age range, and definition of "control" status...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860286/trends-in-off-label-prescribing-of-sedatives-hypnotics-and-antidepressants-among-children-and-adolescents-a-danish-nationwide-register-based-study
#3
Eva Skovslund Nielsen, Lotte Rasmussen, Maja Hellfritzsch Poulsen, Per Hove Thomsen, Mette Nørgaard, Torben Laursen
In recent years, psychotropic drug use among children and adolescents in Europe and USA has increased. However, the majority of psychotropic drugs are not formally approved for use in children and adolescents, and consequently, use is often off-label. The objectives were to describe time trends in off-label prescribing rates and the most commonly used types of psychotropic drugs by age and gender in Danish children and adolescents. Using the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, we identified all prescriptions for sedatives, hypnotics and antidepressants filled for children and adolescents in 2006-2012...
November 17, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821114/bright-light-therapy-in-pregnant-women-with-major-depressive-disorder-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Babette Bais, Astrid M Kamperman, Marjolein D van der Zwaag, Gwen C Dieleman, Hanneke W Harmsen van der Vliet-Torij, Hilmar H Bijma, Ritsaert Lieverse, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Mijke P Lambregtse-van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Depression during pregnancy is a common and high impact disease. Generally, 5-10 % of pregnant women suffer from depression. Children who have been exposed to maternal depression during pregnancy have a higher risk of adverse birth outcomes and more often show cognitive, emotional and behavioural problems. Therefore, early detection and treatment of antepartum depression is necessary. Both psychotherapy and antidepressant medication, first choice treatments in a non-pregnant population, have limitations in treating depression during pregnancy...
November 8, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814774/atopy-and-autoimmune-thyroid-diseases-melatonin-can-be-useful
#5
REVIEW
Gabriella D'Angelo, Lucia Marseglia, Sara Manti, Laura Colavita, Caterina Cuppari, Pietro Impellizzeri, Salvatore Arena, Teresa Arrigo, Carmelo Salpietro, Eloisa Gitto
Recently, there has been growing interest in the relationship between allergic and autoimmune diseases. Allergy and autoimmunity can be considered two potential outcomes of dysregulated immunity and analysis of literature data shows a strong positive association between a history of Th2-mediated allergic disorders and Th1-mediated autoimmune disorders.Autoimmune thyroid diseases are the most common of all autoimmune pathological conditions.Currently, the mechanisms explaining an association among atopy, autoimmunity, and thyroid diseases are not fully understood...
November 4, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783055/melatonin-as-a-potential-agent-in-the-treatment-of-sarcopenia
#6
REVIEW
Ana Coto-Montes, Jose A Boga, Dun X Tan, Russel J Reiter
Considering the increased speed at which the world population is aging, sarcopenia could become an epidemic in this century. This condition currently has no means of prevention or treatment. Melatonin is a highly effective and ubiquitously acting antioxidant and free radical scavenger that is normally produced in all organisms. This molecule has been implicated in a huge number of biological processes, from anticonvulsant properties in children to protective effects on the lung in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761038/a-comparison-of-the-effect-of-two-doses-of-oral-melatonin-with-oral-midazolam-and-placebo-on-pre-operative-anxiety-cognition-and-psychomotor-function-in-children-a-randomised-double-blind-study
#7
Madhuri S Kurdi, Sindhu Priya Muthukalai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Melatonin (MT), a naturally occurring pituitary hormone has a sleep promoting effect. There are very few studies on pre-operative oral MT (0.2-0.5 mg/kg) in children. We planned a study to assess the efficacy of oral MT in two doses and compare it with oral midazolam and placebo for pre-operative anxiolysis, sedation, maintenance of cognition and psychomotor skills, parental separation behaviour and venepuncture compliance. METHODS: This prospective double-blind randomised study was conducted after ethical committee approval on 100 children aged 5-15 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective surgery at our hospital from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748241/effects-of-melatonin-and-bright-light-treatment-in-childhood-chronic-sleep-onset-insomnia-with-late-melatonin-onset-a-randomised-controlled-study
#8
Annette van Maanen, Anne Marie Meijer, Marcel G Smits, Kristiaan B van der Heijden, Frans J Oort
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Chronic sleep onset insomnia with late melatonin onset is prevalent in childhood, and has negative daytime consequences. Melatonin treatment is known to be effective in treating these sleep problems. Bright light therapy might be an alternative treatment, with potential advantages over melatonin treatment. In this study, we compare the effects of melatonin and bright light treatment with a placebo condition in children with chronic sleep onset insomnia and late melatonin onset...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743421/sleep-complaints-and-the-24-h-melatonin-level-in-individuals-with-smith-magenis-syndrome-assessment-for-effective-intervention
#9
Karen Spruyt, Wiebe Braam, Marcel Smits, Leopold Mg Curfs
AIMS: Individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are reported to have a disrupted circadian rhythm. Our aim was to examine problematic sleeping in those attending our sleep clinic for the first time. METHODS: At intake, caregivers of 50 children and nine adults with SMS were surveyed about the sleep pattern and potential melatonin administration. Sampling of salivary melatonin levels was performed. RESULTS: At intake, exogenous melatonin was used by 16 children (27...
November 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706008/melatonin-s-effect-on-the-efficacy-of-desmopressin-in-the-treatment-of-enuresis
#10
Pietro Ferrara, Annamaria Sbordone, Costanza Cutrona, Francesca Ianniello, Chiara Guadagno, Giacomo Perrone, Antonio Chiaretti, Alberto Verrotti, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of exogenous melatonin associated with desmopressin (dDAVP) and dietary recommendations. METHODS: A total of 189 patients were enrolled from the Service of Pediatrics, Campus Bio-Medico University Hospital of Rome, from January 2013 to June 2015. Of the 189 original patients, 153 children, aged between 5 and 14 years (mean age, 8.7 years) were included in the study. After clinical evaluation and a 3-month period of observation without treatment, children were assigned to receive treatment in one of 3 groups: group 1, dDAVP at a dose of 120 mcg a day (Minirin); group 2, dDAVP at a dose of 120 mcg and dietary recommendations; or group 3, dDAVP at a dose of 120 mcg, dietary recommendations, and melatonin at a dose of 1 mg a day (Melamil plus)...
September 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692277/sleep-and-melatonin-secretion-abnormalities-in-children-and-adolescents-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#11
Shery Goril, Dora Zalai, Louise Scott, Colin M Shapiro
OBJECTIVES: Caregivers describe significant sleep disturbances in the vast majority of children and adolescents, which is diagnosed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but objective data on sleep disorders in this population are almost completely lacking. Animal models suggest that intrauterine alcohol exposure may disrupt sleep wake patterns, cause sleep fragmentation, and specifically affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus, thus disrupting melatonin secretion. The objective of this pioneering study was to evaluate sleep and melatonin abnormalities in children with FASD using objective, gold-standard measures...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598454/efficiency-of-melatonin-as-compared-to-pentobarbital-for-audiometry-brainstem-response-in-children-with-associated-disorders
#12
Joanne Guerlain, Antoine Paul, Isabelle Rouillon, Marine Parodi, Erea Noel Garabedian, Natalie Loundon
PURPOSE: Outpatient pediatric audiometry brainstem response (ABR) uses various techniques (no drug, hydroxyzine, pentobarbital, melatonin). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of melatonin as compared to pentobarbital in children with associated disorders. METHOD: This was a retrospective study that took place in a tertiary care center. Eighty-three children (34 girls and 49 boys) had performed ABR under pentobarbital (GPent) or melatonin (GMel) between 2013 and 2014 and were included...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579611/school-start-time-influences-melatonin-and-cortisol-levels-in-children-and-adolescents-a-community-based-study
#13
Alicia Carissimi, Alessandra Castro Martins, Fabiane Dresch, Lilian Corrêa da Silva, Cristian Patrick Zeni, Maria Paz Hidalgo
School start time influences sleep parameters. Differences between circadian sleep parameters on weekends and weekdays have been associated with obesity, sleep, and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, circadian rhythm dysregulation affects the secretion of some hormones, such as melatonin and cortisol. In the current study, we investigate the effect of school start time on cortisol and melatonin levels in a community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study of 454 students (mean age, 12...
2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568907/the-use-of-melatonin-by-children-parents-perspectives
#14
Amy Y Waldron, M Joy Spark, Christina M Dennis
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To explore the perceptions and experiences of parents whose children were using melatonin. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory study was undertaken using face-to-face semi-structured interviews that were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data was thematically analyzed via open coding and subsequent axial coding. Data collection continued until theoretical saturation occurred. RESULTS: Eleven interviews with parents of children with a neurodevelopmental disorder were conducted...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540230/melatonin-working-in-collaberation-with-the-ccg-to-reduce-costs
#15
Helen Haley
AIM: To reduce the overall expenditure on melatonin for the local health economy by working collaboratively with the CCG's. To ensure that all paediatric patients prescribed melatonin have been clinically assessed by a specialist and the most appropriate formulation is dispensed. METHOD: Evaluation of GP melatonin prescribing cost across CCG using ePACT data and extrapolation of equivalent cost of prescribing and dispensing within secondary care. This initial data was then refined to exclude patients 16 years and over on unlicensed formulations of melatonin and all patients on licensed formulations...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529772/off-label-prescription-of-psychopharmacological-drugs-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry
#16
Julie Vestergaard Braüner, Lily Manzello Johansen, Troels Roesbjerg, Anne Katrine Pagsberg
This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513702/melatonin-as-add-on-treatment-for-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Brigo, Stanley C Igwe, Alessandra Del Felice
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 6, 2012.Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. Despite the plethora of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) currently available, 30% of people continue having seizures. This group of people requires a more aggressive treatment, since monotherapy, the first choice scheme, fails to control seizures. Nevertheless, polytherapy often results in a number of unwanted effects, including neurological disturbances (somnolence, ataxia, dizziness), psychiatric and behavioural symptoms, and metabolic alteration (osteoporosis, inducement or inhibition of hepatic enzymes, etc...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478439/melatonin-in-epilepsy-a-new-mathematical-model-of-diurnal-secretion
#18
Justyna Paprocka, Marek Kijonka, Marcin Pęcka, Maria Sokół
Purpose. The main objective of the study was to create a mathematical model that describes the melatonin circadian secretion and, then the functionality of the model was tested by a comparison of the melatonin secretions in children with and without epilepsy. Material and Methods. The patients were divided into the epilepsy group (EG, n = 52) and the comparison group (CG, n = 30). The melatonin level was assessed by a radioimmunoassay method. The diurnal melatonin secretion was described using a nonlinear least squares method...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473269/melatonin-in-youth-n-of-1-trials-in-a-stimulant-treated-adhd-population-mynap-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Salima Punja, Catherine J Nikles, Hugh Senior, Geoffrey Mitchell, Christopher H Schmid, Helen Heussler, Manisha Witmans, Sunita Vohra
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurological disorder affecting 5 % of children worldwide. A prevalent problem for children with ADHD is initial insomnia. The gold standard treatment to manage ADHD symptoms is stimulant medications, which may exacerbate the severity of existing initial insomnia. Currently, no gold standard treatment option exists for initial insomnia for these children. Melatonin, a hormone and a popular natural health product, is commonly provided to children by parents and recommended by healthcare providers, but high quality pediatric evidence is lacking...
July 29, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417112/evaluation-of-oxidant-antioxidant-balance-in-children-with-atopic-dermatitis-a-case-control-study
#20
Pınar Uysal, Sibelnur Avcil, Burçin İrem Abas, Çiğdem Yenisey
BACKGROUND: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) has been reported in many allergic and inflammatory skin diseases, including urticaria, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD). Melatonin is a hormone secreted from the pineal gland and is a potent antioxidant. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to measure serum antioxidant melatonin, oxidants of nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde levels to calculate the serum oxidant-antioxidant balance based on the NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios and to determine the correlation with the disease severity in children with AD...
July 14, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
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